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Full text of "Gold districts of California"

& Engr 



TN 

2^ 

C3 

A3 

NO. 193 

C.2 



GOLD DISTRICTS 
OF CALIFORNIA 




BULLETIN 193 

California Division of Mines and Geology 
Sacramento, California, 1970 




GOLD DISTRICTS OF CALIFORNIA 



By William B. Clark 

Geologist, California Division of Mines & Geology, 
Sacramento, California 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
U.C DAVIS 

JUL 'I 'i '~'^ 

GOV INFO or"! 




BULLETIN 193 

Geolog/ 
95814 




The Fricof Nugget. This 201 -ounce (troy) cluster of gold 
crystols Is on display in the Division of Mines and Geology 
mineral exhibit in San Francisco's Ferry Building. Melted 
down as gold, it would be worth tome seven or eight 



thousand dollars, though iti value at a hbtoricol object 
ond museum piece is much more. The nugget is shown here 
ot slightly less thon holf its actual size. Pho'o by Mary Hill. 



l^y Ronald Reagan, Governor 

<^.- THE RESOURCES AGENCY 

'^IH^Wan B. livermore, Jr., Secretoifx^'; 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATIOlf ■ 

, ^ \, James G. Steorns, Director : 

^PiylsJON OF MINES AND GEOlOi^lj 

'Itfn Campbell, Sfoie GetJegitf 



■U 






Manuscript submitted for publication 1 963 

Some revisions through 1969 

SIXTH PRINTING 1 992 



FOREWORD 

This bulletin is an overall guide to the gold deposits in California. Although a vast 
number of publications have been written on gold and gold mining in California, there 
is no single report or treatise on all of the knov/n gold-bearing districts in the state. A 
number of very excellent reports have been written on the gold deposits of certain 
districts or certain types of deposits within the state, mostly in the Sierra Nevada. Some 
of these reports are classics now. Among them are J. D. Whitney's 1875 survey of the 
auriferous gravels of the Sierra Nevada, Lindgren's 1911 professional paper on the 
Tertiary channels of the Sierra Nevada and the geologic folios of the U. S. Geological 
Survey by Lindgren (1890s), Turner (1890s), Diller (1900s), and Ransome (1900s). Also of 
considerable importance are reports on the Mother Lode belt by Knopf and Logan, and 
reports on the Grass Valley, Alleghany, and Randsburg districts by Johnston, Ferguson 
and Gannett, and Hulin, respectively. 

In this bulletin the principal features of each gold-bearing district are described. The 
longer district descriptions contain sections on the location and extent, history, geology 
and character of the ore deposits, a list of mines, and a bibliography. Production figures 
are given whenever possible. Unfortunately, there is scant information available on 
many important gold mines in the state. 

The first mention of gold in California was in Las Sergus de Esplandian, a romance 
published in Spain in 1510, in which "California" was believed to have been a great 
island north of Mexico where gold and precious stones were abundant. Richard Hakluyt 
expressed a similar opinion in his The Principall Navigafions Voiages and Discoveries 
of the English Nation, published in London in 1589. Hakluyt, in his account of Sir 
Francis Drake's voyage and 1579 visit to California, stated, "There is no port of the 
earth here to be taken up wherein there is not a reasonable quantitie of gold and 
silver". Gold was mined in southern California in the latter part of the 18th and early 
part of the 19th Centuries under Spanish and Mexican rule, but little has been written 
on these operations. Soon after the beginning of the gold rush in 1848, many publica- 
tions were written on various phases of gold mining. 

The reports of John Trosk, the first State Geologist in 1853-56, described a few 
important mines. From 1867 to 1876, the U. S. Commissioner of Mineral Statistics 
prepared reports of mine production and gold-mining activity. The California Mining 
Bureau, now the California Division of Mines and Geology, was established in 1880, 
and since then has published a fairly continuous record of gold-mining operations; the 
later ones appeared in the California Journal of Mines and Geology and the County 
Report series. The Division has published also a number of bulletins on certain phases 
of gold mining and reports on various districts and regions. The most popular recent 
publications are Bulletin 141, Geologic Guidebook along Highway 49 — Sierran Gold 
Belt, The Mother Lode Country, in 1948; and The Elephant as They Saw It, an historical 
treatise, in 1949. 

While collecting data for this bulletin, the author became greatly impressed with 
the vast amount of valuable information that has been amassed by the technical 



staff of the California Division of Mines and Geology and its predecessor, the California 
State Mining Bureau. Much of this work was done when this agency had a very small 
staff and limited funds and when many of the mining districts were accessible only by 
primitive roads or trails. He would like to pay tribute to a number of former staff 
members who helped make this bulletin possible. These men worked for this organization 
during much or all of their professional careers. They were Charles V. Averill, Walter 
W. Bradley, Fletcher Hamilton, Olaf P. Jenkins, C. McK Laizure, Clarence A. Logan, 
J. C. O'Brien, Reid J. Sampson, W. H. Storms, W. Burling Tucker, Clarence A. Waring, 
and Charles G. Yale. In 1969 only Jenkins, O'Brien, and Logan were living. 

A number of other geologists and mining engineers prepared reports on gold mining 
or gold districts that were published by this agency. These were E. S. Boalich, Stephen 
Bowers, Ross E. Browne, Henry DeGroot, J. E. Doolittle, R. L. Dunn, A. S. Eakle, H. W. 
Fairbanks, W. A. Goodyear, C. S. Haley, John Hays Hammond, Paul Henshaw, J. B. 
Hobson, Emile Huguenin, C. D. Hulin, Charles Janin, Errol MacBoyle, F. J. H. Merrill, 
E. B. Preston, and W. B. Winston. 

Tribute also is paid to the U. S. Geological Survey, especially to the three men of 
that organization who did a vast amount of pioneer work in the Mother Lode region 
of the Sierra Nevada: Waldemar Lindgren, F. L. Ransome, and H. W. Turner. Others 
of the Geological Survey who have contributed to knowledge of California's gold 
deposits have been John Albers, Josiah S. Diller, H. G. Ferguson, D. F. Hewitt, J. M. 
Hill, W. D. Johnston, Jr., Adolph Knopf, S. C. Creasy, R. W. Gannett, W. Yeend, and 
L. Noble. 

During the preparation of this bulletin, the author visited nearly all the districts. 
At some, only a general reconnaissance was made, but at others all of the important 
mines were visited. Little detailed geologic mapping was done, but efforts were made 
in a number of districts to determine the nature and extent of the mineralized zones 
and vein systems. The publications and files of the California Division of Mines and 
Geology and the United States Geological Survey, including the folios of the Geologic 
Atlas of the United States, were important sources of information. The U. S. Geological 
Survey Bulletin 507, The Mining Disfricfs of fhe Western United States (Hill, 1912), was 
a special source of data. Information on the earlier history of individual districts is 
found in the reports of the Commissioner of Mining Statistics of the U. 5. Treasury 
Department (Browne, 1868, and Raymond, 1869-76). Other publications that were 
consulted included the Mining and Scientific Press, Engineering and Mining Journal, 
U. S. Bureau of Mines reports and records, and private reports. Some county records 
were examined. The author was assisted by the following persons who reviewed chapters 
on certain districts: John Albers, C. A. Bennett, O. E. Bowen, Clarence Carlson, F. F. 
Davis, Willard Fuller, Earl Hart, Paul Morton, B. W. Troxel, F. H. Weber, and John Wells. 
Credit is also given to the large number of mine owners and operators, mining engineers, 
and miners with whom the author became acquainted. The maps and other drawings 
were drafted by Hugo H. Hawkins, of the Division of Mines and Geology drafting section. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

FOREWORD iii 

ABSTRACT xi 

INTRODUCTION 1 

HISTORY OF GOLD MINING IN CALIFORNIA 2 

Famous Gold Nuggets 9 

Famous High-Grade Pockets - 10 

DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD. 11 

SIERRA NEVADA PROVINCE 15 

Geology 1 5 

Lode Deposits 1 5 

Placer Deposits 15 



District 

Alleghany 

Alto _ 

American Camp.. 

American Hill 

Angels Camp 

Badger Hill 



Count/ Page 

...Sierra 1 9 

Calaveras 24 

Tuolumne 24 

..._Sierra 25 

.... Calaveras. 25 

.....Nevada 28 



Bagby... Mariposa 29 

Bangor-Wyandotte Butte .-. 29 

Bidv/ell Bar Butte 29 

Big Creek... Fresno 30 

Big Dry Creek. Fresno — 30 

Big Oak Flat Tuolumne 30 

Bishop Creek Inyo 30 

Blue Mountain Calaveras 31 

Blue Tent Nevada 31 

Brandy City Sierra 31 

Brown's Valley Yuba 31 

Brownsvil le Yuba 31 

Buckeye Mariposa 32 

Butte Creek Butte 32 

Butt Valley Plumas 32 

Calaveritas Calaveras 33 

Camanche-Lancha Plana....Amador, Calaveras, San 

Joaquin.. 33 

Campo Seco-Valley 

Springs Calaveras 33 

Camptonville Sierra-Yuba 33 

Canada Hill ...Placer 33 

Carson Hill Calaveras 34 

Cathey Mariposa 35 

Cat Town ..Mariposa 36 

Cherokee Butte 36 

Chinese Camp Tuolumne 37 



Chowchilla . AAadera _ 

Clear Creek Kern 

Clearinghouse ....Mariposa 

Clipper Mills Butte-Yuba 

Coarsegold. Madera 

Colfax Placer 

Coilierville.. Calaveras, Tuolumne- 

Coloma El Dorado 

Columbia Tuolumne — 

Confidence Tuolumne 



37 
37 
37 
38 
38 
38 
38 
39 
39 
41 



District County 

Coulterville _ AAariposa 

Cove Kern 

Crescent Mills _.PIutnas „ 

Damascus... Placer 

Deer Creek _EI Dorado 

Deer Valley El Dorado 

Diamond AAountain. Lassen 

Dobbins Yuba 

Do wn ievi I le Sierra 

Duncan Peak Placer 

Dutch Flat Placer 

El Dorado El Dorado 

Emigrant Gap Placer _ 

English Mountain Nevada 

Erskine Creek Kern 

Eureka _Sierra 

Fairplay El Dorado 

Fiddletown Amador 

Fine Gold Madera 

Folsom Sacramento 

Forbestown Butte 

Forest Hill Placer 

French Corral Nevada 

Fresno River Madera 

Friant _ Fresno 

Genesee.... Plumas . 

Georgetown ..El Dorado 

Gibsonville Sierra 

Globe Tulare 

Gold Run Placer 

Granite Basin Butte-Plumas 

Granite Springs ...Mariposa-Tuolumne 

Granifeville Nevada 

Grass Valley Nevada 

Gravel Range _ Mariposa-Tuolumne . 

Greenhorn Mountain. Kern — 

Greenwood El Dorado — 

Grizzly Flat. ...-EI Dorado — 

Grub Gulch Madera 

Hammonton — Yuba 

Hardin Flat... _ Tuolumne 

Hildreth Madera — 

Hite Cove Mariposa 

Hodson Calaveras 

Homer Mono 

Honcut ..Butte 

Honey Lake Lassen-Plumas 

Hope Valley Alpine 

Hornitos AAariposa 

Hunter Valley. Mariposa 

Indian Diggings EI Dorado 

Indian Hill. _Sierra 

Inskip _Botte 

Iowa Hill - Placer 

Irish Hill... Amador 

Jackson-Plymouth Amador-Calaveras 

Jacksonville Tuolumne 

Jamestown Tuolumne 



Page 

41 
42 
42 
42 
43 
43 
43 
44 
44 
44 
45 
45 
45 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
47 
. 47 
. 48 
. 49 
. 50 

- 50 
. 50 
. 51 
. 51 
. 51 
. 52 
. 52 
. 52 
. 53 

- 53 
. 53 
_ 60 
. 60 
. 60 
. 61 

- 62 
. 62 
. 63 
. 63 

- 64 
. 64 
. 64 

- 65 

- 65 
. 65 
. 65 
. 66 
. 66 
_ 66 
_ 67 

- 67 
_ 69 
.. 69 
_ 77 
_ 77 



CONTENTS-Continued 



District 

Jenny Lind 
Jerseydale . 
Johnsville 
Jordan 
Kearsarge.. 

Keith... 

Kelsey.. 

Kern River . 
Keyesville... 

Kimshew 

Kinsley . 



Knight's Ferry- 
La Grange 

La Porte 



County 

Calaveras 
Mariposa .. 

Plumas 

Mono 

.Inyo 

AAono - 

..El Dorado 
Kern 

Kern 

Butte 

Mariposa .. 

Stanislaus 

Stanislaus 

.Plumas ... 



Last Chance Placer .. 

Light's Canyon Plumas 

Lincoln Placer .. 

Long Tom Kern _.. 

Loraine Kern .... 

Lowell Hill Nevada 

AAogaiia Butte . 



AAommoth Mono 

Mariposa Mariposa 

Meadow Lake Nevada 

Meadow Valley Plumas 

Michigan Bar . Sacramento 

Michigan Bluff Placer 

Mill Creek Fresno 

Mineral King Tulare 

Mokelumne Hill Calaveras .... 

Montior-Mogul Alpine 

Moore's Flat Nevada 

Mooreville Ridge Butte-Plumas 

Mormon Bar AAariposa 

Morris Ravine Butte 

Mountain AAeadows Lassen 



Calaveras 

Mariposa _ 

_ Calaveras 

El Dorado 

Nevada 

Newtown El Dorado 



Mountain Ranch. 

Mount Bullion 

Murphys 

Nashville 

Nevada City_ 



North Bloomfield. 
North Columbia... 

North San Juan 

Ophir 

Orovllle 

Pacific 

Paloma _ 

Penryn 

P!ke 

Pilot Hill 

Pine Grove 

Piute Mountains— 

Placerville . 

Poker Flat 

Polk Springs 

Port Wine 

Poverty Hill 

Quincy .. 

Railroad Flat 



Nevada 
Nevada 
Nevada 
Placer .. 
Butte . 



El Dorado 
Caloveras 

Placer 

Sierra 

.El Dorado 

.Amador 

. Kern 

. El Dorado 

Sierra 

Tehama 

Sierra 

. Sierra 

. Plumas 

.Caloveras 



Poge 
80 
80 

82 

83 

84 

84 

84 

84 

84 

85 

85 

85 

85 

86 

86 

86 

87 

87 

87 

87 

88 

89 

89 

89 

89 

90 

90 

91 

91 

91 

92 

93 

93 

93 

93 

93 

93 

94 

96 

96 

97 

101 

101 

101 

102 

102 

103 

104 

104 

105 

105 

105 

105 

107 

107 

108 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 



District County 

Ralston Divide Placer 

Rattlesnake Bar El Dorado 

Rich Bar Plumas 

Rich Gulch Calaveras 

Rocklin Placer 

Rough-and-Ready Nevada .... 



Sampson Flat . 
San Andreas 
Sowpit Flat. .- 
Scotts Flat...--. 
Sheep Ranch . 



Fresno 
Calaveras 
Piumas .... 
Nevada .... 
Calaveras 
El Dorado 
Sierra 



Shingle Springs 

Sierra City 

Sierra Nevada Copper Belts 

Silver King Alpine 

Silver Mountain Alpine 

Slate AAountain El Dorado 

Smartsville Yuba 

Snelling Merced __ 

Sonora Tuolumne 

Soulsbyville Tuolumne _ 

Spanish Flat El Dorado 

Spring Garden _-Plumas ._ 

Sweet Oil Plumas 

Sycamore Fkat Fresno 

Tohoe Placer 

Taylorsvilie... Plumes 

Tehochopi Kern 

Temperance Flat Fresno 

Tioga Mono-Tuolumne 

Tuttletown _ Tuolumne 

Vollecito Calaveras 

Volcano Amador 

Volconovilie El Dorado 

Washington Nevada 

West Point -Calaveras 

Westville _Plocer 

West Walker... Mono ...... 

Wheatland __._.Placer 

White Oak Flat Amador _ 

White River _.Tulare — 

Whitlock AAariposa 

Yankee Hill Butte 

You Bet Nevada 

KLAMATH AAOUNTAINS PROVINCE _ 



Backbone 

Bully Choop 

Callahan.— 

Cecilville 

Cottonwood 

Dead wood 

Dedrlck-Conyon Creek- 
Dillon Creek 

Dog Creek . 

Dorleska 

French Gulch 

Gazelle. .- 

Gilta 

Harrison Gulch 

Helena-East Fork 



._Shasta _ 
._ Trinity .. 
...Siskiyou 
...Siskiyou 
._ Shasta _ 
...Siskiyou 
_ Trinity _ 
_ Siskiyou 



... Shasta 

Trinity 

Shasta-Trinity _- 

Siskiyou 

Siskiyou 

Shasta 

— Trinity 



Pog* 

112 
112 
112 
112 
113 
113 
113 
114 
114 
114 
115 
117 
117 
117 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
121 
121 
123 
124 
124 
124 
124 
125 
125 
125 
125 
. 126 
126 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
130 
130 
130 
131 
131 
131 
131 

132 

133 
. 133 
. 134 

134 
. 134 
. 135 

135 
. 136 
. 136 

136 
. 136 
. 137 

137 
. 137 

138 



CONTENTS-Continued 



District County 

Hoopa Humboldt 

Humbug ..Siskiyou 

Igo-Ono Shasta . 

Jelly Ferry Tehama 

Klamath River 

Liberty Siskiyou 

AVjnumental , Del Norte 

New River-Denny Trinity 

Old Diggings ..Shasta 

Orleans^ Humboldt 

Oro Fino Siskiyou 

Redding ._ Shasta 

Salmon River Siskiyou 

Scott Bar Siskiyou 

Shosta-Copper-Zinc Belt 

Shasta-Whiskeytown Shasta 

Smith River Del Norte 

Trinity River... Trinity 

Weaverville . Trinity 



BASIN RANGES PROVINCE 

Argus Inyo 

Ballarat Inyo 

Beveridge Inyo 

Big Pine Inyo 

Bodie 

Chloride Cliff 

Clover Patch 




AAono .. 

Inyo 

Mono .. 

El Paso Mountains Kern — 

Fish Springs Inyo — 

Grapevine Inyo — 

Horrisburg Inyo — 

High Grade AAodoc 149 



146 

146 
146 
147 
147 
147 
148 
148 
149 
149 
149 
149 



Lee's Camp-Echo Canyon... Inyo 

Masonic AAono 

AAodoc Inyo 

Patterson AAono 

Rademacher Kern — 

Russ Inyo _ 

Skidoo Inyo 

Slate Range San Bernardino 

Spongier San Bernardino 

Tibbetts Inyo 

Ubehebe Inyo 

White Mountains AAono 

Wildrose Inyo . 

Willow Inyo _. 



MOJAVE DESERT PROVINCE 

Alvord ._San Bernardino . 

Arico Riverside 

Arrowhead Son Bernardino . 

Bendigo Riverside 

Cargo Muchacho-Tumco Imperial 

Chocolate Mountains Imperial 



Chuckwalla.. 
Clark. 



Coolgardie 

Dale 

Dos Polmos 

Eagle Mountains Riverside 



150 
150 
150 
150 
150 
151 
151 
152 
152 
152 
152 
152 
152 
152 

153 

153 
153 
153 
153 
153 
154 
156 
156 
157 



Riverside 

San Bernardino 

San Bernardino 

Riverside-San Bernardino 157 

Riverside 157 

157 



District County 

Emerson Lake San Bernardino . 

Gold Reef.. _ _San Bernardino . 

Goldstone San Bernardino . 

Grapevine San Bernardino . 

Hackberry Mountain San Bernardino . 

Holloron Springs.... ...San Bernardino . 

Hart _ San Bernardino . 



Poga 

158 
158 
158 
158 
158 
158 
158 



Ibex. Son Bernardino 159 

Ivonpah San Bernardino 159 

Mojave-Rosomond Kern 159 

Mule Mountains Riverside . . — 161 

Old Dad San Bernardino 161 

Old Woman San Bernardino 161 

Ord San Bernardino 161 

Oro Grande San Bernardino 162 

Picacho Imperial 162 

Potholes Imperial 163 

Rand Kern-Son Bernardino 164 

Shadow Mountains— San Bernardino 167 

Stedmon... San Bernardino 167 

Trojan San Bernardino 168 

Twentynine Palms _Riverside-San Bernardino 168 

Vonderbilt Son Bernardino 169 

Whipple San Bernardino 169 



TRANSVERSE AND PENINSULAR RANGES 
PROVINCES 



Acton 

Azusa-Tujunga 

Baldwin Lake 

Block Hawk. 

Boulder Creek 

Cuyamaca 

Deer Park 

Dulzura 

Escondido 

Frazier Mountain , 

Holcomb Valley 

Julian-Banner 

Loguna Mountains.. 

Lytle Creek 

Menifee 

Mesa Grande 

AAontezuma 

Morongo 

Mount Boldy. 

Mount Gleason 

Neenoch _ 

Pinacote 

Pine Valley 

Piru 

Sougus _ 

Trabuco 



Los Angeles 

Los Angeles 

Son Bernardino ._ 

Son Bernardino _ 

San Diego 

San Diego 

San Diego 

San Diego 

San Diego 

Ventura 

San Bernardino _ 

San Diego 

San Diego _. 

San Bernardino _. 

Riverside 

San Diego 

Son Diego 

San Bernardino — 

Los Angeles 

Los Angeles 

Los Angeles 

Riverside 

San Diego 

Ventura 



.Los Angeles. 
.Orange ___ 



MODOC PLATEAU PROVINCE. _. 

Hoyden Hill Lassen 

Winters >Aodoc 

COAST RANGES PROVINCE 



Colistoga Napa .. 

Crescent City Del Norte 



169 

169 
170 
170 
170 
170 
170 
171 
171 
171 
171 
171 
172 
173 
173 
174 
174 
174 
174 
174 
174 
174 
175 
176 
176 
176 
176 

177 
177 
177 

178 
178 
178 



CONTENTS-Continued 

District County Pag« DUlricI County Poi 

Island Mountain Trinity _ 178 Santa Cruz Santa Cruz 1{ 

Jolon _ Monterey 179 Silver Queen_ _ Sonoma It 

La Panza San Luis Obispo 179 Sulphur Creek .Colusa It 

Los Burros Monterey 179 Surf-Point Sal Santa Barbara._ It 

0'"'«'< Humboldt __ 180 GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 1{ 

Putah Creek Yolo 1 80 

Red Mountain Mendocino 180 ^'^^ OF DISTRICTS BY COUNTIES __.._„. It 

San Francisco Beach... San Francisco 180 INDEX OF ALTERNATE DISTRICT NAMES It 



ILLUSTRATIONS 
Figures 



Plate. 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 

13. 
14. 
15. 



Page 

Map of C<ilifornia Showing Locations of 

Gold Districts .. In pocket 

Gold Production in California, 1848-1965 6 

Map of California Showing Gold-Bearing Areas 

and Geomorphic Provinces - 12 

Map of Major Rock Units and Lode-Gold Belts, 

Northern Sierra Nevada 16 

Map of Major Rock Units and Lode-Gold Belts, 

Central Sierra Nevada 17 

Map of Tertiary Channels and Dredge Fields, 

Sierra Nevada 18 

Geologic Map of Alleghany District, Sierra 

County 22 

Geologic Map of Angels Camp District, Cala- 
veras County 26 

Geologic Mop of Grass Valley District, Nevada 

County 58 

Section through Idaho-Maryland Mine 59 

Section through Empire and Pennsylvania Mines 59 

Map of Iowa Hill District, Placer County 68 

Geologic Map of Jackson-Plymouth District, 

Amador County 74 

Section through Argonaut Mine 75 

Section through Kennedy Mine — 75 

Section through Keystone Mine 75 



16. 



17. 

18. 



19. 



20. 



21. 
22. 



23. 
24. 



25. 



26. 



27. 
28. 



29. 



30. 



Page 

Geologic Map of Jamestown District, Tuolumne 
County 78 

Sketch Mop of Magalia District, Butte County.. - 88 

Geologic Map of Bagby, Mariposa, Mount Bul- 
lion and Whitlock Districts, Mariposa County 95 

Geologic Map of Nevada City District, Nevada 
County 98 

Geologic Map of Ophir and Penryn Districts, 
Placer County 103 

Map of Placerville District, El Dorado County.... 109 

Geologic Map of Sierra City and Johnsville Dis- 
tricts, Sierra and Plumas Counties . 116 

Mop of Copper and Zinc Belts, Sierra Nevada 119 

Geologic Map of Soulsbyville and Confidence 
Districts, Tuolumne County . 122 

Geologic Map of West Point and Railroad Flat 
Districts, Calaveras County 129 

Geologic Map of French Gulch District, Shasta 
County 137 

Sketch Mop of Shasta Copper-Zinc Belt 141 

Geologic Map of Cargo Muchacho-Tumco Dis- 
trict, Imperial County 155 

Geologic Mop of Mojave-Rosomond District, 
Kern County 160 

Geologic Map of Rand District, Kern and San 
Bernardino Counties 165 



Photos 



Poge 

Frontispiece. The Fricot Nugget ii 20. 

1. Early Gold-Mining Scene — xii 

2. Winnowing Gold Near Chinese Camp 1 21. 

3. Dry-Washing Gold.. 3 

22. 

SIERRA NEVADA PROVINCE 23. 

4. Locomotive, Bald Mountain Drift Mine, Alle- 

ghany District 19 24. 

5. Brush Creek Mine, Alleghany District 20 25. 

6. Kate Hardy Mine, Alleghany District 20 26. 

7. Oriental Mine, Alleghany District 21 27. 

8. Sixteen-to-One and Gold Crown Mines, Alle- 28. 

ghany District 23 29. 

9. Large Nuggets, Ruby Drift Mine, Alleghany 30. 

District .. _ 24 31. 

10. Angels Mine, Angels Camp District 25 32. 

11. Gold Cliff Mine, Angels Camp District 27 33. 

12. Utica Mine, Angels Camp District 28 

13. Carson Hill Mine and Mill, Carson Hill District.. 34 34. 

14. Suction Dredge, Calaveras County 35 35. 

15. Cherokee Hydraulic Mine, Cherokee District 36 

16. Placer Mining, Columbia District 40 36. 

17. Hummocky Limestone, Columbia District 40 

18. Virginia Mine, Coulterville District.. 41 37. 

19. Natomas Company Dredge No. 2, Folsom DIs- 38. 

trict 47 39. 



Poge 

Natomas Company Dredge No. 9, Folsom Dis- 
trict 48 

Natomas Company Dredge No. 8, Folsom Dis- 
trict 49 

Empire Mine, Grass Valley District _ 54 

End of a Shift, Empire AAine, Grass Valley Dis- 
trict 55 

Idaho-Maryland Mine, Grass Valley District 56 

New Brunswick Mine, Grass Valley District 57 

North Star Mine, Grass Valley District 57 

Mining Operations, Grizzly Flat District — 61 

Yuba Consolidated Dredge, Hammonton District 63 

Doss (Ginaca) Mine, Hornitos District 65 

Big Dipper Drift Mine, Iowa Hill District 67 

Amador-Star Mine, Jackson-Plymouth District ... 69 
Central Eureka Mine, Jackson-Plymouth District 70 
Kennedy Mine and Mill, Jackson-Plymouth Dis- 
trict _ 70 

Kennedy Mine, Recent View _ 71 

Argonaut Mine and Mill, Jackson-Plymouth Dis- 
trict 

Plymouth Consolidated Mine, Jackson-Plymouth 

District 

Eogle-Shawmut Mine, Jacksonville District 76 

Crystalline Mine, Jamestown District 77 

Harvard Mine, Jamestown District.. 79 



72 



73 



Photos— Continued 



Pog* 

40. Jumper Mine, Jamestown District 79 

41. Rawhide AAine, Jamestown District 80 

42. Alameda Mine, Jamestown District 81 

43. Jamison Mine, Johnsville District 82 

44. Plumas-Eureka Mine, Johnsville District ._... 83 

45. Hydraulic Mining in the 1860s, AAichigan Bar 

District 90 

46. Town of Monitor in the 1870$ 92 

47. Princeton Mine, Mount Bullion District 94 

48. Champion Mine, Nevada City District 96 

49. Lava Cap Mine, Nevada City District - 96 

50. Providence Mine, Nevada City Districts . 99 

51. MalakofF Mine, North Bloomfield District.. 100 

52. Main Hydraulic Pit, North Columbia District 102 

53. Cherokee Mining Company Dredge, Oroville 

District _ — 104 

54. Contini Mine, Pine Grove District 106 

55. Red Hill Mine, Pine Grove District _.. 106 

56. Ground Sluicing, Plocerville District.. 107 

57. California Gold Mine — _ — 108 

58. Early view of the Town of St. Louis 110 

59. Lee Drift Mine, Rocklin District — . 113 

60. Sheep Ranch Mine, Sheep Ranch District 115 

61. Young America Mine, Sierra City District... 118 

62. Soulsby Mine, Soulsbyville District ._ 123 

63. Alhambra Mine, Spanish Flat District 124 

64. Early Placer Mining, Volcano District — 127 

65. Belden Mine, West Point District 128 

KLA>MTH MOUNTAINS PROVINCE 

66. Bully Choop Mine, Bully Choop District 133 

67. Princess Hydraulic Mine, Shasta County... 134 



68. 
69. 



70. 
71. 



72. 



Pagt 

Placer Mine, Siskiyou County 135 

Carrville Gold Company Dredge, Trinity River 

District 142 

Steam Dragline Operation, Trinity River District 143 
Hydraulic AAining of Bench Gravels, Trinity 

County — — . 144 

La Grange Hydraulic Mine, Weavervilie District 145 



BASIN RANGES PROVINCE 

73. Standard Consolidated Mine, Bodie District 147 

74. Red Cloud Mine, Bodie District 148 

75. Town of Skidoo, Skidoo District — 151 

MOJAVE DESERT PROVINCE 

76. Golden Cross Mine, Cargo Muchocho-Tumco 

District 154 

77. Dry Placer Mining, Coolgardie District 156 

78. Gold Crown Mine, Dale District 157 

79. Exposed Treasure Mine, Mojave District 159 

80. Picacho Mine, Picacho District 162 

81. Gold Concentrating Mill, Colorado River. 163 

82. Yellow Aster Mine, Rand District _ 164 

83. Yellow Aster Mine Mill 166 

84. Town of Randsburg, Kern County 167 

85. Pacific Gold-Copper Mine, Stedman District 168 

TRANSVERSE AND PENINSULAR RANGES PROVINCES 

86. Lytle Creek Mine, Lytle Creek District 172 

87. Hydraulic Mining, Lytle Creek District 173 

88. Lode Gold Mine, Los Angeles County 175 



Tobies 



Page 

1. Gold Production in California, 1848-1968 4 

2. Significant Dates in the History of Gold AAining 

in California 5 

3. Estimated Gold Production by Counties, 1848- 

1 965 — 9 



Pago 

4. Large Nuggets and Gold Masses from California 10 

5. High-Grade Pockets -... - H 

6. Principal Gold Districts _ 13 

7. Principal Lode-Gold Mines _ 13 

8. Major Hydraulic AAines 13 

9. Major Drift Mines.. 14 



ABSTRACT 

California has been the source of more than 106 million troy ounces* of gold, the 
most productive state in the Union. However, production has greatly declined in recent 
years because of high costs and depletion of easily accessible deposits. 

Although gold v/a% mined in California in the late 18th and early 19th Centuries, the 
gold rush did not begin until after Marshall's discovery at Sutter's Mill in 1848. Thou- 
sands of gold seekers soon arrived, and in a few years much of the state was 
permanently settled. Gold production attained an all-time high of $81 million in 1852 
but then declined because of the exhaustion of the rich surface placers. At the last 
government-set price of $35 per ounce, the 1852 amount would have been about 
$138 million. 

Hydraulic mines became the largest sources of gold until curtailed by court order 
in 1884. Lode mines and dredges were the principal sources after that date. During 
the depression years of the 1930s, gold output in the state was nearly as high as it 
had been during the gold rush. Gold mining was curtailed during World War II end 
has not recovered since. 

A number of spectacular nuggets and masses of pure gold were recovered in Cali- 
fornia during the early days. The most famous were the 195-pound mass of gold from 
Carson Hill and the 54-pound Willard nugget from Magalia. Small high-grade ore 
shoots or pockets have been found in many districts, but the richest and most numerous 
have been in the Alleghany district of Sierra County. 

Although gold is found in many areas in California, the most productive districts 
are in the northern and central portions of the Sierra Nevada. The primary deposits 
usually consist of gold-quartz veins in metamorphic rocks and are associated with the 
intrusion of the Sierra Nevada batholith. The most productive lode-gold districts in 
the Sierra Nevada have been the Grass Valley, Nevada City, Alleghany, and 
Sierra City districts, those of the Mother Lode belt, and several in the so-called 
East and West Gold Belts. Several districts are in the southern end of the range. The 
Sierra Nevada placer deposits are divisible into the older or Tertiary deposits, which 
were mined by hydraulicking and drifting, and the younger or Quaternary stream 
deposits, which have been mined by dredging. The principal Tertiary deposits are in 
the La Porte, Poker Flat, Magalia, Cherokee, North Bloomfield, North Columbia, Dutch 
Flat, Damascus, Forest Hill, Iowa Hill, Mokelumne Hill, and Columbia districts. The 
largest dredging fields were at Hammonton, Folsom, Oroville, Comanche, La Grange, 
and Snelling. 

In the Klamath Mountain, the second most-productive province, the largest sources 
of gold have been the streams of the Klamath-Trinity River system. The older terrace 
deposits along the sides of the present stream channels also have yielded much gold 
and were mined by hydraulicking. The most productive source of lode-gold has been 
the French Gulch district of Shasta and Trinity Counties. Other important lode-mining 
centers were the Harrison Gulch, Liberty, Callahan, Sawyers Bar, Weaverville, and Old 
Diggings districts. 

The Basin Ranges and Mojave Desert provinces of eastern and southern California 
have yielded substantial amounts of gold. The gold occurs either in epithermol deposits 
in brecciated silicified zones of Tertiary volcanic rocks or in mesothermol quartz veins 
of older metamorphic and granitic rocks. Gold also has been recovered from dry 

* More than 8.8 million troy pounds, 7.2 million avoirdupois pounds, 3630 tons. Conversion foctors: one 
troy ounce = about 1 .1 av. ounce, but one troy pound == about .8 ov. pound. 



placers in several districts. The Bodie district has been the most important gold source 
in the Basin Ranges, while the Mojave, Rand, Stedman, and Cargo Muchacho districts 
contain the most productive mines in the AAojave Desert. 

Moderate amounts of gold have been mined in the Transverse and Peninsular 
Ranges in southern California, the principal sources having been the Frazier Mountain, 
Saugus, Acton, Pinacote, Julian-Banner, and Cuyamaco districts. The mineral also 
has been recovered from the Modoc Plateau province in northeastern California, the 
main source having been the Hoyden Hill district. Small amounts of gold have been 
produced in a number of places in the Coast Ranges. 



^* 'Sd' 




Photo 1. Early Gold-Mining Seen*. On« miner operates a horse-powered orrostro, a second pons ore ond o third works with a rocker, 



GOLD DISTRICTS OF CALIFORNIA 

By WILLIAM B. CLARK 



INTRODUCTION 



Between 1848 and 1967, California was the source 

of more than 106 million troy ounces of gold. This 

total was far greater than that for any other state in 

^ the Union and represented about 35 percent of the 

total United States production. 



California's gold mining has been important in the 
history and development of the western United States. 
The influence it has had on the development and per- 
fection of mining and metallurgical processes also has 
been significant. Although world gold production has 




Photo 2. Winnowing Gold Near Cliinese Camp. 



[l] 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



gradually increased in recent years, chiefly because of 
increased output in the Union of South Africa and 
the Soviet Union, United States production, par- 
ticularly that in California, has diminished. This di- 
minishing trend is attributable to increased costs for 
labor and supplies combined with, until recently, a 
fixed price for domestically mined gold ($35 per 
fine ounce), the expense of reconditioning mines shut 
down during World War II, and depletion of many 
gold deposits. Another factor in California is the 
increased real estate value of many gold-bearing 
properties. In addition, a number of gold mines and 
gold-bearing deposits have been inundated by reser- 
voirs. 

The word "district" as used in this publication de- 
notes an area or zone of gold mineralization. The 
location and extent of these districts are determined 
by the occurrence of deposits that have yielded gold 
in commercial amounts. Often the limits of the indi- 
vidual districts are not well defined, because the 
boundaries between rocks that have yielded com- 
mercial ore and those that have not are indefinite. 
Except in portions of the desert regions, the limits of 
the named mining districts in California often are un- 
certain. Commonly, what has been referred to as an 
organized mining district actually has been nothing 
more than a center of mining operations with an ap- 
propriate geographic name. The names used in this 
report are either those of the corresponding organized 
districts or geographic names long used to designate 
centers of mining operations. If a district has had 
several names, the most common name is used in this 



report. A list of alternate names appears in an index 
at the back of the book. 

The size and productivity of the gold districts of 
California vary widely. Some are scores of square 
miles in extent and others cover only a few square 
miles. However, size often is no indication of^ the 
richness of the deposits or of the total value of out- 
put. Some lode-gold districts, such as Grass Valley, 
Alleghany, and Randsburg, contain many rich veins 
in a small area. Some placer-gold districts contain 
channel deposits of several different ages, and others 
contain deposits only of one age. Some districts are 
mostly lode, some mostly placer, and others have both 
lode and placer deposits. In the Sierra Nevada and 
Klamath Mountains, the gold mineralization is ex- 
tensive. However, studies show that the bulk of the 
gold production has come from distinct districts 
within these major regions. 

The organized mining districts were important 
during the days of the frontier. These were organized 
by the miners themselves to establish law and order. 
The miners would meet to draft bylaws defining the 
size of claims and territorial jurisdiction of the district 
Commonly these laws included procedures for the 
punishment of claim jumpers, sluice robbers, and mur- 
derers. A recorder was appointed to keep records. The 
customs and laws were derived chiefly from European 
mining districts. The importance of the organized 
mining districts diminshed after the Federal Mining 
Acts of 1866 and 1872. The official records of some 
of the old districts still exist and are on file in county 
recorders' offices. 



HISTORY OF GOLD MINING IN CALIFORNIA 



California's gold-mining history is a brilliant lure, 
and many books, pamphlets, periodicals and articles 
have been published on the subject. The old mining 
districts and settlements, including "ghost" towns, are 
visited by increasing numbers of tourists each year. 
In a few districts the old camps have been recon- 
structed. Several old gold mining towns, such as 
Columbia, Johnsville, Coloma, Shasta, and Bodie, 
are California state parks or recreation areas. In recent 
years more people have become aware of the im- 
portance of California's gold rush in the history and 
development of the western United States, and steps 
have been made to preserve historical structures and 
equipment closely associated with gold mining. 



Unfortunately, little visible evidence remains of 
many of California's important gold-quartz mines 
other than caved shafts and tunnels and heavily over- 
grown dumps. The surface plants of the large under- 
ground lode mines at Grass Valley and along the 
Mother Lode belt, which for years accounted for a 
major part of California's gold output, have been 
almost completely dismantled. More evidence remains 
of the large-scale placer-mining operations. The old 
hydraulic mine pits and the extensive tailing piles in 
the dredging fields still exist; some are used as com- 
mercial sources of sand and gravel. A number of the 
old ditches, flumes, and reservoirs that once supplied 
water to the hydraulic mines now are parts of hydro- 
electric and irrigation systems. 



1970 



Gold Districts 




Photo 3. Dry-Washing Gold. 



California Division ok Mines and Geology 
Table 1. Gold Production in California, 1848-1968. 



Bull. 193 



y««r 



Fine 
Ounces 



1 848 11 ,866 

1849 491,072 

1850 1,996,586 

1851 3,673,512 

1852 3,932,631 

1853 3,270,803 

1854 3,358,867 

1 855 2,684,1 06 

1856 2,782,018 

1857 2,110,513 

1858 2,253,846 

1859 2,217,829 

1860 2,133,104 

1861 2,026,187 

1862 1,879,595 

1863 1,136,897 

1864 1,164,455 

1865 867,405 

1866 828,367 

1867 883,591 

1868 849,265 

1869 881,830 

1870 844,537 

1871 845,493 

1872.'. 748,951 

1873 726,554 

1874 835,186 

1875 816,377 

1876 755,169 

1877 798,249 

1878 911,343 

1879 949,439 

1880 968,986 

1881 929,920 

1882 829,458 

1883 1,176,329 

1884 657,900 

1885 612,478 

1886 711,911 

1887 657,349 

1888 616,000 

1889 542,425 

1890 595,486 

1891 615,759 

1892 608,166 

1893 606,564 

1894 670,636 

1895 741,798 

1896 831,158 

1897 767,779 

1898 769,476 

1899 741,881 

1900 767,390 

1901 821,845 

1902 818,037 

1903 788,544 

1904 901,484 

1905 914,217 

1906 906,182 



Value 

$ 245,301 
10,151,360 
41,273,106 
75,938,232 
81,294,700 
67,613,487 
69,433,931 
55,485,395 
57,509,411 
43,628,172 
46,591 ,1 40 
45,846,599 
44,095,163 
41,884,995 
38,854,668 
23,501,736 
24,071,423 
17,930,858 
17,123,867 
18,265,452 
17,555,867 
18,229,044 
17,458,133 
17,477,885 
15,482,194 
15,019,210 
17,264,836 
16,876,009 
15,610,723 
16,501,268 
18,839,141 
19,626,654 
20,030,761 
19,223,155 
17,146,416 
24,316,873 
13,600,000 
12,661,044 
14,716,506 
13,588,614 
12,750,000 
11,212,913 
12,309,793 
12,728,869 
12,571,900 
12,538,780 
13,863,282 
15,334,317 
17,181,562 
15,871,401 
1 5,906,478 
15,336,031 
15,863,355 
16,989,044 
16,910,320 
16,300,653 
18,633,676 
18,898,545 
18,732,452 



Year 

1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911 . 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 
1921. 
1922. 
1923. 
1924. 
1925. 
1926. 
1927. 
1928. 
1929. 
1930. 
1931 . 
1932. 
1933. 
1934. 
1935. 
1936. 
1937. 
1938. 
1939. 
1940. 
1941 . 
1942. 
1943. 
1944. 
1945. 
1946. 
1947. 
1948. 
1949. 
1950. 
1951 . 
1952. 
1953. 
1954. 
1955. 
1956. 
1957. 
1958. 
1959. 
1960. 
1961 . 
1962. 
1963. 
1964. 
1965. 



Fine 




Ounces 


Value 


809,214 


$16,727,928 


907,590 


18,761,559 


979,007 


20,237,870 


953,734 


19,715,440 


954,870 


19,738,908 


953,640 


19,713,478 


987,187 


20,406,958 


999,113 


20,653,496 


1,085,646 


22,442,296 


1,035,745 


21,410,741 


971,733 


20,087,504 


799,588 


16,528,953 


807,667 


16,695,955 


692,297 


14,311,043 


759,721 


15,704,822 


709,678 


14,670,346 


647,210 


13,379,013 


636,140 


13,150,175 


632,035 


13,065,330 


576,798 


11,923,481 


564,586 


11,671,018 


521,740 


10,785,315 


412,479 


8,526,703 


457,200 


9,451,162 


523,135 


10,814,162 


569,167 


11,765,726 


613,579 


15,683,075 


719,064 


25,131,284 


890,430 


31,165,050 


1 ,077,442 


37,710,470 


1,174,578 


41,110,230 


1,311,129 


45,889,515 


1,435,264 


50,234,240 


1,455,671 


50,948,585 


1,408,793 


49,307,755 


847,997 


29,679,895 


148,328 


5,191,480 


117,373 


4,108,055 


147,938 


5,177,830 


356,824 


12,488,840 


431,415 


15,099,525 


428,473 


14,751,555 


417,231 


14,603,085 


412,118 


14,424,130 


339,732 


1 1 ,890,620 


258,176 


9,036,160 


234,591 


8,210,685 


237,888 


8,326,010 


251,737 


8,810,795 


193,816 


6,783,560 


170,885 


5,980,975 


185,400 


6,489,000 


146,141 


5,114,935 


123,713 


4,329,91.5 


97,648 


3,417,600 


106,272 


3,719,5!!0 


86,867 


3,040,345 


71,028 


2,485,9110 


62,885 


2,220,9'5 



1970 



Gold Districts 
Table 1. Gold Production in California, 1848-1968 — Continued 



Year 



1966. 
1967. 



Fine 
Ounces 

64,764 
40,570 



Value 

$2,266,740 
1 ,420,000 



Year 



1 968 

1969 (est.). 



Fine 
Ounces 



15,682 
7,950 



Value 

$616,000 
335,000 



Totals: 106,276,163 ounces valued at $2,428,330,901 through 1968. 



Note: The price of 9old was S20.67 a fine ounce until 1933, when it was increased 
to $25.56. The figure rose to $34.95 the following year and again, to $35, in 
1935. On March 15, 1968, the U.S. Treasury suspended purchases, leaving 



miners free to sell their gold on the open market; domestic prices have since 
risen. Dollar amounts above for production since that date are based on the 
New York selling price. 



Table 2. Significant Dotes in the History of Gold Mining in California. 

The First known discovery of gold in California was made in the Potholes district, Imperial 
County. Mining extended into the Cargo Muchacho and Picacho districts. 

A small placer gold deposit was found at San Vsidro, San Diego County. 

The placer deposits in San Francisquito Canyon, Los Angeles County, were discovered. 

Gold was discovered in Placerita Canyon, Los Angeles County. Some sources give the date 
of this discovery as 1 841 . 

Gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill at Coloma on the American River by James Marshall. 
Although the exact date has been the subject of some discussion, it is officially designated 
as January 24. The first printed notice of the discovery was in the March 15 issue of "The 
Caiifornian" in San Francisco. Shortly after Marshall's discovery General John Bidwell 
discovered gold in the Feather River and Major Pearson B. Reading found gold in the 
Trinity River. The gold rush was soon in full sway as thousands of gold seekers poured into 
California. 

Quartz mining began at the Mariposa mine, Mariposa County. A stamp mill, probably the 
first in the state, was installed. 

Gold-bearing quartz was found at Gold Hill at Grass Valley. This led to the development 
of the great underground mines in that district and a major industry that continued for more 
than 100 years. 

Gold was discovered in Greenhorn Creek, Kern County. This discovery led to the rush to 
the upper Kern River region. 

California's annual gold production reached an all-time high of $81 million. 

Hydraulic mining began at American Hill just north of Nevada City, Nevada County, and 
at Yankee Jims, Placer County. 

The first extensive underground mining of buried river channels commenced in the Forest 
Hill district. Placer County. 

The placers at Columbia, Tuolumne County, began to yield vast amounts of gold. This con- 
tinued until the early 1 860s. At that time Columbia was one of the largest cities in the state. 

The Fraser River rush in British Columbia caused a partial exodus of miners from the state. 

A 195-pound mass of gold, the largest known to have been discovered in California, was 
found at Carson Hill, Calaveras County. 

Continued on p. 7 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull 193 




< c 

>• o 



Sbvmoa do SNomm 



1970 



Gold Districts 



Table 2. Significant Dates in the History of Gold Mining in California. — Continued 

1855 The rich surface placers were largely exhausted by this date, and river mining accounted for 

much of the stale's output until the early 1860s. Ail of the rivers in the gold regions were 
mined. 

1859 The famous 54-pound Willard nugget was found at Magalia, Butte County. 

1 859 The Comstock silver rush began in Nevada. This development caused a large exodus of gold 

miners from California. However, it stimulated gold and silver prospecting in eastern and 
southeastern California. 



1 864 By this time California's gold rush had ended. The rich surface and river placers were largely 

exhausted; hydraulic mines were the chief sources of gold for the next 20 years. 

1868 The first air drills were introduced. However, widespread use of air drills in mining did not 

come for another 30 years. 

1 876 The stampede to the Bodle district in Mono County began. This rush lasted until about 1 888. 

1880 Hydraulic mining reached its peak in the state. Vast systems of reservoirs, tunnels, ditches, 

flumes, and pipelines supplied water to these operations. 

1883 Gold production figures began to be collected for the calendar year instead of the fiscal 
year. 

1884 Sawyer Decision. In the case of Woodruff vs. North Bloomfield Gravel Mining Company, 
Judge Lorenzo Sawyer issued a decree prohibiting the dumping of debris into the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin Rivers and their tributaries. Action against other hydraulic mines 
soon followed. A few mines constructed tailings storage dams and continued to operate, 
but hydraulic mining has not been important in the Sierra Nevada since. For a few years 
drift mines partially made up for the loss in output of surface placer gold. 

1890 Beginning about this time and continuing for several decades, great improvements were 
made in mining and milling methods. These changes enabled many more lode deposits, 
especially large but low-grade accumulations, to be profitably worked. The improvement 
of air drills, explosives, and pumps, and the introduction of electric power lowered mining 
costs greatly. The introduction of rock crushers, increase in size of stamp mills, and new 
concentrating devices, such as vanners, lowered milling costs. Cyanidation was introduced 
in 1 896 and soon replaced the chlorination processes. 

1 893 The Caminetti Act was passed creating the California Debris Commission. This commission 

licenses hydraulic mining operations in the Sierra Nevada. If is empowered to assess such 
mines to build debris dams. 

1 893 Gold was discovered in Goler Gulch in the El Paso Mountains in eastern Kern County. This 

led to other discoveries in the area and the influx to the Rand district, which began in 1 895. 

1898 The first successful bucket-line dredge was started on the lower Feather River near Oroville. 

Gold dredging soon became a major industry that continued for more than 65 years. 

1904 The lost, high-grade Tightner vein was rediscovered at Alleghany in Sierra County. Large 

amouls of rich ore were taken from this vein, and mining activity, reviving in this district, 
continued until 1965. This was the last district in the state where gold mining was the chief 
industry. 

1916 The general prosperity that began during World War I and continued until 1929, with 

accompanying high costs, caused a decrease in gold output. 

1922 Argonaut disaster. A fire on the 3350-foot level at the Argonaut mine in the Jackson dis- 

trict, Amador County, caused the loss of 47 lives. 

Confinuee/ on p. 8 



CALIFORNIA Division of Mines and Geology 



ible 2. Significant Dates in the History of Gold Mining in California. — Continued 

1929 Peak of post World War I boom. Lowest point in 9old production since 1849. 

1930 Gold production started to rise because of the depression and resulting low operating costs. 

1933-35 The price of gold increased from $20.67 to $35 per fine ounce. This rise ultimately resulted 
in a large increase in gold output and in much greater exploration activities. 

1940 Gold output totaled nearly $51 million. This was the most valuable annual output since 

1 856. Thousands of miners were employed in the quartz mines at Grass Valley, Alleghany, 
Nevada City, Jackson, Sutter Creek, Jamestown, Mojave, and French Gulch. There were 
many active bucket-line dredges, and dragline dredges became important producers of 
placer gold. 

1942 World War II caused a precipitous drop in gold output. War Production Board Limitation 

Order L-208, issued on October 8, caused the gold mines to be shut down. 

1944 Gold production touched the lowest point since 1848. 

1945 Order L-208 was lifted, effective July 1. Some of the bucket-line dredges resumed opera- 
tions, but only a few important lode mines at Grass Valley, Alleghany, and Suiter Creek 
were reopened. Production increased slightly for 4 years. 

1950 Gold output resumed its decline because of rising costs and depletion of dredging gound. 

This trend was accelerated by the Korean War. 

1953 The Central Eureka mine at Sutter Creek, the last major operating lode mine in the Mother 

Lode belt, was shut down. 

1956 The mines of Empire-Star Mines Ltd., and Idaho-Maryland Mines, Inc., at Grass Valley 

were shut down. The industry of gold mining completed nearly 106 years of operation in 
this locality. 

1960 Gold output fell below $5 million as the dredges continued to curtail operations. 

1962 The last dredge of the Folsom Field in Sacramento County was shut down, ending more than 
60 years of operation. One of the last active lode-gold mines in California, the Sixteen-to- 
One in the Alleghany district, curtailed operations. 

1963 The three large dredges of the Yuba Mining Division, Yuba Consolidated Industries — in 
the Hammonton district, Yuba County — were the only major sources of gold in the state. 
The small output from the substantial number of part-time prospectors, pocket miners, 
snipers, and skin divers did not offset the decrease in output from larger commercial opera- 
tions. Several mines in the Alleghany district obtained U.S. Government exploration loans. 

1964 The Brush Creek mine, a substantial source of gold in the Alleghany district. Sierra County, 
ceased operations. 

1965 Governor Edmund G. Brown signed Senate Bill 265 designating gold as California's official 
state mineral. The Sixteen-to-One mine at Alleghany, Sierra County, was shut down at the 
end of the year. This was the last lode mine in the stale that had been operated on a sus- 
tained basis. 

1967 Two of the three remaining dredges at Hammonton were shut down. 

1968 The last gold dredge at Hammonton was shut down on October 1. This was the last sus- 
tained commercial gold-mining operation in California. 

1968 The U.S. Treasury suspended purchases of newly-mined gold. The free market price rose 

to $44 an ounce early in 1969, falling by November to $38.50, because of greater sta- 
bility in international currencies. 



1970 



Gold Districts 
Table 3. Estimated Gold Production by Counties, 1848-1965. 



County 

Alpine 

Amador 

Butte 

Calaveras 

Del Norte 

EI Dorado 

Fresno 

Humboldt 

Imperial 

Inyo 

Kern 

Lassen 

Los Angeles 

Madera 

Mariposa 

Merced 

Mono 

Nevada 

Placer 



Production 
(in millions) 

S4 

200 

150 

150 

2 

110 

4 

5 

12 

14 

65 

4 

5 

6 

60 

17 

38 

440 

120 



Famous Gold 



Many large and spectacular fragments of native 
gold have been found in California. Most of these 
were taken during the gold rush and contributed 
further to the excitement in the mining camps and 
"stampedes" to the various "diggings". Few of these 
nuggets exist today; most were melted down soon 
after they were discovered. Although the term "nug- 
get" is technically restricted to water-worn gold frag- 
ments in alluvial deposits, it frequently is used to de- 
scribe chunks of vein gold not far removed from the 
point of origin. It is not used to describe high-grade 
"pockets" or small but rich ore shoots — these are listed 
in the next section. 

The largest piece of native gold that is believed to 
have been found in California was the 195-pound 
mass taken at Carson Hill in 1854. The largest true 
nugget was the Willard, Dogtown or Magalia nugget, 
which was found at Magalia in 1859. A celebration 
was held and the nugget was melted in Oroville soon 
afterward. It weighed 54 pounds troy. Replicas are 
owned by the Division of Mines and Geology and 
the Paradise Chamber of Commerce. An annual cele- 
bration is held in Magalia commemorating the dis- 
covery. 

Other spectacular nuggets found in California were: 

• The 50-pound slab from Knapp's Ranch, Tuol- 
umne County. 

• The 28-pound Holden Chispa nugget from Hol- 
den's Gardens in Sonora. 

• A 28-pound nugget from Sullivan Creek, Tuol- 
umne County. 

• The 426- and 532-ounce nuggets from French 
Ravine, Sierra County. 

• The gold-quartz boulder that held more than 
$8000 in gold from Pilot Hill, El Dorado County. 

• A 360-ounce oblong smooth piece of native gold 
from Sullivan Creek, Tuolumne County. 



Production 
County (in million*) 

Plumas $105 

Riverside 7 

Sacramento 135 

San Bernardino 20 

San Diego 5 

San Joaquin 5 

Shasta 60 

Sierra 150 

Siskiyou 100 

Stanislaus 14 

Trinity 75 

Tulare 1 

Tuolumne 1 90 

Ventura 3 

Yuba 145 

Other counties that hive yielded some gold— ill less than S1 million worth— are 
Colusa, Mendocino, Modoc, Monterey, Napa, Orange, San Francicso, San 
Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara. Santa Ouz, Sonoma, 
Tehama, and Volo Counties. 

Nuggets 

• A 150-pound quartz-gold mass from Wood's 
Creek, Tuolumne County, that yielded 75 pounds of 
gold. 

• A 52-pound mass of gold quartz from the Diltz 
mine, Whitlock district, Mariposa County. 

To find a large nugget was not a blessing for all 
men. The Second Report of the State Mineralogist 
(California State Mining Bureau, 1882) tells of a 
French immigrant who took a piece worth more than 
$5,000 from Spring Gulch, in the Columbia district. 
The report relates (p. 149): "The discovery of this 
nugget proved to be a great misfortune, for the finder 
became insane the following day and was sent to 
Stockton. The French Consul recovered the nugget 
or the money obtained for it, and sent it to his family 
in France." 

The first discovery of a spectacular gold specimen 
in California was in the summer of 1848, when a 
young soldier of Stevenson's Regiment found a 25- 
pound nugget on the banks of the Mokelumne River. 
Later that same year. General E. F. Beale took it to 
New York, where it caused much excitement. In 1865 
a beautiful cluster of gold crystals weighing 201 
ounces was found in the Grit mine at Spanish Dry 
Dlggins, El Dorado County. It was sent to New York, 
where it was purchased by a Air. Fricot, who had 
formerly lived in Grass Valley. Later this specimen 
was presented to the California Division of Mines 
and Geology by the Fricot family and is now dis- 
played in the Division's mineral exhibit in the Ferry 
Building in San Francisco. A photograph of this speci- 
men is the frontispiece of this bulletin. 

The most famous nugget of all, that found by 
Marshall at Sutter's Mill in 1848 and which led to 
California's gold rush, weighed less than a quarter of 
an ounce. It is not known if this nugget still exists. 
A flake of gold which Captain Folsom sent to Wash- 
ington in 1848 and described as Marshall's first piece 
is now in the Smithsonian Institution. 



10 California Division of Mines and Geology 

Table 4. Large Nuggets and Gold Masses From California. 

Source Date Wcisht" 

Carson Hill district 1854 1 95 pounds' 

Wood's Creek, Sonora district 1 848? 75 pounds* 

Willard nugget, Magalia district 1859 54 pounds 

Monumental mine. Sierra City district 1 869 1 893 ounces* 

Monumental mine. Sierra City district 1860 1596 ounces' 

Dilti mine, Whitlock district 1932 52 pounds* 

Knapp's Ranch, Columbia district 1 850s 50 pounds 

French Ravine, Sierra County 1855 532 ounces 

French Ravine, Sierra County 1 851 426 ounces 

Pilot Hill, El Dorado County 1867 426 ounces 

Sullivan Creek, Columbia district 1 849 408 ounces 

Gold Hill, Columbia district 1 850s 360 ounces 

Holden Chispa nugget, Sonora district 1 850s? 28 pounds 

Mokelumne River, Amador County 1 848 25 pounds 

Downieville, Sierra County 1850 25 pounds 

Polar Star claim, Dutch Flat district 1876 288 ounces* 

Columbia district, Tuolumne County 1853 283 ounces* 

Minnesota, Alleghany district 1850s? 266 ounces 

Spring Gulch, Columbia district 1 850s 250 ounces 

Michigan BluFf, Placer County 1 864 226 ounces 

Fricot nugget, Spanish Dry Diggings (crystallized gold) 1865 201 ounces 

Remington Hill, Nevada County 1855 186 ounces 

Live Yankee claim, Alleghany district 1 854-62 Twrelve nuggets, 30-1 70 ounces 

Smith's Flat, Sierra County 1 864 1 40 ounces 

Remington Hill, Nevada County 1869? 107 ounces 

Little Griiily Diggings, Sierra County 1869 107 ounces 

Oregon claim, Alleghany district 1856-62 Several nuggets, 30-100 ounces 

Hope claim, Alleghany district unknown 94 ounces 

Campo Seco, Calaveras County 1 854 93 ounces 

French Ravine, Sierra County 1 860 93 ounces 

Smith's Flat, Sierra County 1 861 80 ounces 

Lowell Hill, Nevada County 1865 58 ounces 

Ruby mine, Alleghany district 1930s, 1940s Several nuggets up to 52 ounces 

* M«M of sold «nd quartz but mostly gold. 
* * In tf ov ounces or pounds. 



Bull. 193 



Famous High-Grade Pockets 



A considerable number of rich, small ore pockets 
or pocket shoots have been developed in mines in 
some lode-gold districts. Many of these pocket shoots 
were in districts commonly referred to as "high- 
grade" belts. The richest and most famous in Cali- 
fornia is the Alleghany district in Sierra County. 
Much of the output of this district has been from 
small but rich pockets. Other noted high-grade dis- 
tricts are the Sonora, West Point, Soulsbyville, Kins- 
ley, Whitlock, Spanish Flat, and Kelsey-Garden Val- 
ley districts. A number of other lode-gold districts. 



such as the Grass Valley, Nevada City, Sierra Gty, 
French Gulch, Cargo Muchacho, Boaie and several 
Mother Lode districts, have yielded appreciable 
amounts of high-grade ore. 

High-grade pockets usually occur in the veins and 
consist of a mixture of vein material and free gold. 
In some pockets, sulfide minerals are abundant, but 
in others they are absent or nearly so. In a few dis- 
tricts telluride or silver minerals are associated with 
the gold. Table 5 lists some of the famous high-grade 
pockets or pocket ore shoots discovered in California. 



1970 Gold Districts 

Table 5. High-Grade Pockets. 

Lecation Date 

Orisinal 16-to-1 mine, Alleshany district 1920$ 

Original 16-to-1 mine, Alleghany district 1920s 

Original 16-to-1 mine, Alleghany district 1930s 

Oriental mine, Alleghany district pre-1890 

Alhambra mine, Spanish Flat district 1939 

Four Hills mine, Sierra City district 1860s? 

Tightner mine (now part of the 16-to-1 mine) Alleghany district 1912 

Tightner mine (now part of the 16-to-1 mine) Alleghany district 1904 

Kelti mine. West Point district 1 860s 

Bonanza mine, Sonora district 1 879 

Original 16-to-1 mine, Alleghany district 1920s to 1950s 

Kate Hardy mine, Alleghany district 1948 

Rainbow (now part of the 16-to-1 mine), Alleghany district 1881 

Carson Hill mine, Carson Hill district 1850s 

Oriental mine, Alleghany district 1930s 

North Fork mine, Alleghany district 1870s 

Kenton mine, Alleghany district 1930s 

Angels mine. Angels Camp district 1910 

Green Emigrant mine, Ophir district 1867 

Finnegan mine, Carson Hill district 1 867 

Red Star mine (now part of the 16-to-1 mine) Alleghany district 1870s 

St. Patrick mine, Ophir district 1 872 

Plumbago mine, Alleghany district 1920s 



11 



Value 

Nearly $2 million 

Nearly $1 million 

$750,000 

$734,000 

$550,000 

$250,000 to $500,000 

+ $375,000 

$375,000 

+ $300,000 

$300,000 

Several that yielded about $200,000 

About $200,000 

$116,000 

$110,000 

$100,000 

$100,000 

$100,000 

$100,000 

$100,000 

$80,000 to $100,000 

$80,000 

$75,000 

$60,000 



DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD 



Clalifornia can be divided into 11 well-recognized 
natural divisions or geomorphic provinces. Each of 
these provinces has distinctive physiographic and 
geological features, and in each the distribution of eco- 
nomic mineral disposits, including gold, follows cer- 
tain definite patterns associated with the major geo- 
logical structures and rock types. The provinces are: 
1) Klamath Mountains, 2) Cascade Range, 3) Modoc 
Plateau, 4) Coast Ranges, 5) Great Valley, 6) Sierra 
Nevada, 7) Basin Ranges, 8) Mojave Desert, 9) Trans- 
verse Ranges, 10) Peninsular Ranges, and 11) Colo- 
rado Desert. Figure 2 shows these provinces and the 
distribution of the gold-bearing areas. Tables 6 to 9 
list the principal gold mining districts, lode mines, 
hydraulic mines, and drift mines. The figiure and tables 
appear on p. 12-14. 



Most of California's gold production has come from 
four of the 1 1 geomorphic provinces. These provinces 
are the Sierra Nevada, which has been by far the 
most productive, the Klamath Mountains, Basin 
Ranges, and Mojave Desert. Lesser amounts have been 
mined in the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges of 
Southern California, the Modoc Plateau and the Coast 
Ranges. Gold has been recovered along the eastern 
margin of the Great Valley, where it was derived 
from the Sierra Nevada. Starting on p. 1 5, this book is 
divided into seven chapters dealing with the gold- 
bearing provinces: 1) Sierra Nevada, 2) Klamath 
Mountains, 3) Basin Ranges, 4) Mojave Desert, 5) 
Transverse and Peninsular Ranges, 6) Modoc Plateau, 
and 7) Coast Ranges. Each chapter has a general in- 
troduction, and the district descriptions follow in 
alphabedcal order. 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



MAP OF 

CALIFORNIA 

SHOWING 

GOLD-BEARING AREAS 

AND 

GEOMORPHIC PROVINCES 

SCALE 

40 80 120 Miles 




EXPLANATION 
I KLAMATH MOUNTAINS 
H CASCADE RANGE 
HI MODOC PLATEAU 
E COAST RANGES 
Y GREAT VALLEY 
YT SIERRA NEVADA 
M BASIN RANGES 
Vm MOJAVE DESERT 
K TRANSVERSE RANGES 
X PENINSULAR RANGES 
31 COLORADO DESERT 
^ GOLD-BEARING AREA 



Figur* 2. 



1970 



Gold Districts 



13 



District 



Table 6. Principal Gold Districts. 
County 



Typ« 



Grass Valley Nevada Lode 

Jackson-Plymouth Amador Lode 

Hammonton Yuba Dredge field 

Folsom Sacramento Dredge field 

Columbia Tuolumne Placer 

La Porte Plumas Placer 

Oroville Butte Dredge field 

Nevada City Nevada Lode and placer . . . 

Alleghany Sierra Lode and placer . . . 

French Gulch Shasta-Trinity Lode; some placer. 

Bodie Mono Lode 

Sierra City Sierra Lode 

Angels Camp Calaveras Lode; some placer . 

Jamestown Tuolumne Lode 

Placerville El Dorado Placer and lode. . . , 

Carson Hill Calaveras Lode 

Magalia Butte Placer 

Big Oak Flat Tuolumne Placer; some lode . 

Forest Hill Placer Placer 



Mojave Kern 

Iowa Hill Placer 

Rand Kern 

Soulsbyville Tuolumne. 

Snelling Merced . . 

Poker Flat 



Lode. . 

Placer. 

Lode. . 

Lode. . 

Dredge 

Sierra Placer. 



field. 



Production* 
(in millions) 

$300 + 

180 

130 + 

125 

87 

60 + 

55 

50 + 
50 + 
30 + 
30 + 
30 
30 
30 

27 + 
27 
25 + 
25 + 
25 + 
23 
20 + 
20+ 
20 
17 
15 + 



* Mosl of Iheje figu 



ush approximations. Complete production records of most oF the sold districts do not < 



Table 7. Principal Lode-Gold Mines, 
Mine District 



Production* 
(in millions) 



Empire-Star group Grass Valley 

Idaho-Maryland group. . . . Grass Valley 

Central Eureka Jackson-Plymouth . 

Kennedy Jackson-Plymouth . 

Carson Hill group Carson Hill 

Argonaut Jackson-Plymouth . 

Sixteen-to-One Alleghany 

Keystone Jackson-Plymouth. 

Standard Cons Bodie 

Utica Angels Camp 

Sierra Buttes Sierra City 

Brown Bear French Gulch 

Plymouth Cons Plymouth 

Yellow Aster Rand 

Lava Cap Nevada City 

Golden Queen Mojave 

Plumas-Eureka Johnsville 

Eagle-Shawmut Jacksonville 

Gwin Paloma 

Sheep Ranch Sheep Ranch 

Gladstone French Gulch 

Georgia Slide Georgetown 

App-Heslip Jamestown 

Bagdad-Chase Stedman 

Rawhide Jamestown 



$130 



70 

36 

34.2 

26 

25.1 

25 + 

24 

18.4 

17 

17 + 

15 + 

13.5 

12 + 

12 

10 + 
8 + 
7.4 
7 
7 

6.9 
6.5 
6.5 
6+ 
6 



Continued on p. 14 



Table 8. Major Hydraulic Mines. 

Mine Location 

Alpha Washington district, Nevada County 

Badger Hill Badger Hill district, Nevada County 

Blue Tent Blue Tent district, Nevada County 

Brandy City Brandy City district. Sierra County 

Buckeye Hill Scotts Flat district, Nevada County 

Cherokee Cherokee district, Butte County 

Cherokee Badger Hill district, Nevada County 

Chips Flat Alleghany district. Sierra County 

Craigs Flat Eureka district. Sierra County 

Deadwood Last Chance district. Placer County 

Depot Hill Indian Hill district. Sierra County 

Dutch Flat Dutch Flat district. Placer County 

Elephant Volcano district, Amador County 

French Corral French Corral district, Nevada County 

Gibsonville Gibsonville district. Sierra County 

Howland Flat Poker Flat district. Sierra County 

Indian Diggings Indian Diggings district. El Dorado County 

Indian Hill Indian Hill district. Sierra County 

Iowa Hill Iowa Hill district. Placer County 

La Grange Weaverville district. Trinity County 

La Porte La Porte district, Plumas County 

Last Chance Last Chance district. Placer County 

Liberty Hill Lowell Hill district, Nevada County 

Lost Camp Emigrant Gap district. Placer County 

Confinued on p. 14 



14 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Table 7. Lode-Gold Mines — Continued 



District 

Soulsby Soulsbyville 

South Eureka Jackson-Plymouth. 

Bunker Hill Jackson-Plymouth . 

Cactus Queen Mojave 

Fremont-Gover Jackson-Plymouth . 

Jumper Jamestown 

Princeton Mt. Bullion 

Providence Nevada City 

Royal Hodson 

Wildman-Mahoney Jackson-Plymoulh . 

Zeila Jackson-Plymouth . 

Confidence Confidence 

Brush Creek Alleshany 

Midas Harrison Gulch . . . 

Pine Tree-Josephine Bagby 

Mt. Gaines Homitos 

Black Oak Soulsbyville 

Plumbago Alleghany 

Original Amador Jackson-Plymouth. 

Clearinghouse Clearinghouse. . . . 

Angels Angels Camp 

Black Bear Liberty 

Champion Nevada City 

Siskon Dillon Creek 

Hite Hite Cove 



Production* 
(in milGont) 

5.5 

5.3 

5.1 

5 + 

5 + 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4.2 

4-1- 

4-1- 

4-1- 

3.6 

3.5 

3.5 

3.5 

3.3 

3.2 

3.1 

3 + 

3-1- 

3 



Table 8. Hydraulic Mines — Continued 

Min« Location 

Lowell Hill Lowell Hill district, Nevada 

Malakoff North Bloomfield district, Nevada 

Mayflower Forest Hill district. Placer 

Michigan Bluff Michigan Bluff district. Placer 

Minnesota Alleghany district. Sierra 

Moore's Flat Moore's Flat district, Nevada 

Morrisfown Eureka district. Sierra 

North Columbia North Columbia district, Nevada 

Omega Washington district, Nevada 

Paragon Forest Hill district. Placer 

Port Wine Port Wine district. Sierra 

Poverty Hill Poverty Hill district. Sierra 

Quaker Hill Scott's Flat district, Nevada 

Red Dog You Bet district, Nevada 

Relief North Bloomfield district, Nevada 

Remington Hill Lowell Hill district, Nevada 

Sawpit Flat Sawpit Flat district, Plumas 

Scales Poverty Hill district. Sierra 

Scott's Flat Scott's Flat district, Nevada 

Smartsville Smartsville district, Yuba 

Stewart Gold Run district. Placer 

Texas Hill Placerville district. El Dorado 

Todd Valley Forest Hill district. Placer 

Whiskey Diggings Gibsonvllle district. Sierra 

Yankee Jim's Forest Hill district. Placer 

You Bet You Bet district, Nevada 



County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 



Min* 



Table 9. Major Drift Mines. 
Location Mine 



Location 



Bald Mountain Alleghany district, Sierra County 

Bald Mountain Extension Alleghany district, Sierra County 

Big Dipper Iowa Hill district. Placer County 

Blue Lead Bangor district, Butte County 

Calaveras Central Angels Camp district, Calaveras County 

Emma Magalia district, Butte County 

Feather Fork Gibsonvllle district, Plumas County 

Glenn Duncan Peak district. Placer County 

Hepsidam La Porte district, Plumas County 

Hidden Treasure Damascus district. Placer County 

Hook-and-Ladder Placerville district. El Dorado County 

Indian Springs Magalia district, Butte County 

Live Yankee Alleghany district. Sierra County 



Lyons Placerville district, El Dorado 

Magalia Magalia district, Butte 

Morning Star Iowa Hill district, Placer 

Morris Ravine Morris Ravine district, Butte 

Mountain Gate Damascus district. Placer 

Occidental Iowa Hill district. Placer 

Pacific Slab Last Chance district, Placer 

Pershbaker Magalia district, Butte 

Royal Magalia district, Butte 

Ruby Alleghany district, Sierra 

Startown Last Chance district. Placer 

Tiedemann Kentucky Flat district. El Dorado 

Valleclto Western Vallecito district, Calaveras 



County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 
County 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



15 



SIERRA NEVADA PROVINCE 



Geology 



The Sierra Nevada, the dominant mountain range in 
California, is approximately 400 miles long, with steep 
multiple scarps on its eastern flank and a gentle 
western slope. It has been the source of the bulk of 
the state's gold production and contains the richest 
and the greatest number of districts. 

The main mass of the Sierra Nevada is a huge batho- 
lith of granodiorite and related rocks that is intrusive 
into metamorphosed rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic 
age. The metamorphic rocks occur largely along the 
western foothills and in the northern end of the range. 
They are complexly folded and faulted and consist of 
a number of major rock units. The principal units are 
the slates, phyllites, schists, quartzites, hornfels, and 
limestones of the Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous 
to Permian); the Amador Group (Middle and Upper 
Jurassic) of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks; 
the Mariposa Formation (Upper Jurassic), much of 
which is slate; schists, phyllites, and quartzites of the 
Kernville Series (Jurassic or older) in the southern 
Sierra Nevada; and a vast amount of undifferentiated 
pre-Cretaceous greenstones and amphibolites. 

In addition, there are numerous intrusions of basic 
and ultra-basic rocks, many of which are serpentinized. 
The serpentine bodies apparently have been struc- 
turally important in the localization of some gold- 
bearing deposits and often are parallel to or occur 
within the belts of gold mineralization. Also, there are 
numerous dioritic and aplitic dikes that are closely 
associated with gold-bearing veins. 

Lode Deposits 

Much of the gold mineralization is in the belt of 
metamorphic rocks that extends along the western 
foothills and in the northern end of the range, although 
some important districts are in granitic rocks. Some 
are associated with small intrusions or stocks related 
to the Sierra Nevada batholith. The richest as well 
as the largest number of lode-gold deposits are in the 
northern and central portions of the range. In the 
Butte-Plumas County area at the northern end of the 
Sierra Nevada, the gold belt is nearly 70 miles wide. 
Continuing south it narrows and dies out almost com- 
pletely in the Fresno-Tulare County area but appears 
again in Kern County in the southern end of the 
range. There are a few widely separated districts along 
the steep eastern flank of the range. 

The most productive lode-gold districts in the 
northern end of the Sierra Nevada have been the 
Alleghany, Crescent Mills, Downieville, Forbestown, 
Graniteville, Grass Valley, Johnsville, Nevada City, 
and Sierra City districts. In the central portion the 
most productive and best-known districts are in the 
Mother Lode gold belt. Although the entire foothill 
region of the Sierra Nevada is sometimes loosely 
termed the "Mother Lode Country," technically the 
Mother Lode is a 120-mile-long system of linked or 
en echelon gold-quartz veins and mineralized schist 



and greenstone that extends from the town of Mari- 
posa, north and northwest to northern El Dorado 
County (see fig. 4). 

The most production portion of the Mother Lode 
has been the 10-mile segment between Plymouth and 
Jackson in Amador County. Other major sources of 
gold in the Mother Lode have been the Angels Camp, 
Bagby, Carson Hill, Coulterville, Georgetown, Green- 
wood, Jacksonville, Jamestown, Kelsey, Mount Bul- 
lion, Nashville, and Placerville districts. 

Although the terms "East Gold Belt" and "West 
Gold Belt" have been arbitrarily coined to describe 
the gold deposits east and west of the Mother Lode, 
each contains extensive systems of gold-bearing veins 
(see fig. 4). Unfortunately few systematic studies have 
been made of these belts. The principal sources of gold 
in the East Gold Belt have been the Grizzly Flat, West 
Point, Sheep Ranch, Soulsbyville, Confidence, Clear- 
inghouse, Hire Cove and Kinsley districts. The most 
important in the West Gold Belt have been the Ophir, 
Shingle Springs, Hunter Valley, Hodson, and Hornitos 
districts. To the southeast in Madera and Fresno Coun- 
ties there are some gold districts, but they have been 
much less productive than those to the north. 

In the southern Sierra Nevada, in Kern County, 
considerable quantities of lode gold have been mined 
in the Cove district and from scattered areas to the 
west and south that include the Keyesville, Clear Creek 
and Loraine districts. Gold has been mined from a few 
districts along the east flank of the Sierra Nevada, the 
most productive having been the Bishop Creek district, 
Inyo County, and the Homer, Mammoth and Jordan 
districts in Mono County. Appreciable quantities of 
by-product gold have been recovered from the Sierra 
Nevada copper belts in the western foothills (see sep- 
arate section below) and the Plumas County copper 
districts. Some has been recovered from tungsten 
mines on the east flank of the Sierra Nevada. 

Placer Deposits 

The alluvial or placer deposits of the western Sierra 
Nevada have contributed more than 40 percent of 
California's total gold output. They are divisible into 
the Tertiary (older) deposits, which consist predom- 
inantly of quartzitic gravels, and the Quaternary 
(younger), which are in and adjacent to the present 
stream channels. The Tertiary channel deposits have 
been mined by hydraulic and drift mining, while the 
greatest yield from the Quaternary deposits has been 
from dredging. The flush production of the gold rush 
was from Recent surface placers that were mined by 
small-scale methods. These surface placers have largely 
been exhausted. 

The most productive Tertiary channel deposits have 
been in the Magalia, Cherokee, and Bangor- Wyandotte 
districts of Butte County; the La Porte and Sawpit 
Flat districts of Plumas County; the Smartsville district 
of Yuba County; the Gibsonville, Downieville, Pov- 



16 



GuLiFORNiA Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull 193 




EXPLANATION 
Gronltic rocks 

Serpentine 

Greenstone, omptiibolite, 
chlorite schist 

Slate, phyllite, quartzite, 
tnico schist, some hornfels 
and limestone 

Tertiary rocks ore not sho» 

>s Gold belt or vein system 



. ■ .' ■ . rVX^J --)>~?^''-^i^K'?^°v°\TV^^^ GEORGETOWN 



I .SlpPHIR'J)^ 
I f'tPIMTN , '. ■ / 

Flgura 3. Map of Major Rock Unlh and Lode Gold B«lts, Northern Sierra Nevada. 



.1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



17 



fc'j'is-'.-iH Slat' 
V^M rote 




EXPLANATION 



Gronitic rocks 



e, some phyllite ond conglome- 
(Moriposo rormotion) 



MOTHER LODE 
GOLD BELT 



Slote, mica schist, quortzile, some 
hornfels ond limestone (Coloveros 
Formotion in port) 

Gold belt or vein system 
Tertiory rocks ore not shown 



BELT 



WEST GOLD^^. ^w>Voo\„K=Av " '^> r 




,i-^ 













Figure 4. Map of Major Rock Units and Lode-Gold Belts, Central Sierra Nevada. The Mother Lode and the related East and West gold 

belts ore shown. 



California Division ok Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




SACRAMENTO 



^1 , ^^ • - 

MICHIGAN --^.^^oPIymoulh r" J ^^ ( 

'*" I AMADOR --' / -"' ^^./'^ J 

I " jiasono^ ^/CALAVERAS V 




\ 



-''' 0'-°''' 

SAN JOAQUIN 1^^ ^"'"^ y) TUOLUMNE 

„Slockton ^^ ; 0, 



X STANISLAUS 




LAGRAN6E^^ MARIPOSA 

^ \ 

SNELLING 

\ 



Figure 5. Mop of Tertiory Chonnelt and Dradge Fi«ld», Sierra Nevada. M\»t Lindgnn, 1911, and Jtnkin, 1935. 




Photo 4. Locomotive, Bold Mountain Drift Mine, Alleghany District. 
This early steam locomotive, at the mine in Forest, Sierra County, was 



one of the few used in California gold mines. The photo dates back 
to possibly the 1870s. Photo courtesy of CoW. Stale Library. 



erty Hill, Poker Flat, Brandy City, and Alleghany dis- 
tricts in Sierra County; the North Bloomfield, North 
Columbia, North San Juan, French Corral, Scotts Flat, 
You Bet and Washington districts, Nevada County; 
Dutch Flat, Gold Run, Forest Hill, Iowa Hill, Damas- 
cus, Last Chance and Michigan Bluff districts. Placer 
County; Placerville district. El Dorado County; Fid- 
dletown and Volcano districts, Amador County; 
Mokelumne Hill and Vallecito districts, Calaveras 
County, and the Columbia district of Tuolumne 
County. 

All of the major streams and their tributaries that 
flow across the gold-bearing areas have been placer- 
mined, many of them several times. The rivers that 
have yielded the most gold have been the Feather, 
Yuba, and American Rivers, but large quantities have 
been recovered from the Bear, Cosumnes, Mokelumne, 
Stanislaus, Tuolumne, Merced, and Kem Rivers and 
some from the Chowchilla, Fresno, Kings, White, and 
San Joaquin Rivers. The two greatest dredging fields 
are the Hammonton district on the lower Yuba River, 
Yuba County, and the Folsom district adjacent to and 
south of the Lower American River in Sacramento 
County. Other major dredging fields were on Butte 
and Honcut Creeks and the lower Feather River at 
Oroville in Butte County; Lincoln, Placer County; 
Michigan Bar, Sacramento County; Camanche in Cala- 
veras and San Joaquin Counties, La Grange in Stanis- 
laus County and Snelling in Merced County. 



Alleghany 

Location. Alleghany is in southwestern Sierra 
County. This district is in a belt of gold mineralization 
that extends from Goodyear's Bar, south and south- 
east through Forest, Alleghany, Chip's Flat, and Min- 
nesota. This gold-bearing belt continues south to the 
Washington district in Nevada County. The Downie- 
ville and American Hill districts are to the east, and 
the Pike district is to the west. 

History. The streams in the area were placer-mined 
soon after the beginning of the gold rush, and the 
Forest diggings were discovered in the summer of 1852 
by some sailors. Some of these sailors were "Kanakas" 
or Hawaiians who also had deserted their ships in San 
Francisco. Forest, first known as Brownsville and then 
Elizaville, got its present name in 1853. The Bald 
Mountain and other drift mines were highly produc- 
tive from then until around 1885. Hydraulic mining 
was done at Minnesota and Chip's Flat during these 
years. The town of Alleghany was named for Alle- 
ghany, Pennsylvania. 

Quartz mining was reported to have begun in the 
district in 1853 at the German Bar and Irelan mines. 
Although the quartz mines were moderately produc- 
tive until the 1870s, drift mining was the principal 
source of gold then. The rediscovery of the Tightner 
vein in 1904 by H. F. Johnson (erroneously given as 
1907 in many reports) led to the revival of lode min- 
ing, which continued until 1965. 



20 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 







WSMJ ^M.-^ 'i 



Photo 5. Brush Creek Mine, Allegany District. This 1954 view to the south shows the mine yard and the portal of the moin adit at the mine in 

Sierra County. 




Photo 6. Kate Hardy Mine, Allegany District. This 1954 view of the Sierra County mine looks 
west. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



21 



Alleghany was the only town in California after 
World War II where gold mining was the principal 
segment of the economy. After 1960, production from 
the district, which had been averaging more than 
1500,000 per year, decreased greatly as more and more 
mining operations were curtailed. By 1963, the output 
was less than 1 100,000 per year. The Sixteen-to-One 
mine, the largest gold source in the district, curtailed 
normal operations late in 1962, and the Brush Creek 
mine, the second largest operation, was shut down in 
1964. At the end of 1965 the Si,xteen-to-One mine was 
completely shut down, ending an operation that had 
lasted more than 60 years. Intermittent operations have 
continued at several mines, such as the Kate Hardy, 
Oriental, El Dorado-Plumbago, and Mugwump mines. 
Several of the mines received Federal exploration 
loans. Skin divers are active in the streams of the area. 

Alleghany was the most famous high-grade gold 
mining district in California. The value of the total 



output is unknown, estimated at $50 million. Much 
of this production was from small but spectacularly 
rich ore bodies. 

Geology. The district is underlain by north and 
northwest-trending beds of metamorphic rocks of the 
Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to Permian), ser- 
pentine, and greenstone. In the vicinity of Alleghany 
and Forest this formation has been divided into six 
units: Blue Canyon Slate, Tightner Formation (chiefly 
amphibolite and chlorite schist), Kanka Formation 
(conglomerate, chert, and slate). Relief Quartzite, 
Cape Horn Slate, and the Delhi Formation (phyllite 
and slate). These rocks have been invaded by many 
basic and ultra-basic intrusions; the ultra-basic rocks 
have been largely serpentinized. Mariposite-bearing 
rock, locally known as "bluejay," is commonly adja- 
cent to the serpentine. Also present are fine to me- 
dium-grained dioritic dikes. The higher ridges are 
capped by andesite and basalt, which in places overlies 
auriferous Tertiary channel gravels. 




Photo 7. Oriental Mine, Alleghany District. This 1954 view of the Sierra County mine looks north. The mine was active in 1969. 



22 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



EXPLANATION 



BRUSH 
CREEK 







° ••**'.'• •' 


*•'* 











Andesite 
Grovel 

Serpentine 

Amphibolite, schist, green- 
stone, slate, quortzite 




Figure 4. Geologic Map of Alleghony Dirtrlct, Si.rro County. Th, location, of min.. ar. .hown. Aft,r F.rgu»n and Gonn.tt, 1932, ond Cor/.on 

and Clark, 1956. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



23 




Photo 8. S!xteen-to-One and Gold Crown Mines, Alle- 
ghany District. This 1954 view of the two mines looks east. 



The original Sixteen-to-On 
Crown in the foreground. 



Ore deposits. The gold-quartz veins strike in a 
northerly direction, dip either east or west, and usually 
range from two to five feet in thickness. They occupy 
minor reverse faults, and occur in all of the rocks of 
the Calaveras Formation, and in the greenstone. The 
largest number of mines are in amphibolites of the 
Tightner Formation. The most characteristic features 
of the ore deposits are the extreme richness, erratic 
distribution and small size of the ore shoots. They 
range from small masses of gold and quartz yielding 
a few hundred dollars to ore bodies that have yielded 
hundreds of thousands of dollars. One ore body at the 
Sixteen-to-One mine, which had a pitch length of 40 
feet, contained nearly $1 million, while another at the 
Oriental mine about 14 feet long yielded 1734,000. 

The gold occurs in the native state commonly with 
arsenopyrite but only small amounts of other sulfides. 
In a few places pyrite is abundant. The numerous ser- 
pentine bodies and associated mariposite rock are struc- 
turally important in the localization of the ore bodies. 
The quartz veins tend to fray or bend near serpentine, 
and it is in these frayed or bend portions of the veins 
that the high-grade ore bodies are often found. High- 
grade ore also is found in vein junctions or in sheared 
portions of the veins. 



Channel gravels. A major tributary of the Ter- 
tiary Yuba River extended south from Rock Creek 
through Forest and Alleghany and then southeast 
through Chip's Flat and Minnesota to Moore's Flat in 
Nevada County. This is commonly known as the 
"Great Blue Lead" or Forest channel. It was uniformly 
rich except where cut by later channels. The largest 
gold producers were the Ruby, Live Yankee, and 
Bald Mountain drift mines, where many coarse 
nuggets were recovered. During the late 1930s a 
number of fist-sized gold nuggets were recovered from 
the Ruby mine. These were displayed for many years 
in the Sierra County exhibit at the California State 
Fair in Sacramento. 

Mines. Lode: Brush Creek $4 million-f. Dread- 
naught $50,000 to $100,000, Docile $100,000 to $200,- 
000, Eclipse $20,000 to $50,000, El Dorado $325,000, 
German Bar $200,000, Gold Canyon $750,000 to 
$1 million. Gold Crown, Golden King $250,000, Irelan 
$350,000 to $500,000, Kate Hardy $700,000, Kenton 
$1 million to $1.25 million, Mariposa $50,000, Morning 
Glory $80,000 to $100,000, Mugwump (both lode and 
placer) $50,000, North Fork (both lode and placer) 



24 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Alto 



Photo 9. Large Nuggetj, Ruby Drift Mine, Alleghany District. The 
pair o( nuggets wos found in the Sierra County mine in 1938. Photo 
courtesy of L. L. Huelidonk, Downieville. 



$125,000, Oriflamme, Ophir *, Oriental $2.85 million, 
Osceola *, Plumbago $3.5 million, Rainbow * $2.5 
million. Rainbow Extension*, Red Ledge, Red Star- 
Osceola* $200,000, Rising Sun $58,000, Shannon, Six- 
teen-to-One $25 million+. South Fork (both lode and 
placer), Spoohn, Tightner *, Twenty One*, Wyo- 
ming, Yellowjacket. Drift: Bald Mountain $3.1 million, 
Bald Mountain Extension $500,000 to $1 million, 
Gold Star $250,000+, Highland & Masonic $300,000+, 
Live Yankee $750,000 to $1 million. Ruby $1 million+. 

Bibliography 

Averilt, C. V., 1942, Mines and mineral resources of Sierra County; 
California Div. Mines Rept. 38, pp. 17-48. 

Carlson, D. W., ond Clork, W. B., 1956, Lode gold mines of the Al- 
leghony-Downieville area. Sierra County: California Journal of Mines 
and Geology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 237-272. 

Clark, W. B., and Fuller, W. P., Jr., 1968. The Originol Sixfeento- 
One Mine: California Div. Mines and Geology Mineral Information 
Service, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 71-75 and 78. 

Cooke, H. R., Jr., 1947, The Original Sixteen-to-One gold quartz 
vein, Alleghany, California: Econ. Geology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 211-250. 

Ferguson, M. G., 1915, Lode deposits of the Alleghony district, Cali- 
fornio: U.S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 580, pp. 153-182. 

Ferguson, H. G., ond Gannett, R. W., 1932, Gold-quartz veins of the 
Alleghany district, California: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 172, 
139 pp. 

Lindgren, W., 1900, U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., 
Colfax folio 66. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, The Tertiory gravels of the Sierro Ne- 
vada of California: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 142. 

Logon, C. A., 1923, Quartz mining in the Alleghany district: Cali- 
fornia Mining Bureau, Report 18, pp. 499-519. 

Logon, C. A., 1929, Alleghany District: Colifornio Mining Bureau 
Report 25, pp. 156-159. 

MocBoyle, E., 1920, Sierra County, Alleghany mining district: Cali- 
fornia Mining Bureau, Report 16, pp. 1-5. 

Simkins, W. A., 1923, The Alleghony district of California: Pacific 
Mining News of Eng. and Min. Journal, vol. 2, pp. 288-291. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Dov^nieville folio, U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Alios of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 

• Now part of the Sixtecn-to-One mine. 



This district is in the southwest corner of Calaveras 
County about six miles south of Copperopolis. It was 
named by the author for the Alto mine, a major source 
of gold in the area. The region was first placer-mined 
during the gold rush, when the gravels underlying 
nearby Tuolumne Table Mountain were worked by 
drifting. The Alto mine was discovered in 1886 and 
operated on a large scale until 1907. It has an estimated 
total output of $1 million. The district is underlain by 
slate of the Mariposa Formation (Upper Jurassic) with 
some interbeds of massive greenstone. The gold occurs 
in thin quartz veins or with disseminated p>rite in the 
greenstone. Placer gold was recovered from Eocene 
quartzitic gravels overlying the slate. Some of the 
gravels are capped by latite porphyry of Tuolumne 
Table Mountain. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Coloveros County, Alto mine: 
California Div. of Mines and Geology County Report 2, pp. 37 and 40. 

Lowell. F. L., 1919, Alto gold mine: Colifornio Min. Bur. Rept. 16, p. 
629 (erroneously shown as being in Stanislaus County). 

Toliaferro, N. L., and Soiori, A. J., 1948, Geologic mop of the Cop- 
peropolis quadrangle: California Div. Mines colored quadrangle map 
(PL I of Bull. 145). 

American Camp 

Location. This district is in northwestern Tuol- 
umne County in the general vicinity of American 
Camp Station, which is about eight miles northeast of 
Columbia. It includes the Italian Bar, French Camp, 
Star Ridge, Grant Ridge, and Cedar Ridge areas. 
The famous Columbia placer-mining district adjoins 
it on the southwest. 

History. The streams in the district were first 
mined during the gold rush. The town of Italian Bar 
was the principal settlement at that time. It later was 
destroyed by fire. Lode mining began about 1860, 
and continued almost steadily until around 1900. There 
was some mining in the district again in the 1920s and 
1930s, and there has been minor prospecting since. The 
Grant mine was prospected for uranium in 1953-54. 

Geology. The district is underlain predominantly 
by argillite, quartzite, siliceous schist, and limestone of 
the Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to Permian). 
There are also a few small granodiorite stocks. Fine- 
grained diorite and aplite dikes are common and are 
often associated with the gold-quartz veins. 

Ore deposits. Numerous gold-quartz veins and 
stringers contain small to medium-sized ore shoots. 
The veins strike either west or north-north-east. In 
places the ore is rich. The ore contains free gold asso- 
ciated with varying amounts of sulfides, especially 
galena and chalcopyrite. There are several patches of 
Eocene channel gravels that have been mined by 
hydraulicking. At the Grant mine black uraninite 
associated with gold occurs in quartz. 

Mines. Argentum Consolidated, Black Bear, Con- 
tention, Gold Ridge, Grant, Gray Eagle, Ham and Bir- 
nev $100,000, Hazel Bell, Indian Girl, Keltz $300,000, 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 




Photo 10. Angels Mine, Angels Camp District. This eastward view of the Colaveros County mine was token in obout 1914. Photo courses/ of 

Hillcresi Studio^ Angeli Camp. 



Lucky Strike, Mountain Lily, Noonday, Rifle, Sonnet, 
Star, Tiffany, Volunteer. 

Bibliography 

Goldstone, L. P., 1890, Tuolumne County, Keltz mine: California Min. 
Bur. Kept. 10, pp. 755-757. 

Logon, C. A., 1928, Tuolumne County, gold quartz mines: California 
DIv. Mines, Repf. 24, pp. 8-21. 

Turner, H. W., and Ransome, F. L., 1898, Big Trees folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 51, 8 pp. 

American Hill 

Location. The American Hill district is in south- 
western Sierra County about five miles east of the 
town of Alleghany. It is both a lode and placer district, 
but the placer deposits have been more important. It 
includes the Cornish House area. 

Geology. The district is chiefly underlain by slate. 
Serpentine and amphibolite are to the west, and grano- 
diorite is just to the east. Extensive gravel deposits are 
part of a tributary to the Forest channel of the Ter- 
tiary Yuba River, which extends in a southwest direc- 
tion through the district. The northern part of the 
district is covered by andesite. Dioritic dikes often are 
associated with the gold-quartz veins. 

Ore deposits. The gravels are quartzitic and con- 
tain coarse gold. One of the gravel deposits is as much 
as 300 feet thick and covered with clay and sand. The 
quartz veins are lenticular and occur either in the 
slate or near the slate-granodiorite contact. The ore 
bodies contain free gold with pyrite, arsenopyrite, and 
galena. Sometimes carbon is found in cavities in the 
quartz. Some high-grade pockets have been found, but 
most of ore averages less than Yz ounce per ton. 

Mines. Placer: American Hill, Bear Creek, Excel- 
sior, Mable Mertz, Yellow Jacket. Lode: Comet, Iron- 
sides, Jim Crow, Lonesome Pine, Pilgrim, Von Hum- 
boldt. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemar, 1900, Colfax folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
I Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 



Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 142-143. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1920, Sierro County, American Hill district: Calif. 
Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 5-6. 

Angels Camp 

Location. This district is in southwest Calaveras 
Count>' in the vicinity of the town of Angels Camp 
and Altaville. It is an important part of the Mother 
Lode belt and lies between the San Andreas district to 
the northwest and the Carson Hill district to the south- 
east. It is both a lode and placer district, but the lode 
mines have been more productive. 

History. The streams in the area were mined 
shortly after the beginning of the gold rush. The town 
was founded in 1848 and named for Henry Angel, 
who had established a trading post here. Rich surface 
ores were mined in the oxidized zones in the 1850s, 
and most of the important veins were discovered at 
that time. By 1885 Angels Camp had become one of 
the major gold-mining districts in the state. The Utica 
Mining Company was organized in the middle 1850s, 
and for the next 40 years the Utica mine was a major 
source of gold. From 1893 to 1895 this mine yielded 
more than $4 million worth of gold. All of the major 
mines were shut down during World War I. There 
was some activity in the district again during the 1930s, 
and the Calaveras Central and Altaville drift mines 
have been intermittently prospected during the past 
15 years. This district has an estimated total output of 
at least $30 million, and it may be considerably more. 

The colorful jumping frog jubilee held each year at 
nearby Frogtown, the count)' fairgrounds, is based on 
Mark Twain's tale. The Jumping Frog of Calaveras 
County. He is supposed to have first related the story 
at the Angels Hotel. 

Geology. This district is underlain by a series of 
northwest-striking beds of amphibolite and chlorite 
schist, phyllite, greenstone, and metagabbro (see fig. 
7). To the east and west are slate, impure quartzite, 



26 



Caufornia Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



EXPLANATION 



Amphibolite and chlorite schist, 
some greenstone 



Slote, schist, impure quortzite 



^ Lode-gold mine 




Figure 7. Geologic Map of Angelt Camp District, Coloveroi County. The map shows the central portion of the district and the locations of lode- 
gold mines. After Clark and lydon, 1962, figure 2. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



27 




Photo 11. Gold Cliff Mine, Angels Camp District. This view, in the 
1870s or 1880s, shows the open cut at the Calaveras County mine. The 



wallrock is massive greenstone and amphibolite. Photo courtesy of 7u 
otumne County Museum. 



and micaceous schist. In the north and northeast part 
of the district is the west and northwest-trending Ter- 
tiary Central channel, which is a tributary of the ances- 
tral Calaveras River. The channel gravels are cemented, 
contain abundant quartz, and are overlain by rhyolite 
tuff and andesite. 

Ore deposits. The lode deposits consist of massive 
quartz veins, zones of parallel quartz stringers and 
bodies of mineralized schist and greenstone. The ore 
contains disseminated free gold and auriferous pyrite. 
Usually the gold is in fine particles, although occa- 
sional high-grade pockets containing coarse gold have 
been found. Calcite, talc, ankerite, and sericite, are 



commonly present in the ore. The milling-grade ore 
usually averaged 1/7 to 1/5 ounce of gold per ton, 
but the ore bodies were scores of feet in thickness, 
hundreds of feet in length, and were mined to depths 
of several thousand feet. 

The deposits occur either in the amphibolite and 
chlorite schist or phyllite. There are three principal 
vein systems (see fig. 7). In the system on the west 
the veins are in phyllite. In the center one the veins 
are along the west margin of a northwest-trending 
belt of metagabbro. In the eastern system, which con- 
tains the famous Utica mine, the ore deposits are in 
amphibolite and greenstone. 



28 



California Division of Mines and Gfology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 12. Utico Mine, Angels Comp District. This northeost view, 
in about 1900, shows the surface plant ot the Calaveras County mine. 
The north shaft is at left and the south shaft, at right. The Utica was 



the most productive n 
Studio, Angels Camp. 



ot Angels Camp. Photo courtesy of Hillcresf 



Mines. Lode: Altaville, Angels $3.25 million-j-. 
Angels Deep $100,000+, Belmont-Osborn $100,000-1-, 
Benson, Big Spring, Bruner, Bullion, Chaparral Hill, 
Cherokee, Evening Star, Ghost, Gold Cliff $2,834,- 
000+, Gold Hill $100,000+, Great Western, Hardy, 
Keystone, Last Chance, Lightner $3 million+, Lind- 
sey, Madison $1 million+. Marble Springs, Mohawk, 
Mother Lode Central $100,000+, Oriole, Parnell, Pure 
Quill, Santa Ana, Sultana $200,000+, Tollgate, Triple 
Lode, Tulloch, Utica $17 million, Vonich, Whittle, 
Wagon Rut, Waterman, Yellowstone. Drift: Altaville, 
Calaveras Central 22,000 ounces+. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1946, Calaveras Central mine: California Div. Mines 
Bull. 135, pp. 235-247. 

Clark, W. B., and lydon, P. A., 1962, Colaveros County, gold: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines and Geology, County Rept. 2, pp. 32-93. 

Crawford, J. J., 1894, Utica-Stickles mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
12, pp. 98-99. 

Eric, J. H.; Stromquist, A. A., and Swinney, C. M., 19S5, Geology 
of the Angels Camp and Sonoro quadrangles: California Div. Mines 
Spec. Rept. 41, 55 pp. 

Foirbonks, H. W., 1890, Geology of the Mother Lode region: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur., Rept. 10, pp. 59-62. 

Julihn, C. E., and Horton, F. W., 1938, Mines of the southern Mother 
Lode region: U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 413, pp. 21-94. 

Knopf, Adolph, 1929, Gold Cliff mine: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. 
Paper 157, pp. 71-72. 

Logon, C. A., 1935, Mother Lode gold belt— Colaveros County: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines Bull. 108, pp. 125-152. 

Ronsome, F. I., 1900, Mother Lode district folio, Californio: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 



Storms, W. H., 1900, The Mother Lode region— Colaveros County: 
Calif. Min. Bur. Bull. 18, pp. 100-127. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Coloveros County, Angels, Gold Cliff, Lightner, 
and Utico mines. California Min. Bur., Rept. 14, pp. 68-69, 81-82, 
89-90, 110-112. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio, Californio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Badger Hill 

Location. This placer-mining district is in north- 
central Nevada County. The North Columbia district 
adjoins it on the east and the North San Juan district 
on the west. It was hydraulicked extensively from the 
1850s through the 1880s. Later, Chinese miners re- 
worked the tailings. It includes the Cherokee diggings. 
This district was recently studied by the U.S. Bureau 
of Mines and U.S. Geological Survey as part of their 
heavy metals programs. 

Geology. The deposits are part of the Tertiary 
North Bloomfield-North Columbia-North San Juan 
channel. The gravels are thick, the lower part being 
quartzitic and the upper part containing abundant 
sand and clay. The lower gravels were rich. The up- 
per gravels yielded 10 to 15 cents per yard. Bedrock is 
slate and phyllitc, with granodiorite lying to the west. 
The value of the total output for the district is un- 
known, but it has been estimated at several million dol- 
lars. In 1891 the U.S. Army Engineers estimated that 
10 million yards had been e.vcavated and 33 million 
remained. 



1970 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevado: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 121-130. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, ond Turner, H. W., 1895, Smarhville folio, 
California: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

Bag by 

Location. This district is in western Mariposa 
County in the vicinity of the towns of Bagby and 
Bear Valley. It is in the Mother Lode gold belt. 

History. The streams were placer-mined early in 
the gold rush, and the Pine Tree and Josephine veins 
were discovered in 1849. Part of the area was on the 
Las Mariposa Spanish land grant of General John C. 
Fremont. Bagby was first known as Benton Mills, 
named by Fremont for Senator Thomas Hart Benton, 
his father-in-law. It was renamed in the 1890s for 
A. Bagby, a hotel owner. The town was a stop on the 
Yosemite Valley Railroad, which once extended up the 
Merced River canyon to Yosemite National Park. 

Gold mining activitv' continued until around 1875. 
There was mining in the district again in the early 
1900s. The Pine Tree-Josephine mine was worked on 
a major scale from 1933 to 1944, and the Red Bank 
mine has been active in recent years. Part of the area, 
including the old town of Bagby, was inundated by 
the Exchequer Reservoir in 1967. 

Geology. In this district the Another Lode gold 
belt is .about 1 Yi miles wide. It is underlain by 
northwest-striking beds of slate, phyllite, and meta- 
sandstone of the Mariposa Formation (Upper Juras- 
sic), with greenstone and green schist both to the west 
and southeast (see fig. 18, page 95). A belt of serpen- 
tine extends northwest through the central portion of 
the district and is structurally important in relation to 
some of the gold-bearing veins. 

Ore deposits. There are several northwest-trending 
vein systems that consist of quartz veins and stringers 
with brecciated slate, schist, and associated bodies of 
p\ritic ankerite and mariposite-quartz rock. These 
vein systems are often scores of feet in thickness. 
The ore contains free gold, pyrite, and arsenopyrite 
with small amounts of chalcopyrite, galena, millerite, 
sphalerite, and niccolite. Milling ore averaged 1/7 to 
1/2 ounce of gold per ton. In places high-grade ore is 
abundant. The ore shoots had stoping lengths of up 
to 600 feet, and the veins were mined to an inclined 
depth of 1500 feet. 

Alines. Dolman, French $116,000-1-, Jumper, Juni- 
per, Live Oak, Mexican I $50,000, Oso $50,000-|-, 
Pine Tree-Josephine $4 million-}-. Queen Specimen, 
Red Bank $100,000-|-, Specimen. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1957, Mariposa County, Pine Tree ond Josephine 
mine: California Journal of Amines and Geology, vol. 53, pp. 151-155. 

Costello, W. O., 1921, Mariposa County, Bagby district: California 
MIn, Bur. Rept. 17, pp. 91-92. 

Knopf, Adolph, 1929, Mariposa Estate mines: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Prof. Paper 157, pp. 83-84. 

Logan, C. A., 1935, Pine Tree and Josephine mines: California Div. 
Mines Bull. 108, pp. 186-189 and plate X. 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



29 



Ronsome, F. I., 1900, Mother Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Storms, W. H., 1900, The Mother Lode region-Mariposo County: 
Calif. Min. Bur. Bull. 18, pp. 143-146. 

Bangor-Wyandotte 

Location. This district is in southeastern Butte 
County about 10 miles southeast of Oroville. It is an 
extensive area of placer deposits that occur in the 
vicinity of the old towns of Bangor and Wyandotte. 
The Honcut dredging district is just to the southwest. 

History. The district was originally mined during 
the gold rush. Extensive drift and hydraulic mining 
was done from the middle 1850's through the 1890s. 
Bangor, founded in 1855 by the Lumbert brothers 
and named for their home town in Maine, was an 
important mining and staging center. Numerous 
Chinese were in the district from the 1870s through 
the 1890s. This and the adjoining Honcut district 
were dredged in the earlv 1900s and again in the 
1930s. 

Geology. Tertiary gravels covering a broad 3- by 
8-mile area are believed to represent an ancient delta 
of the Tertiary Yuba River. The channel flowed 
northwest through Bangor and then west. Farther west 
are shore gravels of Pleistocene age. 

The channel gravels were mined by drifting, the 
shore gravels by hydraulicking, and the Recent gravels 
by dredging. The channel gravels are as much as 150 
feet thick, well rounded, well cemented, and con- 
sist of intrusive and metamorphic rock fragments with 
10 to 20 percent quartz. The gold was flaky and often 
rusty. A number of coarse nuggets were found, one 
of which was reported to have weighed 14 pounds. 
Bedrock consists mainly of greenstone and amphibo- 
lite. 

Drift viines. Bangor, Blue Lead, Catskill, Gray 
Lead, Turner. 

Bibliography 

Crawford, J. J., 1894, Bangor mine: California Min. Bur., Rept. 12, 
pp. 80-81. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1895, Smartsville folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

Lindgren, Waidemor, 1911, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 
122-123. 

Logan, C. A., 1930, Butte County, Blue Lead Mining Company: Cali- 
fornia Div. Min. Rept. 26, p. 387. 

Bidwell Bar 

Location!. Bidwell Bar is in southeastern Butte 
County about 10 miles northeast of Oroville and west 
of the junction of the South and Middle Forks of the 
Feather River. The district includes the Hurleton, 
Stringtown and Enterprise areas to the east. 

History. Gold was discovered here in 1848 by 
General John Bidwell, soon after Marshall's discovery 
at Coloma. News of this rich find spread, and there 
was a general rush to the Feather River region. Bid- 
well Bar, Long's Bar, Thompson Flat, Potter's Bar, 
Adamstown, and other settlements were soon estab- 
lished. All of these towns have long since disappeared, 



30 



California Division of Minf^ and Geology 



Bull. 193 



as the gravels were exhausted in a few years and the 
miners moved elsewhere. The old suspension bridge 
and a few remaining buildings later became a state 
park. Much of the area was inundated by Oroville 
Lake. 

Geology. The district is underlain by amphibolite 
in the west and granite in the cast. Most of the gold 
was obtained from Recent and Pleistocene gravels in 
and adjacent to the river. There are a few narrow 
gold-quartz veins. 



Bibliofrraphy 



Turner, H. W., 1898, Bidwell 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 43, 6 pp. 



Bar fotio; U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 



Big Creek 

Location. Big Creek is in eastern Fresno County 
about 10 miles northeast of the town of Trimmer and 
50 miles northeast of Fresno. Superficial placer min- 
ing was done here during the early days and sporadic 
lode mining from the 1890s to around 1915. 

Geology. A few narrow quartz veins contain free 
gold and often abundant sulfides. The country rock 
is granite and schist. A number of contact metamor- 
phic zones in the region contain tungsten and some 
rare barium minerals, including sanbomite. The chief 
gold sources were the Contact and Hancock mines. 

Bibliography 

Bradley, W. W., 1919, Fresno County, Contact mine: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 441-443. 

Big Dry Creek 

Location. This district is in northeastern Fresno 
County about 10 miles northeast of Clovis and t\vo 
miles north of Academy. The area was placer-mined 
on a small scale during the gold rush and lode-mined 
from the 1870s to around 1900. Apparently very little 
mining has been done here since. 

Geology. The area is underlain by granitic rocks 
with thin bands of slate and mica schist. A serpentine 
belt lies to the east. A number of narrow north-trend- 
ing quartz veins contain free gold and varying 
amounts of sulfides. The veins occur near or at the 
contacts between granitic and metamorphic rocks. The 
ore bodies are shallow, none having been mined to a 
depth greater than 150 feet. Copper also has been 
mined here. 

Mines. Blue Rock, Confidence, Crystal Springs, 
Defiance, Monte Cristo, Rip Van Winkle, Thorn. 

Bibliography 

Goldstone, L P., 1890, Fresno County, Big Dry Creek Mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 193-194. 

Irelan, Wm., Jr., 1888, Big Dry Creek mining district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 208-209. 

Big Oak Flat 
Location. The Big Oak Flat district is in the East 
Gold Belt of the Sierra Nevada in southwestern Tuol- 
umne County. It includes the Groveland, Deer Flat, 
and Second Garrotte areas to the east. 



History. This district was first mined shortly after 
the beginning of the gold rush by James D. Savage. It 
was named for an oak tree that had a trunk with a 
diameter of 1 1 feet. The placer deposits here were 
highly productive, those at Big Oak and Deer Flat 
having been credited with a production of $25 million. 
Lode mining began soon afterward, and continued 
steadily until World War I. The town of Garrotte 
was renamed Groveland by later residents who re- 
placed the name given in IK50, when a thief \\a.s 
hanged there. Hut a place to the cast, named Second 
Garrotte (after 1850) for a similar reason, has kept 
its 19tli Century name. This area has prospered from 
tourist trade that originates along the Big Oak Flat 
road, which serves Yoscmite National Park. The 
Hetch Hetchy Railroad, which was used in the con- 
struction of the San Francisco Water Department's 
Hetch Hetchy Reservoir to the east, served the area 
for some years. Some lode mining was done in the 
district again in the 1930s, and there has been inter- 
mittent prospecting and development work at several 
mines since. 

Geology. The area is underlain by a northwest- 
trending belt of schist, argillite, and quartzite of the 
Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to Pemiian), in- 
truded by several small granodiorite stocks and flanked 
on the west by amphibolite, slate, and serpentine of the 
Mother Lode belt. 

Ore deposits. A considerable number of north, 
northwest and west-trending quartz veins are found 
in both the metamorphic rocks and the granodiorite. 
The ore shoots usually are limited in extent, but often 
are rich. The ore contains free gold and often abun- 
dant sulfides, especially galena. Most of the veins arc- 
only a few feet thick. The surface placers mined dur- 
ing the gold rush were extremely rich. 

Mines. Bicknell, Champion, Contact, Criss Cross, 
Del Monte, Goodnovv, Kanaka, Long Fellow $100,- 
000-I-, Mack, Mississippi, Mohrman $40,000, Mt. Jef- 
ferson, National, Nonome, Red Jacket, Rhode Island, 
Venus, Wide West. 

Bibliography 

Logan, C. A., 1949, Tuolumne County, lode gold: Colifornio Journal 
of Mines ond Geology, vol. 45, pp. 54-73. 

Ransome, F. L., 1900, Moth Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Tuolumne County, Big Ook Flat and Groveland 
district: Colifornio Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 136. 

Turner, H. W., and Ransome, F. L., 1897, Sonoro folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 41, 7 pp. 

Bishop Creek 

This district is on the east flank of the Sierra Nevada 
in northwestern Inyo County. It is about 15 miles 
southwest of Bishop. The principal source of gold in 
the district has been the Cardinal or Wilshire-Bishop 
Creek mine, which was worked on a large scale during 
the early 1900s and again from 1933 to 1938. It has 
an estimated total production of more than $1 milHon. 
The ore deposits occur in a zone of quartzite, which 
is enclosed in granitic rocks. The ore bodies are up 
to eight feet thick and contain fine free gold and 
fairly abundant pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphal- 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



31 



erite and arsenopyrite. The deposits have been de- 
veloped to a depth of 600 feet. 

Bibliography 

Tucker, W. B., ond Sampson, R. J., 1938, Inyo County, Cardinal 
Gold Mining Company: California Div. Mines Rept. 34, pp. 389-390. 

Waring, C. A., and Huguenin, Emile, 1919, Inyo County, Wiljhire- 
Bishop Creek mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, p. 85. 

Blue Mountain 

Blue Mountain is in eastern Calaveras County about 
10 miles southeast of West Point. A number of narrow 
quartz veins exist in granodiorite, schist, and hornfels. 
The ore bodies are small and irregular but contain 
extremely abundant sulfides. The quartz often has a 
dark color. The principal properties have been the 
Black Wonder, Gold King, and Heckendorn mines. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., ond Lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, lode gold 
mines: California Div. Mines ond Geology County Rept. 2, pp. 32-76. 

Blue Tent 

Blue Tent is northeast of the Nevada City district 
in western Nevada County. The area was mined years 
ago by hydraulicking, but little or no mining has been 
done since. The gravels are part of the Tertiary chan- 
nel that e.xtends north-northwest from You Bet 
through Scotts Flat and Quaker Hill to North Co- 
lumbia. Although the gravels here are extensive, they 
were reported not to have been very remunerative. 
Lindgren (1911) estimated that 15 million cubic yards 
had been removed and 90 million yards remain, much 
of it barren clay and sand. The gravel next to bedrock 
was reported to have yielded about 50 cents in gold 
per yard. To the east and south the gravels are over- 
lain by andesite. Bedrock is phyllite and slate. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary grovels of the Sierra Nevodo: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 143. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1900, Colfox folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Brandy City 

Location. This district is along the extreme west 
margin of Sierra County about 12 miles west of 
Downieville and 10 miles by road north of Campton- 
ville. It is on the ridge between Canyon Creek on the 
north and the North Fork of the Yuba River on the 
south. It is principally a placer-mining district and was 
extensively hydraulicked from the 1850s until the early 
1890s. Some work was done again from the early 1900s 
to the 1930s. The value of the total production of the 
district is unknown, but it probably amounts to several 
million dollars' worth of gold. 

Geology. The main channel of the Tertiary- North 
Fork of the Yuba River, which is also known as the 
La Porte channel, extended in a south-southwest direc- 
tion from Poverty Hill into this district and thence to 
Indian Hill. Pay gravel here is 700 to 800 feet wide, 
up to 200 feet thick, and overlain by 40 to 60 feet of 
andesite. The upper 130 feet of gravel are mostly peb- 
bles; the lower portion is bouldery and well cemented. 



The entire deposit is reported to have averaged 25^/ 
yard in gold at the old price of gold, and near bed- 
rock it was reported to have contained as much as 
$2.50/yard in gold. Bedrock is slate and serpentine 
with amphibolite both to the east and west. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 101. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1918, Sierra County, The Brandy City district: Cali- 
fornio Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 6-8, 66. 

Toylor, George P., The Brandy City hydraulic mines. Sierra County: 
Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. 89, June 4, 1910, pp. 1152-1153. 

Turner, H. W., 1898, Bidvrell Bar folio, Colifornio: U. S. Geol. Sur- 
vey Geol. Alios of the U. S., folio 43, 6 pp. 

Brown's Valley 

Location. Brown's Valley is in north-central Yuba 
County about 15 miles northeast of Marysville. The 
Hammonton dredge field is just to the south. The area 
was mined during the gold rush, when very coarse 
placer gold was recovered. It was named for a pros- 
pector who reportedly recovered $12,000 from a 
quartz vein in a few weeks in 1850. Much lode mining 
was done here in the 1860s and 1870s, and intermittent 
activity continued through World War I. The Danne- 
broge mine was reopened in 1945 and has been inter- 
mittently active since. The lode mines are estimated 
to have yielded $3 million to $5 million. 

Geology. The central portion of the district is 
underlain by a northwest-striking belt of fine-grained 
greenstone that is classified as metadiabase and andesite 
porphyry. Amphibolite lies to the east, valley alluvium 
to the west, and gravels of Yuba River to the south. 

Ore deposits. A number of nearly west-striking 
quartz veins in greenstone dip either north or south. 
The veins range from one to 10 feet thick. The ore 
contains free gold, pyrite, some galena, and chalco- 
pyrite. Much of the recovered values have been free 
gold, but the sulfide concentrates often run high. Stop- 
ing lengths average around 150 feet, and the veins have 
been mined to inclined depths of 1700 feet. 

Mines. Cleveland, Dannebroge, Hibbert and Bur- 
ns, Jefferson, Permsylvania, Too Handy. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1895, Smortsville folio; California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

O'Brien, J. C, 1952, Yuba County, Dannebroge mine: California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 149-151. 

Preston, E. B., 1890, Brown's Valley: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
10, pp. 798-799. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Yuba County, Brown's Valley: Colifornio Min. 
Bur. Rept. 15, p. 422. 

Brownsville 

Location. The Brownsville district is in northeast- 
ern Yuba Countv' about 35 miles northeast of Marys- 
ville and 27 miles southeast of Oroville. It includes the 
lode-gold deposits here and in the Hansonville-Rack- 
erby area, and the New York Flat placer "diggings". 
The towTi was named for I. E. Brown, who established 
a sawmill here in 1851. 

Geology and ore deposits. The chief rocks in the 
area are greenstone with several gabbrodiorite intru- 
sions. Amphibolite and some slate lie to the east. A 



32 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



number of north- and a few west-striking quartz veins 
commonly occur near intrusive-metamorphic contacts. 
The veins are one to seven feet thick and contain free 
gold with varying amounts of pyrite and other sul- 
fides. The ore shoots are limited in size. Milling ore 
usually yielded y^ to Va ounce of gold per ton, but 
some high-grade pockets were encountered. 

Mines. Abbott, Arbucco, B. A. C, Beaver, Bee- 
hive (Mt. Hope) $100,000, Easy Money, Golden 
Key, Horseshoe, Manzanita, Napa and Oro, Ora Lewa, 
R. C, Rogers, Seaborg and Davis, Spanish, Twentieth 
Century Wonder, William Arthur. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1895, Smarlsville folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlos of Ihe U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Yuba County, gold-quartz mines: Colifornia 
Min. Bur. Repl. 15, pp. 443-456. 

Buckeye 

This is a small lode-gold district in southwestern 
Mariposa County about eight miles south of the town 
of Mariposa. The principal gold sources in the district 
were the Granite King and Live Oak mines, which 
were worked from the 1870s through the early 1900s 
and again from 1938 to 1941. The gold-quartz veins 
are two to five feet thick, strike to the northeast, and 
occur in granodiorite. The ore contains native gold, 
pyrite, galena, and sphalerite. Milling ore averages 
about !4 ounce of gold per ton with occasional pockets 
of high-grade ore. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1957, Mariposa County, Granite King and Live 
Oak mines: California Jour. Mines ond Geology, vol. 53, pp. 104-105. 

Butte Creek 

Location. Butte Creek is in north-central Butte 
County. It is chiefly a dredging district that extends 
along Butte Creek from about three miles southeast of 
Chico northeast to Centerville and Helltown, a distance 
of almost 12 miles. The Magalia district is contiguous 
on the northeast. The streams were placer-mined dur- 
ing the gold rush, and hydraulic mining and some drift 
mining of Tertiary gravels followed. The creek was 
worked with primitive power shovels and washing 
plants in the early 1900s. It was dredged from around 
1902 to the early 1920s, again in the 1930s, and from 
1945 to 1949. 

Geology. The deposits consist mainly of stream 
and bench gravels in and along Butte Creek. They 
range from a few hundred feet wide at the upper end 
to nearly a mile at the lower end. The gravels are 
coarse, well rounded, and consist of andesite with some 
chert and minor quanz. Also there are Tertiary shore 
and bench gravels in the Centerville and Hellto\vn 
areas. Dredging depths ranged from 13 to 35 feet, with 
an uneven bedrock. The last operations were reported 
to have yielded as much as 35 cents of gold per yard. 

Dredging concerns. Butte Creek Cons., 1909-16, 
one bucket-line; Lancha Plana, 1941-49, one bucket- 
line; Pacific Gold Dredging Co., 1902-17?, two bucket- 
line; Piedmont Dredging Co., 1941, one Becker-Hop- 



kins; Thurman and Wright, one dragline; Yuba Cons., 
1941, one Becker-Hopkins. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldamor, 1911, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, pp. 
84-86. 

Woring, C. A., 1919, Butte County, Gold dredging: Colifornio Min. 
Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 187-193, 194, 197. 

Winston, W. B., 1910, Gold dredging in California, Butte Creek 
district: California Min. Bur. Bull. 57, pp. 159-162. 

Butt Valley 

Location. This district is in northwestern Plumas 
Count)'. It is an extensive area that lies between Lake 
Almanor on the north and the Virgilia-Twain area on 
the south and southwest. The district includes the 
Caribou and Seneca areas. The Crescent Mills district 
is just to the east, and the Meadow Valley district lies 
to the south. 

History. During the gold rush vast amounts of 
placer gold were recovered from the Feather River 
and its tributaries. The valley was named for Horace 
Butts, a successful early-day miner. The town of 
Seneca was an important center at that time. The Butt 
\^alley Reservoir was constructed by the Great West- 
ern Power Company in 1921. Lode-gold mining, which 
originally began in the 1850s, continued through the 
1930s. Since then there has been intermittent prospect- 
ing at a few properties such as the Sunnyside mine. 
Skin divers and weekend prospectors have been active 
along the streams. 

Geology. The district is underlain by a series of 
metamorphosed sediments ranging from Silurian to 
Triassic in age. Slate is most abundant, but also pres- 
ent are sandstone, limestone, quartzite, and conglom- 
erates. In addition, there are greenstones and serpen- 
tine. 

Ore deposits. The gold-quartz veins occur in brec- 
ciated zones in all of the formations, but they are most 
abundant in the slates and greenstones. The ore con- 
tains free gold and varying amounts of sulfides, in- 
cluding arsenopyrite. Milling ore averaged usually only 
a few dollars per ton, but the ore bodies were extensive. 
Some of the veins and vein zones arc 20 or more feet 
thick. An appreciable number of high-grade pockets 
were found. In places the placer deposits, both Terti- 
ary and Recent in age, were extremely rich. 

Mines. Lode: Chico Star, Dean, Del Monte, Dun- 
can, Elizabeth Cons., Halstead, Hazzard, Horseshoe, 
Justice, Lictum, Plumas Amalgamated, Reising, Rich 
Gulch Cons., Savercool, Seneca Cons., Shenandoah, 
Summit, Virgilia, White Lily $225,000-f-. Placer: 
Barker Hill, Cameron $100,0()0-(-, Dominion, Ellis, 
Lot, Providence Hill, Red Rock, Sunnyside $150,- 
000-I-, Swiss, Dutch Hill $575,000-}-. 

Bibliography 

Avorill, Charles V., 1937, Plumas County, gold: California Div. 
Mines Rept. 33, pp. 103-124. 

Logon, C. A., 1928, Plumas County, gold: Colifornia Div. Mines and 
Mining, Repl. 24, pp. 285-310. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1920, Plumas County, Butt Valley district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 1-4. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



33 



Calaveritas 



Location. This is a placer-mining district in cen- 
tral Calaveras County, in the vicinity of the old town 
of Calaveritas. It includes the Old Gulch area to the 
north. At one time there were many Mexican miners 
in the area. 

Geology. The district is underlain by slate, gra- 
phitic schist, quartzite, limestone, green schist and 
granodiorite. Numerous gravel patches, remnants of 
the west-trending Fort Mountain channel of Tertiary 
age, were mined by hydraulicking and sluicing dur- 
ing the early days. The recent stream gravels were 
worked by drag-line dredges during the 1930s. There 
are a few narrow gold-quartz veins. 

Mines. Earnhardt, Calaveritas Hill Consolidated, 
Oro Fino, Railroad Hill, Richie Hill. 

Bibliography 

Clark, L. D., 1954/ Geology and mineral deposits of the Calaveritas 
quadrangle: California Div. Mines Spec. Rept. 40, 23 pp. 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Colaveras County, placer gold: 
California Div. Mines and Geology County Report 2, pp. 76-93. 

Camanche-Lancha Plana 

Location. This district extends along the Mokel- 
umne River from the vicinity of Lancha Plana, Ama- 
dor County, west through the Camanche-Wallace 
area, Calaveras County, to Clements, San Joaquin 
County, a distance of about 12 miles. 

History. The creeks were first worked during the 
early part of the gold rush, and hydraulic mining of 
the terrace gravels followed. The town of Camanche 
was named for a town in Iowa. Later, the Chinese 
mined the river and reworked the old tailings. From 
1904 to 1923, the river was dredged on a large scale 
by the American Dredging Company. Dragline dredg- 
ing was done during the 1930s and bucket-line dredg- 
ing from then until 1951. Much of the region was 
recently inundated by the Camanche reservoir. The 
output from dredging is estimated to be about $10 
million. 

Geology. The deposits consist of unconsolidated 
gravels in and adjacent to the Mokelumne River and 
floodplain deposits. Tightly packed shore gravels of 
Eocene age are found near Wallace. In the west por- 
tion of the dredging field, the gravels ranged from six 
to 50 feet deep while, in the east, they were six to 
25 feet deep. Bedrock is clay and volcanic rock. 
Values recovered by dredging ranged from 10 to 25 
cents per yard. The gold was fine grained and 850 
to 900 in fineness. 

Operations. American Dredging Co., 1904-23, 
three bucket-lines; Camanche Placers Ltd., 1935-, one 
bucket-line; Gold Gravel Products, 1935; Gold Hill 
Dredging Co., 1936-51, two bucket-lines; Lancha 
Plana Gold Dredging Co., 1926-40, one? bucket-line; 
Wallace Dredging Co., 1935-40, two bucket-lines. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., 1955, Son Joaquin County, Gold Hill dredges: Cali- 
fornia Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 37-39. 



Logan, C. A., 1927, Calaveras County, American Dredging Company: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 23, p. 198. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio, California: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, Oro Water, light, and Power Company dredges: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 127-128. 

Winston, W. B., 1910, Gold dredging in California, Calaveras County: 
California Min. Bur. Bull. 57, pp. 205-208. 

Compo Seco-Volley Springs 

Campo Seco and Valley Springs are in northwestern 
Calaveras County. Substantial amounts of gold have 
been produced in this district from a variety of min- 
eral deposits. These deposits include Recent stream 
gravels, quartz-rich gravels of Eocene age, narrow 
quartz veins, and massive copper and zinc sulfide de- 
posits of the noted Penn mine, from which gold was 
recovered as a by-product. 

The older quartzitic gravels were mined by hy- 
draulicking and ground sluicing in the early days 
and later by draft mining. The Recent gravels were 
worked by dragline dredges.The Penn mine is cred- 
ited with a production of 60,000 ounces of gold. 

The principal rocks underlying the district are 
green schist, slate, serpentine and greenstone. The 
quartz-rich gravels which overlie these rocks occur 
in patches and are the remnants of an Eocene river 
channel system. Some of these gravels are capped by 
andesite. The massive sulfide deposits at the Penn 
mine and the gold-quartz veins are in greenstone and 
schist. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1963, Calaveras County, placer 
gold: California Div. Mines and Geology County Report 2, pp. 76-84. 

Heyl, G. R., et ol., 1948, Copper in Colifornia, Penn zinc-copper 
mine: California Div. Mines Bull. 144, pp. 61-84. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Alios 
of the U. S. folio 11, 6 pp. 

Comptonville 

Camptonville, in northeast Yuba County and west- 
ern Sierra County, adjoins the Pike district on the 
east. Rich gold discoveries were made here in 1850-51. 
The town was named in 1854 for Robert Campton, 
the local blacksmith. The Pelton wheel, long used in 
mining machinery and electric generators, was in- 
vented here by Lester Pelton. The old town is now a 
tourist attraction. A number of moderate-sized de- 
posits of Tertiary channel gravel were mined by 
hydraulicking. These include the deposits at Young's 
Hill, Weed's Point, and Galena Hill. They are part of 
the Tertiary Yuba River that extended southwest from 
Indian Hill to this district and then to North San 
Juan. Bedrock is amphibolite, slate, greenstone, and 
granodiorite. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemar, and Turner, H. W., 1895, Smortsville folio: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

Canada Hill 

Location. This district is in eastern Placer County 
25 miles northeast of Forest Hill and about 10 miles 



34 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Corson Hill Mine and Mill, Corson Hill Districf. This northward view of the Colaveros County 
1920s. Pholo courtesy of Hillcnsf Studio, Angefi Camp. 



south of Cisco. It includes the Sailor Flat, Robertson 
Flat, Sailor Canyon and New York Canyon areas. 

Geology. The Canada Hill channel, a branch of 
the Tertiary American River, is believed to have 
flowed northeast and east across Sailor Canyon and 
then southeast to join the southwest-flowing main 
Tertiary channel near French Meadows. The channel 
is steep, narrow, and has not been too productive. 
The gravels are usually angular and poorly washed. 
Bedrock is slate and quartzitic schist of the Blue Can- 
yon Formation (Carboniferous) and schist of the 
Sailor Canyon Formation (Lower Jurassic). The 
gravels are capped by rhyolite and andesite. There are 
some gold-quartz veins that contain abundant sulfides. 

Mines. Beauty, Carmac, Lost Emigrant, Merz, 
Monumental, Pacific Blue Lead, Placer Queen, Reed, 
Sailor Canyon, Trinidad, Walker, X-Ray. 



U. 5. Geo!. Survey Geo!. 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geo!. 



Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1900, Colfax folic 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1897, Truckee folio: 
Atlos of the U. S., folio 39, 8 pp. 

lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevoda: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, pp. 157-158. 

logon, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, placer mines: 
Californio Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 49-96. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Placer County, placer mines: California MIn. 
Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 325-386. 



Carson Hill 

Location. Carson Hill is on the Mother Lode belt 
in southwestern Calaveras County. The district con- 
sists of that portion of the Mother Lode that extends 
from Carson Flat southeast through Carson Hill to the 
town of Melones on the Stanislaus River. It has also 
been known as the Melones district. 

History. Carson Hill was named for James H. Car- 
son, a soldier who came to California in 1847 and who 
discovered gold at nearby Carson Creek in 1848. Lode 
gold was first discovered in 1850 at the Morgan mine 
and many miners soon came to the area. By 1851, the 
town of Melones had a population of 3,000 to 5,000. 
It was named for the melon seed-shaped gold nuggets 
found here. The district was extremely productive 
then, much of the mineral coming from fantastically 
rich surface pockets. Gold to the amount of $110,000 
was exposed by one blast, and in 1854, a 195-pound 
mass of gold, the largest ever taken in California, was 
found here. Telluride minerals were recovered in 
quantity, but most were lost in unsuccessful attempts 
to extract the gold. 

The gold production from the district declined in 
the late 1850s. Large-scale mining of low-grade ore 
bodies began in 1889 at the Calaveras mine. The 
Melones mine was worked on a major scale from 1895 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



35 



to 1918. The Morgan, Calaveras, and Melones mines 
were consolidated in 1918 and worked as a unit until 
1926. They were operated again from 1933 until 1942. 
This was one of the richer portions of the Mother 
Lode, the Carson Hill group alone having yielded an 
estimated total of $26 million. Part of Carson Hill will 
be inundated by the New Melones Reservoir. 

Geology. The district is underlain by a series of 
northwest-striking beds of phyllite, amphibolite, green 
schist, and serpentine. Widespread hydrothermal alter- 
ation has changed much of the serpentine to e.xtensive 
bodies of mariposite-ankerite-quartz rock. Slate of the 
Mariposa Formation (Upper Jurassic) lies to the west 
and metasediments of the Calaveras Formation (Car- 
boniferous to Permian) to the east. 

Ore deposits. The deposits consist of thick, mas- 
sive, and often barren quartz veins, with adjacent 
large bodies of auriferous schist and pyritic ankerite- 
mariposite-quartz rock containing numerous thin 
quartz seams and stringers. Milling ore usually was 
low in grade, but the ore bodies were extensive. The 
famous Hanging Wall ore body, which consisted of 
auriferous schist, averaged Yz ounce of gold per ton 
and had dimensions of 175 x 4500 x 15 feet. Much rich 
high-grade ore from surface pockets was recovered in 
the 1850s. Tellurides, which included calaverite, syl- 
vanite, hessite, and petzite, were recovered in quantity 
during the early days, near the surface. Both calaver- 
ite and melonite, a rare nickel telluride, were first 
found and described from this district. 

Mines. Carson Hill Mines $26 million (Calaveras, 
Finnegan, Melones, Morgan, Reserve, Stanislaus 
Mines), Carson Creek $1 million, Hardy, Santa Ana, 
Tulloch. 



Bibliography 



Burgess, John A., 1937, Mining methods at the Carson Hill mine, 
Calaveros County, California: U. S. Bur. Mines Inf. Circ. 6940, 15 pp. 

Clorlc, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, Corson Hill 
mines: California Div. Mines and Geology, County Rept. 2, pp. 44-50. 

Eric, J. H., Stromquist, A. A., and Swinney, C. M., 1955, Geology 
and mineral deposits of the Angels Camp and Sonora quadrangles, 
Calaveras and Tuolumne Counties, California: California Div. Mines 
Spec. Rept. 41, 55 pp. 

Knopf, Adolph, 1929, Mines on Carson Hill: U. S. Geo!. Survey Prof. 
Paper 157, pp. 72-77. 

logon, C. A., 1935, Carson Hill mines: California Div. Mines Bull. 
108, pp. 129-137. 

Moss, F. A., 1927, The geology of Carson Hill: Eng. and Min. Jour., 
vol. 124, no. 26, pp. 1010-1012. 

Ronsome, F. L., 1900, Mother Lode district folio: U. S. Geot. Survey 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 1 1 pp. 

Storms, W. H., 1900, Melones Consolidated mines: California Min. 
Bur. Bull. 18, pp. 121-122. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio, California: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Young, G. J., 1921, Gold mining ot Carson Hill: Eng. ond Min. 
Jour., vol. 112, pp. 725-729. 

Cathey 

The Cathey or Cathay district is in southwestern 
Mariposa County about 10 miles southwest of Mari- 
posa and near the town of Catheys Valley. The area 
was first placer-mined during the gold rush, and lode 
mining began in the 1850s. The principal mines were 
the Francis, Moore Hill, and Rich mines, which were 
last worked in the 1930s. A number of north-trending 
quartz veins up to 9 feet thick, in granodiorite and 
schist, contain native gold and sulfides. The sulfides, 
which include pyrite, arsenopyrite, and galena, some- 
times are extremely abundant. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1957, Mariposa County, lode gold mines: Cali- 
fornia Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 53, pp. 72—186. 




Photo 14. Suction Dredge, Calaveras County. Floating suction dredges, like this one c 
River near Melones in 1966, have been active in streoms of the gold-mining districts 



he Stanislou 
recent year: 



36 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 







Photo 15. Cherokee Hydraulic Mine, Cherokee District. This view of the Butte County mine dates back probobly to the 1870$. Photo courfeiy of 

Co/if. Sfofe libfory. 



Cat Town 



This district is in northwestern Mariposa County 
at the site of the old mining camp of Cat Town. 
Although the Kinsley-Greelcy Hill district adjoins 
it on the north and the Coulterville portion of the 
Mother Lode is on the west, this district is on a sepa- 
rate northwest-trending vein system. It may be on 
the same belt of mineralization as the Whitlock dis- 
trict to the southeast (see fig. 4). The height of mining 
activity here was in the 1880s and 1890s. The Gold 
Bug mine and several others were active in the 1930s, 
and there has been some prospecting since. Also the 
area was recently prospected for molybdenum. 

The deposits consist of gold-bearing quartz stringers 
in schist, slate, metachert, and greenstone. The values 
usually occur in small but rich pockets and are closely 
associated with albititc and diorite dikes. The deposits 
have not been mined to depths of greater than 100 
feet. The principal gold sources have been the Black 
Bart, Gold Bug, and White Porphyry mines. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1957, Mariposa County, Gold Bug and White 
Porphyry mines: California Jour. Mines end Geology, vol. 53, no. 102 
and 181-183. 



Turner, H. W., and Ronsome, F. L, 1897, Sonc 
Survey Geo!. Atlos of the U. S., folio 41, 7 pp. 

Cherokee 



folio: U. S. Geol. 



Location and history. This district is in central 
Butte County, 1 2 miles north of Oroville on the north 
side of Table Mountain and in the vicinity of the 
town of Cherokee or Cherokee Flat. It was so named 
for a party of Cherokee Indians who migrated here 
in the 1850s to mine gold. It has also been known as 
the Spring Valley district. Most of the ouput has come 
from the single large hydraulic mine, which is esti- 
mated to have yielded about $15 million. The town 
reached its heyday in the middle 1870s when it had a 
population of about 700. 

Geology. The Tertiary placer deposits are asso- 
ciated with a west-trending channel. In this area the 
channel is in a trough about 700 feet wide. The se- 
quence from bottom to top of the hydraulic pit is as 
follows: irregular greenstone gravel 5-10 feet thick 
that is lean in gold and contains local black clay 
streaks and minor basalt blocks; a rich 20- to 30-foot 
layer of coarse fresh blue gravel with large greenstone 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



37 



blocks, coarse and fine gold, small diamonds, and 
minor platinum (this layer yielded as much as several 
dollars per yard); several feet of decomposed gravel; 
SO feet of sand and quartzitic gravel, the lower part 
of which yielded 25 cents per yard; 200 feet of clayey 
sand; and 50 to 75 feet of massive basalt. 

Between 400 and 500 small diamonds were recovered 
from the gold-bearing gravels at the Cherokee mine. 
Several of the stones were more than two carats in 
weight and of good quality, but most were small and 
had a pale-yellow tinge. This is the best-known dia- 
mond-bearing locality in California. 

Bibliography 

Creely, R. S., 1965, Geology of the Oroville Quadrangle: California 
Div. Mines and Geology Bull. 184, 86 pp. 

Irelan, William, 1886, Spring Valley hydraulic mine: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 6, pp. 24-25. 

Lindgren, Woldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 86-87. 

Miner, J. A., 1890, Spring Valley hydraulic gold mine: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 124-125. 

Preston, E. B., 1893, Channel of Spring Valley Hydraulic Mining 
Company: California Min. Bur. Rept. 11, pp. 155-157. 

Weatherbe, D'Arcey, 1906, A "hydraulic mine in California: Min. and 
Sci. Press, vol. 93, Sept. 8, 1906, pp. 296-298. 

Chinese Camp 

Chinese Camp is in western Tuolumne County about 
10 miles southwest of Sonora. It was a placer-mining 
center settled by Chinese miners in 1849. Much work 
was done in the 1850s, and the piles of soil and gravel 
turned over in the search for gold can still be seen in 
nearly every gulch. The old mining town of Chinese 
Camp is quite well-preserved. 

Much of the placer gold was recovered from ex- 
tremely rich quartzitic gravels of Eocene age. Some 
gold also was mined from gravels of late Tertiary age. 
Most of the early-day work was done by hydrauHck- 
ing and ground sluicing; during the 1930s there was 
some dragline dredging. Bedrock consists of serpen- 
tine, greenstone, and slate. There are a few gold-quartz 
veins in the area. The value of the total output from 
placer mining is estimated at $2.5 million. 

Bibliography 

Turner, H. W., and Ronsome, F. L, 1897, Sonora folio, California: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 41, 7 pp. 

Chowchilla 

In recent years small amounts of placer gold have 
been mined from the lower Chowchilla River west of 
Raymond in western Madera County. The gold has 
been recovered by several small- to medium-sized 
floating suction dredges, which consist of pontoons 
that carry suction pumps and gold-recovery equip- 
ment. The river gravels range from 10 to as much as 
35 feet in depth. This area was first placer-mined 
during the gold rush, when the Grub Gulch district 
to the northeast was active. 

Bibliography 

Logan, C. A., 1950, Madera County, gold: California Jour. Mines 
and Geology, vol. 46, pp. 453-456. 



Clear Creek 

Location. The Clear Creek or Havilah mining dis- 
trict is in east-central Kern County, about 26 miles 
east-northeast of Bakersfield and five miles south of 
Bodfish. It is an extensive region that includes the Red 
Mountain and Walker Basin areas. It is also a tungsten 
district. 

History. Gold was discovered in Clear Creek in 
1863 or 1864 by Claude de la Borde, George McKay, 
Benjamin Mitchell, and Hugh McKeadney. The town 
of Havilah was established in 1865 and soon became 
an important center with a population of at least 3000. 
It was the seat of Kern County from 1867 until 1874. 
The area declined in the 1880s, but was intermittently 
active for many years afterward. Some work has been 
done in recent years at the Joe Walker and Rand 
mines. 

Geology. The area is underlain by quartz diorite 
with roof pendants of metasedimentary rocks in the 
north and south portions of the district. A body of 
gabbro lies to the northeast. The gold deposits are 
mostly confined to the quartz diorite west of Havilah 
and in the Walker Basin. They consist of quartz veins 
up to six feet thick, which contain free gold and vary- 
ing amounts of sulfides. 

Mines. Friday, Jackpot, Joe Walker $600,000-|-, 
Porter, Rand group 1 125,000, Rochfort, Southern 
Cross, Washington. 

Bibliography 

Dibblee, T. W., Jr., and Chestermon, C. W., 1953, Breckenridge 
Mountain quadrangle: California Div. Mines Bull. 168, 56 pp. 

Troxel, B. W., and Morton, P. K., 1962, Kern County, Cleor Creek 
district: California Div. Mines and Geology County Rept. 1, pp. 25-27. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1933, Kern County, Joe Walker 
mine: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 310-311. 

Clearinghouse 

Location and history. Clearinghouse is in central 
Mariposa County a few miles west of El Portal and 
Yosemite National Park. It was named for the Clear- 
inghouse mine, the largest source of gold in the dis- 
trict. The Merced River, which flows through the 
area, was extensively placer-mined during the gold 
rush. The Clearinghouse mine was discovered in 1860 
and worked on a fairly large scale until about 1880. 
There was mining activity again during the early 1900s 
and 1930s, and there has been intermittent prospecting 
and development work since. Substantial quantities of 
limestone and barite and some tungsten are found here. 
At one time the Yosemite Valley Railroad extended 
through the area to El Portal, the line's eastern termi- 
nus. From El Portal, passengers were taken by stage to 
Yosemite Valley. 

Geology and ore deposits. The principal rocks un- 
derlying the district are graphitic schist, slate, quartz- 
ite, and hornfels of the Calaveras Formation (Carbon- 
iferous to Permian). There are some granitic dikes, and 
the main mass of the Sierra Nevada granitic batholith 
is a few miles to the east. 



38 



California Division of Mines and Gf.ology 



Bull. 193 



The gold deposits occur in north-striking quartz 
veins that usually range from one to five feet in thick- 
ness. The ore contains free gold and often abundant 
sulfides. Appreciable amounts of high-grade ore have 
been found here, and milling-grade ore commonly con- 
tained one ounce or more of gold per ton. Several of 
the veins have been developed to inclined depths of 
about 1 200 feet. 

Mines. Clearinghouse $3.35 million, Gold Star, 
Old Timer, Rutheford and Cranberry, South Cran- 
berry, Uncle Jim, West Rutherford. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1957, Mariposo County, lode mines: California 
Jour. Mines ond Geology, vol. 53, pp. 72-187. 

Laizure, C. McK, 1928, Mariposa County, gold lode mines: California 
Div. Mines and Mining Rept. 24, pp. 79-122. 

Clipper Mills 

Clipper Mills is in southeastern Butte and northeast- 
ern Yuba County, about eight miles east-northeast of 
Forbestown. Several moderate-sized deposits of Terti- 
ary channel gravels have been mined by drifting and 
hydraulicking. The Pratt and Gentle Anna drift mines 
and the Pittsburg Hill hydraulic mines have been the 
principal placer-gold sources. A few narrow gold- 
quartz veins have yielded small but rich pockets. The 
district is underlain by slate, serpentine, and gabbro- 
diorite. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 99-100. 

Turner, H. W., 1898, Bidwell Bar folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 43, 6 pp. 

Coarsegold 

Location. This district is in east-central Madera 
County in the vicinity of the town of Coarsegold 
about 30 miles northeast of Madera. It is in the central 
portion of a 20-mile long belt that extends from Grub 
Gulch on the northwest to Fine Gold on the southeast. 
It includes part of the area once known as the Potter 
Ridge district. Coarse and heavy placer gold was re- 
covered from shallow deposits during the gold rush. 
Lode mining began in 1853, when the Texas Flat mine 
was discovered. The district has been intermittently 
mined and prospected ever since. 

Geology. The area is underlain by medium to 
coarse-grained granodiorite with some narrow belts of 
slate and schist. A number of north-trending quartz 
veins that contain free gold and varying amounts of 
sulfides are enclosed in both the metamorphic and 
grantic rocks. The veins were mined to depths of 1000 
feet. 

Mines. Baker, Balfron, Daisy Bell, Five Oaks, 
Golden Road, Melvin, Morning Star, New Citizen, 
Texas Flat $200,000-^. 

Bibliography 

Irelon, William, 1888, Texas Flat mine: Colifornia Min. Bur. Rept. 
8, pp. 212-213. 



Laizure, C. McK., 1928, Modero County, gold: California Div. Mines 
Rept. 54, pp. 324-328. 

McLoughlin, R. P., and Bradley, W. W., 1916, Madera County, Texas 
Flot mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 551. 

Colfax 

Location. The Colfax district is in southwestern 
Placer County in the vicinit\' of the town of that name. 
It includes the deposits in the Weimar-New England 
Mills area and placer-mining areas along the American 
and the Bear Rivers. The Colfax district also has been 
know as the Illinois district. 

History. Placer mining began here soon after the 
beginning of the gold rush. The locality was first 
known as Alder Gulch and later Iliinoistown. The 
Rising Sun mine was discovered in 1 866. Colfax, which 
was named for U. S. Senator Schuyler Colfax who 
visited the place in 1865, was an important center dur- 
ing the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad. 
Considerable mining continued in the district until 
about 1900. Small-scale placer mining, some done by 
skindivers, has continued until the present time. 

Geology. Slates of the Mariposa Formation (Upper 
Jurassic) are found in the central portion of the dis- 
trict, and slate of the Cape Horn Formation (Car- 
boniferous) crops out to the east. A gabbro intrusion 
lies to the north and northwest, a diabase body to 
west, and serpentine lenses and amphibolite to the east 
and southeast. A fairly extensive patch of Tertiary 
channel gravel is exposed on the north side of Colfax 
Hill. The extensive quartz gravels in the Bear River 
are hydraulic mine tailings from the You Bet and 
Lowell Hill districts. 

Ore deposits. The ore bodies occur in a number of 
northeast-striking quartz veins that usually range from 
two to five feet in thickness. The ore contains free 
gold and often abundant sulfides. Considerable high- 
grade ore was found near the surface during the early 
days. 

Mines. Lode: Annie Laurie, Big Oak Tree $100,- 
000-t-, Bauer, Black Oak, Brushy Creek, Chubb, 
Hinchy, Last Chance, Live Oak Ravine, Rising Sun 
$2 miliion-f , Victory, Whiskey Tunnel. Placer: Bear 
River Ext., Bear River Tunnel, Burnt Flat, Collins, 
Rocky Bar. 

Bibliography 

Chondro, D. K., 1961, Geology and minerol deposits of the Colfax 
and Foreslhill quadrangles: Colifornio Div. Mines Spec. Rept. 67, 50 pp. 

Irelon, William, Jr., 1888, Rising Sun and Big Oak Tree mines: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 462-464. 

lindgren, Waldemar, 1900, Colfax folio, Colifornio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Goel. Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Logon, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, Rising Sun mine: 
Colifornia Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 34-35. 

Collierville 

Location. Collierville is in the East Gold Belt of 
the Sierra Nevada in south-central Calaveras County 
and north-central Tuolumne County. It is about five 
miles due east of Murphys. 

Geology. The area is underlain by west-striking 
beds of siliceous slate, banded quartzite, and mica 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



39 



schist, with several limestone lenses. Granodiorite stocks 
up to two miles in diameter lie in the northeast and 
southeast. A number of west-striking and north-dipping 
or northeast-striking southeast-dipping quartz veins in 
the metamorphic rocks contain free gold and often 
abundant sulfides. The quartz is white to dark gray in 
color. Some high-grade pockets were recovered here, 
and tellurides have been reported. 

Mines. Collier, Dorsey, Golden Sulphuret, Louise, 
North Chimney Rock, Sailor Boy, True Business. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, gold: 
California Div. Mines ond Geology, County Rept. 2, pp. 32-93. 

Turner, H. W., and Ransome, F. L., 1898, Big Trees folio, California: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 51, 8 pp. 

Coloma 

Location. This district is in the vicinity of the old 
mining town of Coloma in western El Dorado County. 
It is on the South Fork of the American River about 
eight miles northwest of Placerville. 

History. Although this is a relatively small dis- 
trict, it is significant, for it was here that James W. 
Marshall made his historic gold discovery. In August 
1847, Captain John Sutter, grantee of a large Mexican 
land grant in the vicinity of present-day Sacramento, 
signed a contract with Marshall to erect a sawmill on 
the American Ri^^er. Work commenced in Septem- 
ber 1847'. The mill was almost finished on January 
24, 1848, when Marshall, inspecting the mill taih-ace, 
noted several small flakes of what appeared to be gold. 
Work on the mill stopped, and more flakes were re- 
covered. These were taken to Sutter at Sacramento 
for more tests, which proved beyond a doubt that it 
was gold. Attempts were made to keep the discovery 
a secret, but the news quickly leaked out. 

Soon Sonorans from the Los Angeles placer-mining 
districts arrived, the vanguard of the thousands of 
gold seekers who came from all directions to Coloma. 
The surface placers here were soon exhausted, and the 
miners went elsewhere. Coloma was named for a near- 
by Southern Maidu Indian Village. Early spellings 
were "Colluma" and "Culoma". Some gold dredging 
was done on the American River here during the 
1930s and 1940s. 

Marshall never was associated with a really success- 
ful mining venture and died in 1885 in the nearby 
town of Kelsey, a poor man. The Marshall Monument, 
where he is buried, was dedicated in 1890. Part of the 
old town, the mill site and the monument joined the 
California state park system in 1927. A replica of 
Sutter's mill was recently constructed at the park. 
Also at the park is a museum containing many items 
of early-day mining equipment. 

Geology and ore deposits. The central portion of 
the district is underlain by a granodiorite intrusion. It 
is surrounded by slate, mica schist, amphibolite, and 
several north-trending lenticular bodies of serpentine. 

Most of the gold values were obtained from gravels 
in the American River or from terrace gravels along 
the bank. A few narrow gold-quartz veins crop out 



and several contact-metamorphic copper-gold deposits 
are found along the margin of the granodiorite. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Corlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, gold: 
California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 52, pp. 400-437. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio, 
California: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Cutter, Donald W., 1948, The discovery of gold in California: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines Bull. 141, pp. 13-17. 

Columbia 

Location. This famous placer-mining district is in 
north-central Tuolumne County, in the vicinity of 
the old mining town of Columbia, five miles north of 
Sonora. It includes the Yankee Hill, Sawmill Flat, 
Squabbletown, Brown's Flat, and Springfield areas. 
The Sonora district is just to the south and the Ameri- 
can Camp district lies to the northeast. 

History. Columbia was one of the richest and 
most famous placer-mining districts in California. 
Early in 1850 a group of Mexican miners who had 
been forced off their claims at Sonora struck it rich 
here. Americans moved in and in turn forced them to 
leave. For a short period, the district was known as 
Hidreth's Diggings and American Camp, but it soon 
became "Columbia, Gem of the Southern Mines". 
During the 1850s and early 1860s, the diggings were 
enormously productive, the output averaging $100,000 
or more per week. Columbia was one of the largest 
cities in California at this time, with an estimated popu- 
lation of 25,000 to 30,000. The district declined in the 
late 1860s, but small-scale mining continued until re- 
cently. The central portion of the old town became a 
state park in 1945 and is now a popular tourist attrac- 
tion. Many of the famous old buildings have been 
restored. The value of the total production of the 
district has been estimated to be at least $87 million, 
and some have put the figure as high as $150 million. 

Geology. Columbia lies in a preserved Tertiary 
valley with pre-volcanic features. It is a flat valley 
that is underlain chiefly by crystalline limestone and 
dolomite of the Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous 
to Permian). The limestone has numerous deep pot- 
holes and cavities, which contained enormously rich 
gravel. Several very large nuggets and gold masses 
were taken here, including one that weighed over 50 
pounds and several weighing more than 300 ounces. 
Slow degradation of the area in pre-volcanic times 
tended to concentrate coarse gold in this flat basin. It 
is south of the main Tertiary Stanislaus River. Verte- 
brate fossils were found in the gravels. In the early- 
day mining operations, the gravels were hoisted from 
the potholes and washed through sluices and long 
toms on raised platforms. 

Bibliography 

Holey, C. S., 1923, Gold placers of Colifornio: Colifornio Min. Bur. 
Bull. 92, p. 148. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 212-213. 

Logon, C. A., 1928, Tuolumne County, placer mines: Colifornio Min. 
Bur. Rept. 24, pp. 32-43. 



40 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



BuU. 193 




Photo 16. Placer Mining, Columbia District. This early photo was taken in Columbio, Tuolumr 

office. Phoio courf9sy of Tuo/umne County Museu 



.-fu.-go Expreu Company 




Photo 17. Hummocky Limestone, Columbia District. Rich, gold-bearing gravels occurred in deep cavities i 
bedrock, like these at Columbia, Tuolumne County. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



41 




Photo 18. Virginia Mine, Coulterville District. This photo of the Mariposa County mine was taken in 1919. Photo by 

W. O. Castello. 



Louderback, G. D., 1933, Notes on the geologic section near Colum- 
bia, California, with special reference to the occurrence of fossils in the 
auriferous gravels: Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. no. 440, pp. 7-13. 

Ransome, F. L., 1897, Mother Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Turner, H. W., ond Ransome, F. L., 1898, Big Trees folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 51, 10 pp. 

Confidence 

Location Mid History. The Confidence district is 
in west-central Tuolumne County between Twain 
Harte and Long Barn and about 15 miles northeast of 
Sonora. It is in the Sierra Nevada East Gold Belt and 
adjoins the Soulsbyville district on the northeast (see 
fig 24, p. 122). This region was first placer-mined dur- 
ing the gold rush, and lode mining began shortly after- 
ward. The Confidence mine was worked on a large 
scale until around 1912. Some of the mines were ac- 
tive in the 1930s, and the district was later prospected 
for tungsten. 

Geology. The mines in this district are located 
chiefly in a southwest-extending arm or "peninsula" 
of granitic rocks of the main Sierra Nevada batholith 
(see fig. 24). The principal rock is granodiorite; slate, 
mica schist, phyllite, and quartzite lie to the south. 
Fine-grained dioritic dikes are present and commonly 
are associated with the gold-quartz veins. Also pres- 
ent are small bodies of tungsten-bearing tactite, which 
occur as roof pendants in the granitic rocks. 

Ore Deposits. The ore bodies occur in north to 
northwest-striking quartz veins that usually range 
from one to five feet in thickness. The ore contains 
free gold and often abundant sulfides, especially ga- 
lena, which often is associated with gold. The Con- 
fidence vein was mined to an inclined depth of 1200 
feet. 

Mines. Casa Madera, Corona, Confidence 14.25 
million. Excelsior 1420,000, Fair Oaks, Gem, Gerald- 
ine. Green |200,000, Humbug, Lucky Strike, Morn- 
ing Glory, Red Cloud, Ripperton, Ryan, Thunderbolt, 
Too Far' North, Wall Street. 

Bibliography 

Logan, C. A., 1949, Tuolumne County, Confidence mine: California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 45, pp. 61-62. 

Preston, E. B., 1893, The Confidence mine: Californio Min. Bur. 
Rept. 11, p. 503. 



Storms, W. H., 1900, Confidence mine: California Min. Bur. Bull. 18, 
pp. 136-137. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Tuolumne County, Confidence mine: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 142. 

Turner, H. W., and Ransome, F. L., 1898, Big Trees folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 51, 8 pp. 

Coulterville 

Location. This district is in southwestern Tuol- 
umne Count)' and northwestern Mariposa County. It 
is that portion of the Mother Lode gold belt that 
extends from the vicinity of the McAlpine mine south- 
east through Peiion Blanco and the town of Coulter- 
ville to Virginia Point, a distance of about 10 miles. 

History. The surface portions of the veins and the 
streams were worked during the gold rush. The town 
was named for George Coulter, who opened a store 
there in 1849. Quartz-mining began about 1852 with 
the discovery of the Malvina and Alary Harrison veins. 
Considerable lode mining was done from the 1860s 
through the 1890s, when many of the mines belonged 
to the Cook estate. There was some activity from the 
early 1900s until 1942. In recent years some work has 
been done at the V^irginia, McAlpine and a few other 
mines. 

Geology. In this district, the Mother Lode system 
is associated with an extensive northwest-trending 
lenticular body of serpentine. In a number of places 
the serpentine has been hydrothermally altered to 
mariposa-quartz-ankerite rock. Slate and greenstone lie 
to the west, and amphibolite schist and greenstone are 
to the east. Also present are smaller amounts of chlor- 
ite schist, phyllite, and metadiorite and aplitic dikes. 

0?-e Deposits. The ore deposits consist of pyrite- 
bearing bodies of mariposite-quartz-ankerite rock, 
with numerous parallel quartz stringers and adjacent 
massive quartz veins. The gold occurs in the free state 
or with the pyrite and usually is found in the quartz 
stringers, although in places there are values in the 
massive veins. A number of high-grade pockets have 
been found in this district, some of which came from 
the gossan that overlies some of the deposits. Tellu- 
rides also have been found here. Milling ore usually 
ranges from V^ to Yz ounce of gold per ton. The ore 
shoots had stoping lengths of up to 400 feet and were 
mined to inclined depths of more than 1200 feet. The 



42 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



massive veins form prominent ridges; Penon Blanco 
Ridge is visible for many miles. 

Mines. Mariposa County: Adelaide, Big Lode, 
Champion I $150,000 to $200,000, Flyaway group, 
Louisa $100,000, Malvina $1 million, Mary Harrison 
$1.5 million, Midas, Oro Rico, Potosi, Tvro $110,- 
000+, Virginia $824,000. Tuolumne County: Mc- 
Alpine $100,000+. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1957, Mariposa County, Virginia Mine: California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 53, nos. 1-2, pp. 176-179. 

Costello, W. O., 1921, AAariposa County, Coullerville district: Cali- 
fornio Min. Bur. Rept. 17, pp. 92-93. 

Logan, C. A., 1935, Mother Lode gold belt— Mariposa County: Coli- 
fornio Div. Mines Bull. 108, pp. 18&-190. 

Lowell, F. L., 1916, Mariposa County, Mary Harrison quartz mine: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 588. 

Ronsome, F. L, 1900, Mother Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 1 1 pp. 

Storms, W. H., 1900, The Mother Lode region— Mariposa County: 
California Min. Bur. Bull. 18, pp. 142-147. 

Cove 

Location ajid History. The Cove district is in 
northeastern Kern County between the towns of 
Kernville and Isabella on the west side of the Isabella 
Reservoir. 

The upper Kern River here was placer-mined dur- 
ing the 1850s. The Big Blue vein was discovered by 
Lovely Rogers in 1860, and much activity followed 
during the 1870s and early 1880s. The mines were 
worked intermittently from then through the 1930s, 
the Big Blue group having been operated on large 
scale from 1934 until 1943. There has been only minor 
activity since. The main mines of the district have 
been consolidated into the Big Blue-Sumner group, 
which includes the Lady Belle group. The district has 
an estimated output valued at $8 million. 

Geology ayid Ore Deposits. The principal mines 
are in granodiorite. To the east and south are schist, 
phyllite, quartzite, and marble of the pre-Cretaceous 
Kernville Series. Aplite dikes are often associated with 
the gold-bearing veins. 

The ore deposits consist of extensive vein systems 
as much as 150 feet wide that occur in shear zones 
in granodiorite. The ore consists of quartz with finely 
disseminated free gold, arsenopyrite, pyrite, chalco- 
pyrite, and gelana. The milling ore usually averages 
1/10 to 1/3 ounce of gold per ton with some high- 
grade streaks. Some scheelite also is present in the 
gold ore. The veins have been mined to depths of 
about 500 feet. There are two main vein systems: 
those of the Big Blue-Sumner and the Lady Belle 
groups. 

Bibliography 

Brov/n, G. C, 1916, Kern County, Cove district; Beauregord, Big 
Blue, Blue Gouge and Bull Run mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, 
pp. 482 and 487-490. 

Crowford, J. J., 1893, Big Blue mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 11, 
p. 142. 

Miller, William J., and Webb, Robert W., 1940, Descriptive geology 
of the Kernville quadrangle: California Div. Mines Rept. 36, pp. 343- 
378. 

Prout, John W., Jr., 1940, Geology of the Big Blue group of mines, 
Kernville: California Div. Mines Rept. 36, pp. 379-421. 



Troxel, B. W., and Morton, P. K., 1962, Kern County, gold: Colifor. 
nio Div. Mines and Geology County Rept. 1, pp. 92-196. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1940b, Mineral resources of the 
Kernville quadrangle: California Div. Mines Rept. 36, pp. 322-333. 

Crescent Mills 



Location. This district is in north-central Plumas 
County. It contains a northwest-trending belt of lode 
and placer deposits that extends from the vicinit\' of 
the town of Crescent Mills northwest through Green- 
ville to Almanor, a distance of about 10 miles. At one 
time it was also known as the Cherokee district. 
Crescent Mills has been the most productive of the 
districts in the northern end of the Sierra Nevada. 

Geology. This area is underlain by a series of 
northwest-trending beds of Paleozoic and Mesozoic 
metamorphic rocks. They are: pre-Devonian meta- 
rhyolite; Silurian metasedimentary rocks; Taylorsville 
Formation (Devonian) slate and sandstone; Taylor 
Meta-andesite (Carboniferous); Calaveras Formation 
(Carboniferous to Permian) metasedimentary rocks 
(four formations); greenstones (Carboniferous); Tri- 
assic metasedimentary rocks; Jurassic granodiorite and 
serpentinized basic and ultra-basic intrusives. Overly- 
ing the bedrock are patches of Tertiary and Quarter- I 
nary gravels. 

Ore Deposits. A number of northwest-striking 
quartz veins occur principally in the greenstones, 
slates, and granodiorite. Some of the veins are as much 
as 20 feet thick. The ore contains free gold, auriferous 
pyrite, and smaller amounts of other sulfides. The sur- 
face ores were especially rich, and numerous high- 
grade pockets were encountered during the early 
days. Milling-grade ore usually contained slightly less 
than !4 ounce per ton, but the ore shoots had stoping 
lengths of up to 300 feet. Iron and copper also occur 
in the district. 

Mines. Altona, Arcadia, Cherokee $250,000, Cres- 
cent $500,000+, Dagian, Droege $300,000+, Gold 
Stripes, Green Mountain $1 million to $2 million, 
Hobson, Indian Falls, Indian Valley $1.8 million+, 
Leete, Long Vallev, Monitor, Mountain Lilv, New 
York $400,000+, Pearless, South Eureka, Wardlow, 
Whitney. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1928, Plumas County: California Min. Bur. Rept. 24, 
pp. 261-316. 

Averill C. V., 1937, Mineral resources of Plumas County: California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 33, pp. 79-143. 

Diller, J. S., 1905, Mineral resources of the Indian Valley region, 
California: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 260, pp. 45-49. 

Diller, J. S., 1908, Geology of the Taylorsville region: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Bull. 353, 128 pp. 

Irelon, Williom, 1888, Green Mountain mine, etc.: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 479-481. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada, 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 114-116. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1919, Plumas County, Crescent Mills district; Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 4-8. 

Damascus 

Location. This district is in cast-central Placer 
County at the site of the old town of Damascus, about 
seven miles southeast of Dutch Flat. It includes the 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



43 



lode mines of the Pioneer-Humbug Bar area on the 
north and the extensive placer deposits that extend 
from Damascus south through Forks House to the 
Sunny South-Gas Hill area. 

History. The streams in this area were originally 
mined during the gold rush, and drift mining began 
in the late 1850s. The Hidden Treasure drift mine was 
discovered in 1875 and was worked on a major scale 
through the early 1900s. There was some mining ac- 
tivity in the district again during the 1930s, and there 
has been intermittent prospecting since. This area has 
been quite productive; the drift mines alone have had 
a total output of more than $12 million and the lode 
mines several million dollars more. 

Geology. An early Tertiary gravel channel extends 
from Damascus south to Gas Hill and eventually 
southwest to Michigan Bluff. An intervolcanic chan- 
nel that apparently eroded away portions of the earlier 
channel enters the area from Westville to the east. The 
lower earlier "white" channel is more than 300 feet 
wide. It contains abundant quartz. The gravels in this 
early channel yielded 50 cents to $1.75 per ton at the 
old price, and the gold was coarse. The upper chan- 
nels are commonly known as "blue" channels. Bed- 
rock is slate and schist, and the gravels are capped by 
rhyolite and andesite. The channel has been mined by 
drifting almost continuously from Damascus south to 
Hidden Treasure, a distance of more than four miles. 
The quartz veins, which occur in slate, range from 
two to eight feet in thickness and contain free gold 
and often abundant sulfides. The ore usually is low to 
moderate in grade, but the ore shoots had stoping 
lengths of up to several hundred feet. The Pioneer 
mine was developed to a depth of 1400 feet. 

Mines. Lode: American Eagle, Black Hawk, Cen- 
tral, Dover, Floyd, Lynn, Mars, North Star, Pioneer 
$1 million. Rawhide $300,000+, Southern Cross. 
Placer: Bullion, Cameron, Comet, Gas Hill, Golden 
River, Hermit, Hidden Treasure $4 million, Mountain 
Chief $700,000+, Mountain Gate, Rainbow, Tickell. 

Bibliography 

Browne, Ross E., 1890, The ancient rivers of the Forest Hill Divide: 
California Min. Bur. Kept. 10, pp. 435-465. 

Crawford, J. J., 1894, Golden River and Hidden Treasure mines: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 12, pp. 208-210. 

Logon, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, Hidden Treosure 
mine: California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 65-66. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 190O, Colfax folio, Colifornio: U. S. Geol. Sur- 
vey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevado: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, pp. 150-159. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Placer County, Damascus district and Placer 
County drift mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 317 and 352-375. 

Deer Creek 
Deer Creek is in western El Dorado County and 
eastern Sacramento County. The creek, which flows 
southwest, was first placer-mined during the gold rush. 
In the 1930s and early 1940s, substantial amounts of 
gold were recovered here by dragline dredges. One 
operation was reported to have recovered about 4500 
ounces of gold from 790,000 cubic yards of gravel. 



Bibiography 

Averill, C. V., 1946, Plocer mining for gold in Colifornio: California 
Div. Mines Bull. 135, pp. 255-257. 

Deer Valley 

Location. This is a small lode-gold district in west- 
ern El Dorado County about 10 miles northwest of 
Shingle Springs. The area was first worked during the 
gold rush, and it has been intermittently prospected 
since. 

Geology. This district is on the north end of a 
large gabbro-diorite intrusion. Greenstones and ser- 
pentine lie to the east. There are a number of narrow 
gold-quartz veins containing small and shallow ore 
bodies. A few small high-grade pockets have been 
found. Sulfides, especially galena, which is associated 
with gold, are abundant. 

Mines. Boneset, Delores, Morman Hill, Rose Kim- 
berley. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Corlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, lode 
gold mines; California Jour. Mines ond Geology, vol. 52, pp. 401-429. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Diamond Mountain 

Location and History. This district is in southern 
Lassen County about five miles south of Susanville. It 
is in the Diamond Mountain block, which lies at the 
extreme north end of the Sierra Nevada. Placer-min- 
ing began in the late 1850s, and several hundred thou- 
sand dollars in gold were soon recovered. Later some 
work was done by Chinese miners. Lode-mining began 
in the 1860s and continued sporadically through the 
early 1900s with some activity again in the 1930s. The 
output of the district is estimated at around $1 million. 

Geology. The district is underlain by quartz dio- 
rite and granite, which is overlain in places by Terti- 
ary gravel and andesite. The quartz veins are as much 
as 15 feet thick and occur in shear zones chiefly in 
the quartz diorite. The ore contains free gold and 
varying amounts of pyrite. Milling ore usually was 
low to medium in grade, but some high-grade pockets 
were found. The ore shoots were not large and none 
of the mines has been developed to any great depth. 
Some aplitic and basic dikes are associated with veins. 
Opal also is in the veins. 

Mines. Arkansas $200,000+, Gold Belt (McDow) 
$20,000, Honey Bee $50,000+, Honey Lake, Har- 
ris-Mosgrove, Red Jacket (Gayman). 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., ond Erwin, H. D., 1936, Lessen County, Diamond 
Mountoin district: California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 409-424. 

Diller, J. S., 1908, Geology of the Toylorsville region, California: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 353, pp. 68-69. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiory grovels in the Sierra Nevada, 
California: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73. 

Preston, E. B., 1890, Lossen County: California Min. Bur. Rept. 10, 
pp. 273-276. 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, Lassen County, Diamond Mountain mining 
district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 235-236. 



44 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Dobbins 

Location. This district is in northeastern Yuba 
County in the vicinity of the town of Dobbins. The 
town was named for the Dobbins' brothers who set- 
tled herein 1849. It also has been known as the Indiana 
Ranch district. 

Geology. The principal rock type here is grando- 
diorite, with smaller amounts of quartz diorite and 
diorite intrusive into greenstone and slate. A number 
of north- and west-trending narrow quartz veins arc 
found in granodiorite or along granodiorite-greenstone 
contacts. The ore contains free gold and varying 
amounts of sulfides and occasionally tellurides and 
scheelite. 

Mines. California Mother Lode, Good Title, Hig- 
gins, Liberr\-, Lillian Francis, Red Cross, Red Ravine 
$100,000, Summit Hill, Templar. 

Bibliography 

Lmdgren, Woldemar, 1895, Smartsville folio, Colifornia: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio .18, 6 pp. 

Downieville 

Location. This is a lode and placer gold-mining 
district in west-central Sierra Countv in the general 
vicinity of the town of Downieville. It includes the 
Fir Cap Mountain, Craycroft, China Flat, and Slug 
Canyon areas and part of the Pliocene Ridge area. The 
Goodyear's Bar-Alleghany belt lies immediately to the 
west, the Sierra City district to the east, and the Amer- 
ican Hill district to the south. 

History. This area was prospected soon after the 
beginning of the gold rush. Major William Downie 
and his party arrived here in November, 1849. Soon 
a town was laid out, which was named for him early 
in 1850. The Downieville mining district was orga- 
nized with "claims fixed at 30 feet per man". Many 
rich strikes were made; one claim 60 feet square 
yielded $80,000 in six months. At nearby Tin Cup 
Diggings, three men filled a tin cup with gold each 
da\- before quitting. A 25-pound nugget was found 
in the river upstream from the town in 1850. More 
than 5000 persons lived here in 1851. After the surface 
placers were exhausted, the river was mined, and hy- 
draulic and drift mining became important. Mining 
continued almost steadily until World War IT, and 
intermittent prospecting and skin diving for gold 
continues. 

Geology. The district is underlain predominently 
b\' north-trending beds of phyllitc, slate and quartzite 
of the Calaveras P\)rmation (Carboniferous to Per- 
mian). To the west are greenstone, amphibolite, and 
serpentine. The higher ridges are capped by Tertiary 
andesitc, w hich in places overlies rich Tertiary aurif- 
erous gravels. There are fairly extensive recent river 
and terrace gravels along the Yuba River and its 
branches. 

Ore Deposits. A considerable number of gold- 
quartz veins occur chiefly in greenstone and slate. The 
veins range from one to 10 feet in thickness. The ore 
contains free gold and var\ing amounts of sulfides. 



The milling-grade ore usually averages 'X to '/s ounce 
per ton. Some ore shoots had stoping lengths of as 
much as several hundred feet. Some high-grade ore 
pockets iiave been taken from some of the mines. The 
Tertiary channel gravels are quartzitic, often well- 
cemented, and in places contain extremely coarse gold. 

Mines. Lode: Alhambra, Bessler, Elcv, Finney 
(York) $75,000-f. Gold Bluff $1.5 mill'ion. Gold 
Point (Grey Eagle) $100,000-1-, High Commission, 
Jumper, Mexican, Oro, Oxford $100,000+, Secret 
Canyon, Sierra Standard $75,000. Placer: Brown Bear, 
Cit\' of Six, Craycroft, Golden Hub, Kirkpatrick, 
Klondike, Mott and Mt. Vernon, Monte Carlo, New 
York, White Bear $200,000+, Wide Awake $100,- 
000+ . 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. v., 1942, Sierra County, gold: Colifornio Div. Mines Rept. 
38, pp. 17-48. 

Carlson, D. W., ond Clark, W. B., 1956, Lode gold mines of the 
Alleghany-Downieville area. Sierra County: California Jour. Mines and 
Geology, vol. 52, pp. 237-272. 

Crowford, J. J., 1894, Gold Bluff mine: Colifornia Min. Bur. Rept. 
12, p. 266. 

Lindgren, Woldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, p. 111. 

Logon, C. A., 1929, Sierro County, Brush Creek, City of Six, and 
Grey Eagle mines: California Div. Mines Rept. 25, pp. 160, 161, and 
165-166. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1920, Sierra County, Downieville mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 17, pp. 8-11. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 

Duncan Peak 

Location and History. This is an extensive area of 
placer deposits in the general vicinity of Duncan Peak 
and the Greek Store guard station in eastern Placer 
Count>'. It is 20 miles cast of Forest Hill and six miles 
southeast of Last Chance. The area extends from just 
south of Duncan Peak south through Duncan Canyon 
to Ralston Ridge. The area was first mined in the early 
1850s. The peak was named for Thomas Duncan, an 
early-day miner. During these early days, this region 
supported many Greek placer miners. Intermittent 
prospecting and development work has continued 
until the present time. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The placer deposits 
occur in a complex system of Tertiary channels that 
extends south and southwest to join the main west- 
trending Long Canyon channel in the Ralston Divide 
district. There arc a number of tributaries and channel 
remnants, one of the main ones known as the Chalk 
Bluff channel. The deposits are up to several hundred 
feet wide and were extremely rich in places. Usually 
the gold is coarse. Quartz is sparse. The bedrock is 
quartzitic schist and slate, and the gravels are capped 
b\- andesitc. There are some narrow gold-quartz veins 
in the district. 

Mines. Bald Mountain, Barney, Blue Eyes, Dixie 
Queen, Glenn Cons., Gold Dollar, Golden Gate No. 1, 
Hard Climb, Hunted Hole, Miller's Defeat, Pine Nut, 
Pork and Brown, Red Star, Jack Robinson, Sauer 
Kraut, Savage, Trap Line, Yellow Jacket. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



45 



Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1900, Colfox folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlos of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiory channels of the Sierra Nevodo: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 152-153. 

Logon, C. A., 1925, Ancient channels of the Duncan Canyon region: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 21, pp. 275-280. 

Logan, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, plocer mines: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 49-96. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Placer County, placer mines: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 352-386. 

Dutch Flat 

Location. Dutch Flat is in north-central Placer 
County. This district includes the Alta and Towle 
areas. The Gold Run district lies just to the south, the 
You Bet district to the west, and the Lowell Hill 
district to the northeast. 

History. Placer mining began here in 1849. The 
settlement was established by some Germans or 
"Dutch" in 1851. Hydraulicking began in 1857 and, 
during the following few years, the hydraulic mines 
were highly productive. Operations continued until 
1883, when the mines were shut down by anti-debris 
injunctions. Some work was done in the district again 
in the 1890s and early 1900s. Logan (1936) estimated 
the district to have a total output of $4.5 million to 
$5 million although it may be more. The old town of 
Dutch Flat is well-preserved and is now a popular 
tourist attraction. 

Geology. This district is located at the junction of 
several major channels of the Tertiary American River. 
One channel enters the area from the Lowell Hill 
district on the northwest, another from Lost Camp 
and Shady Run on the east, and a third from the Gold 
Run district on the south. The main channel then 
continues west and northwest through Little York, 
You Bet, Red Dog, and Hunt's Hill. It has been esti- 
mated that 90 to 105 million yards have been washed 
here. The gravels have a maximum depth of 300 feet, 
the lower 150 consisting of coarse blue gravel. The 
bottom gravels are well-cemented. Bedrock consists of 
slate, gabbro, quartzite, and amphibolite. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1900, Colfax folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiory gravels of the Sierra Nevodo: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 144-146. 

Logan, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, Dutch Flat dis- 
trict: California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 56-58. 

El Dorado 



Location and History. This district is in west- 
central El Dorado County a few miles southwest of 
Placerville. It is in the Alother Lode gold belt and 
includes the Logtown area a few miles to the south of 
El Dorado. El Dorado, originally known as Mud 
Springs, was a camp on the Kit Carson emigrant trail 
before the beginning of the gold rush. There was 
much activity here during the gold rush and for some 
years afterward. The Church, Union and other mines 
were worked on a large scale during the 1890s and 



early 1900s. There was some work in the district again 
in the 1930s, but only minor prospecting since. 

Geology. Slate of the Mariposa Formation (Upper 
Jurassic) occurs in the central portion of the district. 
Massive greenstone of the Logtown Ridge Formation 
(Upper Jurassic) is to the west, and granite rocks, 
schist and amphibolite lie to the east. The Mother 
Lode Belt here bends from the north to the north- 
east towards Placerville. 

Ore Deposits. Most of the quartz veins in this dis- 
trict are confined to the slate, although a few are in 
greenstone and schist. They have north to northeast 
strikes and usually range from five to 10 feet in thick- 
ness. The ore contains free gold and pyrite and has an 
average content of about % ounce of gold per ton. 
Considerable high-grade ore was recovered from 
shallow workings. Much fault gouge is present. The 
greatest depth of development is about 2,000 feet. 

Mines. Bidstrup, Bucna Vista, Church $1 million. 
Crown Point, Crusader, German, Griffith, Larkin, 
Martinez, AicNulty, Ophir, Pochahantas, Red Wing, 
Starlight, TuUis, Union $5 million? 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Corlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, lode 
gold mines: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 52, pp. 401-429. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1894, Placerville folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 4 pp. 

Logan, C. A., 1936, Mother Lode gold belt. Church ond Martinez 
mines: Colifornia Div. Mines Bull. 108, pp. 21-22 and 30-31. 

Storms, W. H., 1900, Church ond Union mines: California Min. Bur. 
Bull. 18, pp. 91-92. 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, El Dorodo County, Church and Union mines: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 283 and 299. 

Emigrant Gap 

Location and History. This district is in the east- 
central Placer and Nevada Counties in the vicinit>' of 
the towns of Emigrant Gap and Blue Canyon. It is 
both a lode and placer gold-mining district that was 
first worked during the gold rush. There has been 
intermittent prospecting and development work here 
since. The Zeibright mine was worked on a large scale 
during the 1930s. The Washington district is just to 
the northwest and the Westville district is to the south. 
The Zeibright mine camp is now a boy scout camp. 

Geology. The district is chiefly underlain by thick 
beds of slate, schist and phyllite of the Blue Canyon 
Formation (Carboniferous). To the north and west 
these rocks are overlain by andesite and rhyolite tuff. 
There are several patches of auriferous Tertiary chan- 
nel gravels. 

Ore Deposits. There are a number of north-trend- 
ing quartz veins in schist and slate that contain free 
gold, pyrite, and small amounts of other sulfides. The 
veins range from one to 10 feet in thickness and con- 
sist of a series of parallel quartz stringers. The milling- 
grade ore usually contained Vi ounce per ton or less, 
but some of the ore shoots were extensive. Channel 
deposits at the Lost Camp hydraulic mine contain both 
cemented and free-washing quartzitic gravels. These 
gravels are overlain by sands and volcanic rocks. Some 
of the gold recovered from the gravels was coarse. 



46 



California Division of Mines and Geouwy 



Bull. 193 



Mines. Lode: Red Rock, Texas, Van Avery, Zei- 
bright $1 million + . Placer: Golden Channel, Golden 
Nugget, Lost Camp, Shell, Wild Yankee. 

Bibliography 

Undgren, Woldemar, 1900, CoKax folio, Colifornio: U. S. G«ol. 
Survey Geol. Atloi o( the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, The Tertiary gravels of the Sierro 
Nevada: U. S. Geol. Prof. Paper 73, p. 146. 

logon, C. A., 1936, Gold minet of Placer County, Lost Camp mine: 
Colifornio Division of Mines Rept. 32, p. 68. 

logon, C. A., 1941, Nevodo County, Zeibright mine: Colifornio 
Division of Mines Rept. 37, p. 431. 

Woring, C. A., 1919, Plocer County, lost Camp mine: California 
Mining Bureou Rept. 15, pp. 376-377. 

English Mountain 

Location. This district is in northeastern Nevada 
County in the vicinity of English Mountain and Bow- 
man Lake. The area was first mined during the 1860s, 
followed by activity at the English Alountain gold 
and copper mines during the 1890s and early 1900s. 
There has been minor prospecting since. 

Geology. The area is underlain by slate, schist, 
homfels and granite, all of which are cut by diorite 
and quartz-diorite dikes. The ore deposits consist of 
iron-rich zones containing quartz, free gold, galena, 
pvrite, and chalcopyrite. Molybednite is abundant in 
places. The principal gold sources have been the Eng- 
lish Mountain Gold and Yellow Metal mines. 

Bibliography 

lindgren, Woldemor, 1900, Colfax folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 11 pp. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevodo County, English Mountain and Yellow 
Metol mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 164 and 2SB. 

Erskine Creek 

Erskine Creek is a northwest-flowing tributary of 
the Kern Ri%er in northeast Kern County, a few miles 
to the southeast of Isabella. The district includes the 
area known as the Pioneer district. Gold and varying 
amounts of silver, antimony, tungsten, copper, and 
uranium have been recovered here. The principal 
sources of gold have been the Glen Olive mine, which 
has yielded $500,000, and the Iconoclast mine. Other 
properties include the Golden Bell, Laurel, Valley 
View, Faust, and King Solomon mines. Two north- 
west-trending roof pendants of pre-Cretaceous meta- 
morphic rocks are surrounded by Mesozoic granitic 
rock. The ore deposits consist of quartz veins contain- 
ing free gold and varying amounts of sulfides. 

Bibliography 

Troxel, B. W., and Morton, D. K., 1962, Kern County, Erskine Creek 
district: California Div. Mines and Geology, County Rept. 1, pp. 31—32. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sompson, R. J., 1933, King Solomon mine: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 312-313. 

Eureka 

Location. This is an extensive area of scattered 
placers and a few lode deposits in northwestern Sierra 
County about eight miles northwest of Downieville. 
It includes the "diggings" not only at Eureka but also 
at Craig's Flat, Morristown, and Saddleback Mountain. 



It is surrounded by a number of famous placer-mining 
districts: Downieville, Poker Flat, Port Wine, Poverty 
Hill, and Brandy City. The hydraulic mines here were 
worked on a major scale from the 1850s to the middle 
1 880s, and then intermittently on a small scale through 
the 1930s. 

Geology. The principal Tertiary channel deposits 
are at Eureka, Craig's Flat, Morristown, and Monte 
Cristo, the most extensive being at Eureka. They are 
part of the Eureka channel, an indistinct branch of the 
Tertiary North Fork of the Yuba River. As in the 
other nearby placer-mining districts, the chief values 
were obtained from the lower quartzitic gravels. Some 
very coarse nuggets have been found here. Bedrock 
consists of slate and phyllite and several narrow belts 
of greenstone and serpentine. Several of the high ridges 
are capped by andesite. There are a few gold-quartz 
veins, the most productive having been at the Tele- 
graph mine, which is on a slate-serpentine contact. 

Bibliography 

lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 

Fairplay 

Location and History. This district is in south- 
central El Dorado County about 20 miles southeast 
of Placerville. It includes the Slug Gulch and Cedar- 
ville areas. It is primarily a placer-gold district, but 
some copper has been mined here. The area was first 
settled in 1853 by N. Sisson and Charles Staples. The 
name, according to tradition, arose from an incident 
in which an appeal for fair play forestalled a fight 
between two miners. 

Geology. The deposits here are part of an isolated 
Tertiar>' gravel channel that extends southwest from 
Slug Gulch toward Fairplay. The gravels are of vari- 
ous ages. Older benches of quartz gravel are rich, 
younger intervolcanic gravels are leaner. The gold is 
extremely coarse. At Slug Gulch the bedrock is lime- 
stone; elsewhere it is slate and schist; to the west is 
granodiorite. A few narrow gold-quartz veins are 
found in the district. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Carlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, plocer 
deposits: Colifornio Jour. Mines ond Geology, vol. 52, pp. 429-435. 

lindgren, Woldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevodo: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, pp. 180-181. 

Mining ond Scientific Press, June 17, 1876. 

Flddletown 

Location. This district is in northwestern Amador 
County in the general vicinity of the old mining town 
of Fiddletown, six miles east of Plymouth. It also 
has been known as the Oleta district. 

History. Fiddletown was settled in 1849, report- 
edly by Missouri miners addicted to "fiddling." The 
district flourished in the 1850s when the drift and 
hydraulic mines were active. Attention was drawn to 



1970 



Gold Disttucts — Sierra Nevada 



47 










Photo 19. Natomos Company Dredge No. 2, Folsom District. This 1921 view of the dredge, in Sacramento County, shows the double 

sand wheel. Pho/o by C. A. Waring. 



the area by Bret Harte's short story, An Episode at 
Fiddletoivn. The name proved offensive to one of the 
distinguished residents and, in 1878, he succeeded in 
having the name changed by legislative enactment to 
Oleta. In 1937, the Cafifomia Historical Society, with 
the approval of local residents, obtained the restoration 
of the original name. There was some drift mining 
and dragline dredging in the district in the 1930s and 
early 1940s. 

Geology. Numerous patches of quartzitic gravels 
remain that were deposited by several channels of the 
Tertiary Cosumnes River. One channel comes in 
from the Coyoteville area from the northeast and an- 
other from Volcano from the southeast. Some of the 
gravels are capped by andesite. Bedrock is chiefly 
graphitic slate, metachert and schist of the Calaveras 
Formation (Carboniferous to Permian). Limestone 
lies to the east and granodiorite to the north. There 
are a few narrow gold-quartz veins in the district. 

Bibliography 

Carlson, D. W., and Clark, W. B., 1954, Amador County, gold: Cali- 
fornia Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 50, pp. 164-200. 

Haley, C. S., 1923, Gold placers of California: California Min. Bur. 
Bull. 92, pp. 146-147. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 199. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas 
of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Fine Gold 

Location. This district is in east-central Madera 
County at the site of the old town of Fine Gold, 
about 35 miles northeast of Madera. It is in the south 
end of a 20- mile mineralized belt that extends south- 
east from the Grub Gulch and Coarsegold districts. It 



also includes the Quartz Mountain area. The district 
was first mined in the late 18SOs. There has been inter- 
mittent prospecting in recent years, chiefly in the 
vicinity of Quartz Mountain. 

Geology. The region is underlain by medium- to 
coarse-grained granodiorite cut by pegmatite and ap- 
lite dikes. Also present are thin beds of gneiss, schist 
and slate. There are a number of quartz veins con- 
taining small but sometimes rich ore shoots. The ore 
contains native gold, pyrite, and galena. Nearly all 
of the deposits are shallow. The veins range from less 
than one to more than 10 feet in thickness. 

Mines. Ackers, Fresno Banner, Johnny, Little 
Johnny, Quartz Mountain, Standard, Waterloo, Zebra. 



Bibliography 



Min. 



Irelan. William, Jr., 1888, Fine Gold Gulch district: Californit 
Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 210-216. 

Mclaughlin, R. P., and Brodley, W. W., 1916, Madera County, Water- 
loo mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 552-553. 

Turner, H. W., 1896, Further contributions to the geology of the 
Sierra Nevada: U. S. Geol. Survey, 17th Ann. Rept., pt. 1, p. 695. 

Watts, W. L., 1893, The Fine Gold mines: Californio Min. Bur. Rept. 
11, pp. 215 and 216-217. 



Folsom 
Location. This district is i 



northeastern Sacra- 
mento County. It was mainly a dredging field that ex- 
tended from the town of Folsom southwest along the 
south side of the American River to Fair Oaks, south 
through the town of Natoma to Nimbus and then west 
to the east border of what is now Mather Air Force 
Base. The dredged area is approximately 10 miles long 
in a southwest direction and up to seven miles wide. 
The Folsom district has also been known as the Ameri- 
can River district. 



48 



Calikornia Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



History. The region around Folsom and Momion 
Bar was extensively placer-mined during the gold rush, 
with minor lode mining. The area was originally 
settled in 1849 and first known as Negro Bar. The 
present town was laid out in 1855 b>' T. D. Judah 
for the Sacramento Valley Railroad and named for 
Captain J. L. Folsom, quartermaster of Stevenson's 
Regiment. Numerous Chinese worked the region from 
the 1 860s through the 1 890s. A primitive grab-dredger 
was active at Natoma in 1894. Bucket-line dredging 
began at Folsom in 1898 and soon became a major 
industry. Most of the dredging companies were 
merged into Natomas Consolidated of California in 
1908. This firm, later known as the Natomas Com- 
pany, was the principal operator in the district. The 
company designed and built its own dredges at exten- 
sive shops in the town of Natoma. In 1916, 11 active 
dredges yielded more than $2 million worth of gold. 
From 1927 to 1952, several other operators joined 
Natomas in dredging the district. 

Dredging operations were curtailed during World 
War II but were resumed on a major scale shortly 
afterward. However, increasing costs, the depletion of 
dredging ground, and changing land values caused the 
dredging operations to be gradually curtailed. By 1960 
there was only a single active dredge, and this was 
shut down in February 1962. Large portions of the 
dredged-over areas are now occupied by defense in- 
dustries, such as the Aerojet-General Corporation and 
Douglas Aircraft Company plants, and by housing 
tracts. Folsom, one of the largest dredging fields in 
California, has a total output estimated at $125 million. 
Approximately one billion cubic yards of gravel were 
dredged by the Natomas Company. 

Geology. Recent stream gravels lie in and adjacent 
to the present American River. To the south are sand 
and gravel deposits of the Victor Formation (Pleisto- 
cene) and silt, sand and some gravel of the Laguna 
Formation (Plio-Pleistocene). These are underlain by 
andesite of the Mehrten Formation (Pliocene). The 
paying gravels are either in or along the American 



River and near the lower contacts of the Laguna and 
Mehrten Formations. Digging depths ranged from 30 
to 110 feet and recoveries from 10<! to 20^ per yard 
with gold valued at $35 per ounce. Minor amounts of 
platinum were recovered. There are a few narrow 
gold-quartz veins in greenstone east of the town of 
Folsom. 

Dredging Operations. Capitol Dredging Co., 1927- 
52, four bucket-lines; General Dredging Co., 1938-51, 
three draglines; Gold Hill Dredging Co., 1933-37, one 
bucket-line; Lancha Plana Gold Dredging Co., 1940- 
49, one bucket-line. Natomas Co., 1909-62, fifteen 
bucket-lines; consolidated by Natomas Co. in 1908 
were: Colorado Pacific Gold Dredging Co., El Dorado 
Gold Dredging Co., Folsom Development Co., Na- 
toma Development Co., Syndicate Gold Dredging Co., 
Wilkes-Barre Dredging Co. (1916); later Natomas Co. 
production records, 1959, 7,894,592 cu. yds., 10.19(!/yd. 
yield, 9.56(* cost per yard and 1958, 9.15^/yd. yield, 
8.73?' cost per yard. 

Bibliography 

Carlson, D. W., 1955, Sacramento County placer mines, California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 51, pp. 134-142. 

Crawford, J. J., 1896, Folsom district: California Min. Bur. Kept. 13, 
pp. 316-317. 

Ooolittle, J. E., 1905, Folsom district: California Min. Bur. Bull. 36, 
pp. 92-98. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1894, Sacramento folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 5, 3 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada, 
Folsom dredge fields: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, p. 222. 

Logon, C. A., 1925, Sacramento County, Dredging: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 21, pp. 12-14. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Gold dredging — Sacramento County: Colifornia 
Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 405-415. 

Winston, W. B., 1910, Gold dredging in California, Sacramento 
County, dredging: California Min. Bur. Bull. 57, pp. 176-204. 

Forbestown 

Location and History. The Forbestown district is 
in southeastern Butte County about 15 miles due east 
of Oroville. It includes the Feather Falls area. The 
Brownsville district is just to the south, and the Hurle- 




Photo 20. Natomos Company Dredge No. 9, Folsom District. This is a 1914 photo of the dredge, in Sacramento County. Photo by C. A. Waring. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



49 




if 



^• 



i^; 



Natomas Company Dredge No. 8, Folsom District. This 1953 photo, taken !n Sacramento Co 
in the Folsom field. No. 8 ceosed operation in 1962. 



^^ 



npany's last active dredge 



ton and Bidwell Bar districts are to the west. The area 
was- placer-mined during the gold rush. At that time 
the South Fork of the Feather River, which drains the 
area, yielded huge amounts of gold. The town was 
named for Ben F. Forbes who established a store here 
in 1850. The Gold Bank mine was operated on a major 
scale from 1888 until 1904. Moderate mining activity 
continued in the district through the 19.^0s, and there 
has been intermittent prospecting, some by skin div- 
ing, since. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The area is underlain 
by massive greenstone, amphibolite schist and fine- 
grained diorite. Granite lies to the north and gabbro 
diorite to the south. There are a number of north- 
trending quartz veins and stringers. The ore contains 
free gold and considerable amounts of sulfides; tellu- 
rides have been reported. The milling ore is usually 
low in value (1/5 oz. or less per ton), but the ore 
shoots often had stoping lengths of several hundred 
feet. The sulfide concentrates were valued up to flOO 
per ton. 

Mines. Carlisle, Denver, Gold Bank |2 million. 
Golden Eagle, Golden Queen $372,000-f, Miller, 
Shakespeare $137,000-f-. Southern Cross, Williams. 

Bibliography 

Crawford, J. J., 1894, Gold Bonk mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 12, 
p. 83. 

Logan, C. A., 1930, Butte County, Forbestown Consolidated Gold 
Mines: California DIv. Mines Rept. 26, pp. 373-376. 

Miner, J. A., 1890, Gold Bonk mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 10, 
pp. 125-127. 

Turner, H. W., 1898, Bidwell Bar folio, California: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geo!. Atlas of the U. S., folio 43, 6 pp. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Butte County, Gold Bank and Golden Queen 
mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 216-217. 



Forest Hill 

Locatio?!. The Forest Hill district is in south-cen- 
tral Placer County in the general vicinity of the town 
of that name. This district is fairly large in area and 
includes not only the "diggings" at Forest Hill but 
those at Bath to the east, Todd Valley and Dardanelles 
to the southwest, and Yankee Jims to the northwest. 
The district is principally a placer-mining one, al- 
though there have been some productive quartz mines. 

History. Gold was discovered here in 1850. By 
1852 the area was highly productive. In that year the 
Jenny Lind mine was discovered, and hydraulic min- 
ing was introduced at Yankee Jims by Colonel Mc- 
Clure. The town was an important trading center in 
those days. By 1868 the mines in the vicinity of the 
town had yielded more than $10 million. Large-scale 
hydraulic mining continued until the early 1880s and 
drift mining until the early 1900s. There was appre- 
ciable activity in the district again in the 1930s and 
early 1940s, and a few mines, such as the Paragon and 
Three Queens, have been worked since. Forest Hill 
is now an important lumbering center. The total out- 
put of the district is estimated to be at least $25 million, 
and it may be considerably more. 

Geology. The main early Tertiary channel of the 
Middle Fork of the American River enters the district 
from Michigan Bluff on the east. At Bath it turns 
north and then west and southwest and continues 
southwest through Forest Hill. At the Dardanelles 
mine west of Forest Hill, the channel swings north- 
west to Yankee Jims and then north to the Iowa Hill 
district. An intervolcanic channel extends west-south- 
west from Baker Ranch to north of Forest Hill. An- 



so 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



other intervolcanic channel extends south-southwest 
between the above and Yankee Jims. The older 
quartzitic gravels near bedrock arc coarse and well- 
cemented and have yielded the most gold. Much of 
the gravel is overlain by rhyolite and andesite. Bed- 
rock is slate with some phyllite, schist, and serpentine. 
Some of the gold-quartz veins were rich, especially 
those that occur near serpentine. The veins are usually 
three to four feet thick and strike in a northwesterly 
direction. A number of small but rich pockets were 
found in the Three Queens mine, the principal lode 
mine in the district. 

Mines. Placer: Baker Divide; Baltimore; Big Spring 
$150,000; Dardanelles $2 million-f; Excelsior; Flor- 
ida; Georgia Hill, Yankee Jim and Smiths Point, to- 
getlier $5 million; Grc>' Eagle; Homestake; Inde- 
pendent, New Jersc\- and Jenny Lind, together $2,- 
653,000; Mayflower $1 million; Maus; Paragon 
$2.65 million4-; Peckham Hill and Todd Valley, to- 
gether $5 million; Pond; San Francisco; Small Hope; 
Yankee Jims. Lode: Dry Hill, Eureka, Cons. Interna- 
tional, Mitchell, Three Queens $100,000-|-. 

Bibliography 

Browne, Ross E., 1890, The ancient river beds of the Forest Hill 
Divide: Colifornio Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 435-465. 

Chandra, Deb K., 1961, Geology and mineral deposits of the Colfax 
and Forest Hill quadrangles, Californio: California Div. Mines Spec. 
Rept. 67, 50 pp. 

Ellsworth, E, W., 1933, Tracing buried-river channel deposits by 
geomagnetic methods: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 244—250. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Dardanelles, Boker Divide, and Breece and 
Wheeler mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 464-468. 

Jorman, Arthur. 1927, Forest Hill and south side of Forest Hill: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 23, pp. 88 and 91-92. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1900, Colfax folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 149-151. 

logon, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, Dardanelles, 
Moyftower, and Paragon mines: Colifornio Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 55^ 
69, and 73-75. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Placer County, Forest Hill district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 16, p. 317. 

French Corral 

Location. French Corral is in northwestern Ne- 
vada County about nine miles northwest of Nevada 
City. Much of the gold production came from hy- 
draulic mines between here and Birchville to the 
northeast. 

History. The town was named for a mule corral 
erected by a Frenchman, who was the first settler in 
the area. The principal period of gold mining was from 
the middle 1850s to the 1890s; there has been minor 
work since. Sometime before 1867, a 7 '/4 -carat dia- 
mond, the largest known to have come from Cali- 
fornia, was found here in a sluice box. 

French Corral was the terminus of one of the first 
long-distance telephone lines in the United States. In- 
stalled by the Edison Company about 1878, it con- 
nected Birchville, North San Juan and North Bloom- 
field to Bowman or French Lake, in the high Sierra 
Nevada some 58 miles east. It was used primarily to 
send messages about the delivery of water to the 
hydraulic mines, but it also was used by Western 
Union to send other messages. 



The total production of the district is unknown, but 
it has been estimated to be valued at between $3 mil- 
lion and $4 million. Lindgren, in 1911, estimated that 
32.5 million yards of gravel had been removed and 
that 20 million remained; the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers, in 1891, estimated that the same amount 
had been removed, but that only 10 million yards 
remained. 

Geology. A major channel of the Tertiary Yuba 
River entered the area from the northeast. It extends 
southwest for a distance of about four miles in this 
district. The gravels deposited by this channel are 150 
to 250 feet thick and 600 or more feet wide. The 
gravels have yielded gold throughout, but the quartz- 
rich lower gravels were the richest. Bedrock is grano- 
diorite with greenstone to the north. Also there are 
some gold-quartz veins and bodies of mineralized 
granodiorite and greenstone. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemar. 1895, Smartsville folio, Colifornio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 123-125. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevada County, French Corral mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 7-11. 

Fresno River 

Small amounts of gold are recovered intermittently 
from the lower Fresno River in western Madera 
County. There are several small floating suction 
dredges similar to those on the Chowchilla River to 
the north (see also the section on the Chowchilla dis- 
trict). This stream was first placer-mined during the 
gold rush, when the Coarsegold and Grub Gulch dis- 
tricts to the northeast were originally worked. 

Bibliography 

Logon, C. A., 1950, Madera County, gold: California Jour. Mines and 
Geology, vol. 46, pp. 453-456. 

Friont 

The Friant district is in northeastern Fresno County 
on the San Joaquin River, in the vicinity of the Friant 
Dam. Placer mining was carried on in the district 
during the early days in the vicinity of Fort Miller, 
a military post now inundated by the reservoir. Later 
this place was the terminus of a branch of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad and known as PoUasky. It was re- 
named in the 1920s for Thomas Friant of the White- 
Friant Lumber Company. About $200,000 worth of 
gold was recovered as a by-product from sand and 
gravel excavated for use in the construction of the 
dam in 1940-42. Since 1946, from $5000 to $25,000 
worth of gold has been produced annually from the 
sand and gravel plants here. The gold occurs in the 
river gravels and small terrace deposits adjacent to 
the river. The gold is fine and flaky, recovered in 
riffles set below the fine screens in the sand-washing 
plants. 

Bibliography 

Bradley, Walter W., 1916, Fresno County, gold: Colifornio Min. Bur. 
Rept. 14, p. 440. 

Logon, C. A., Broun, L. T., ond Vernon. J. W., 1951, Fresno County, 
gold: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 503-504. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



51 



Genesee 

Location. The Genesee district is in the southeast 
end of the Crescent Mills-Taylorsville-Genesee gold 
belt of east-central Plumas County. This is not a single 
belt but rather several parallel belts or zones of gold 
and copper mineralization. The well-known Walker 
copper mine is in this district. 

History. Gold was first placer-mined in the streams 
during the gold rush, and lode mining began soon 
afterward. Genesee is believed to have been named by 
the Ingalls family for a valley in New York State. 
Mining activity continued almost steadily through the 
early 1900s. The Walker copper mine was worked on 
a major scale from about 1915 to 1942, and the con- 
centrates were delivered to the Western Pacific Rail- 
road at Spring Garden via a nine-mile aerial tramway. 
There has been intermittent gold and copper prospect- 
ing in the district since. 

Geology. This area is underlain by the same series 
of Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphic rocks found 
in the Taylorsville district to the west and northwest 
(see Taylorsville district). Contact metamorphism, 
especially in the vicinity of the Walker mine, has 
altered the rocks into homfels and schist. The gold-ore 
deposits consist of either quartz veins or zones of 
quartz stringers that contain free gold, limonite, and 
sulfides. A number of high-grade pockets have been 
found. There are several patches of auriferous Tertiary 
gravels. 

Mines. Austrian Syndicate, Big Cliff, Blue Bell, 
Bullion, Caiman, Cosmopolitan, Five Bears, Green 
Ledge, Gruss $460,000, Hinchman, Magpie, Mountain 
Lion, Native Son, Peter, Taylor (placer). Wards 
(placer). 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1937, Plumas County, copper and gold: California Div. 
Mines Rep>. 33, pp. 93-124. 

Diller, J. S., 1908, Geology of the Taylorsville region, California: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 353, 128 pp. 

Diller, J. S., 1909, Mineral resources of the Indian Valley region: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 260, pp. 45-49. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1920, Plumas County, Genesee mining district: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 12-18. 

Georgetown 

Location. The Georgetown district is in north- 
western El Dorado County at the north end of the 
northeast segment of the Mother Lode belt. It e.xtends 
from just north of Garden Valley north through 
Georgetown and the Georgia Slide area to the Middle 
Fork of the American River. It is both a lode- and 
placer-mining district. 

History. Mining began here in 1849 by a party 
of placer miners from Oregon. The site was first 
known as Growlersburg, but was soon changed to 
Georgetown. It is reported to have been named for 
either George Ehrenhaft, who laid out the town, or 
George Phipps, a sailor-prospector. The placers were 
highly productive during the 1850s. The seam deposits 
at Georgia Slide were mined on a large scale by 
hydraulicking from 1853 to about 1895. There was 



some activity during the early 1900s, and in the 1930s 
the Beebe and Alpine mines were worked on a fairly 
large scale. There has been minor prospecting and 
skin diving in the district since. 

Geology. This district is in the northern end of the 
Mother Lode gold belt (see fig. 4). There is a two- 
mile wide north- and northwest-trending belt of 
Mariposa slate (Upper Jurassic) in the central portion 
of the district, with greenstone and green schist to 
the west and mica schist, slate, quartzite, amphibolite, 
and serpentine to the east. In places, especially at 
Georgia Slide, the bedrock is deeply weathered. 
Several patches of Tertiary gravel overlain by andesite 
are exposed on some hills in the northern part. 

Ore Deposits. The ore deposits consist of thick 
zones of mineralized schist and slate that contain 
numerous quartz veins and veinlets. Where deeply 
weathered the gold became concentrated and such 
deposits were worked by placer-mining methods. 
These are known as "seam" deposits. Below the 
weathered zone they were mined as lode deposits. The 
seam deposit at Georgia Slide was 1000 feet long 
and 500 feet wide. Usually the milling ore yielded 
from y-^ to \i ounce to the ton, but many high-grade 
pockets were encountered. In addition, there are 
several wide quartz veins containing finely dissemi- 
nated free gold and pyrite. These veins contained ore 
shoots with stoping lengths of up to 500 feet. The 
Tertiary gravel patches have yielded gold. 

Mines. Lode-seam: Alpine $500,000-|-, Alma, Bar- 
ney, Beebe $2 million, California Jack, Cove Hill, Geor- 
eria Slide $6 million, Mamaluke, Mount Hope. Placer: 
Anderson, Bottle Hill, Cary, Cement Hill, Holmes, 
Jones Hill, Little Chief, Mulvey Point, Patterson, 
Rowe, Shoemaker, Tanksley, Trimble. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Carlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, Seam 
deposits and Georgetown area: California Jour. Mines and Geology, 
vol. 52, pp. 431 and 435-437. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Alpine mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 8, 
pp. 167-168. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio, 
California: U. S. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 3, pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, The Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 108-169. 

Logon, C. A., 1935, Mother Lode gold belt of Colifornio, Alpine, 
Beebe, and Georgia Slide mines: California Div. Mines Bull. 108, 
pp. 15-19 and 46. 

Preston, E. B., 1893, Georgetown: Colifornio Min. Bur. Rept. 11, 
pp. 202-204. 

Gibsonville 



Location. This placer-mining district is in north- 
western Sierra County and southern Plumas County in 
the vicinity of the old town of Gibsonville. It is about 
six miles northeast of La Porte and 20 miles due north 
of Downieville. The district includes the Whiskey 
Diggings, Hepsidam, and Bunker Hill areas. The area 
was first worked during the gold rush, and consider- 
able drift mining and some hydraulic mining followed 
in 1875-95. There has been intermittent prospecting 
since. 

Geology. The deposits are located on the Tertiary 
North Fork of the Yuba River, which is also kno^vn as 



52 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



the La Porte channel. The channel extends in a south- 
west direction through the district. The channel 
gravels are as much as 1500 feet wide and capped by 
thick beds of andesite and clay. The gold was found 
mostly in quartz-rich gravels near bedrock and was 
mostly coarse-grained. Some ground yielded up to $3 
per yard of gold at the old price. There are a number 
of drops in the channel, caused possibly by bedrock 
faulting. The bedrock consists of amphibolite with 
serpentine, slate, and schist lying to the east. The chan- 
nel has been drift-mined almost continuously from 
Hepsidam southwest through Gibsonville to the 
Thistle shaft, a distance of about five miles. Although 
the district is reported to have had only a moderate 
output, extensive drifting and a number of rich pay 
streaks indicate that it must have been much more 
productive than originally believed. 

Mines. Bellevue group, Bunker Hill, Empire, 
Feather Fork (Thistle), Garnet, Gibsonville Water 
and Mining (hydraulic), Homestake, Taber 
(Hal Taber), Union-Keystone $600,000, Washington 
(North American Cons.) (hydraulic). Whiskey (hy- 
draulic). 

Bibliography 

Crawford, J. J., 1896, Feather Fork mine: California Min. Bur. Rep». 
13, p. 376. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 106-107. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1921, Sierra County, Gibsonville mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 17, pp. 11-13. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio, California: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 

Weil, S. C, The ancient channel of Gibsonville: Min. and Sci. Press, 
vol. 91, July 29, 1905, p. 73. 

Wiltsee, E. A., 1893, Gibsonville mining district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 11, pp. 418-419. 

Globe 

There are several small gold mines and prospects in 
an area known as the Globe mining district in central 
Tulare Count>' about 15 miles east of Porterville. 
Most of the prospects are in the vicinity of Cow 
Mountain on the north side of the Tule River Indian 
Reservation or a few miles to the west. There was 
some prospecting here in the early 1900s, but appar- 
ently little or nothing has been clone since. The de- 
posits consist of shallow quartz veins in granite that 
contain fairly abundant pyrite and small amounts of 
free gold. 

Bibliography 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, Tulare County, gold: Colifornio Min. Bur. Rept. 
15, pp. 912-915. 

Gold Run 

Location and History. This district is in north- 
central Placer County in the vicinity of and south of 
the town of Gold Run. Extensive Tertiary channel 
gravels extend from here south to Indiana Hill and 
the North Fork of the American River. Much of the 
output in the district has come from the vast Stewart 
hydraulic mine, which is traversed by U.S. Highway 
Interstate 80 across its north end. The area was first 
placer-mined in 1849, and the town was founded in 
1854 by O. W. Hollcnbeck. The town was originally 
called Mountain Springs. From 1865 to 1878 appro.xi- 



mately $6,125,000 in gold was shipped from the express 
office here. Mining on a moderate scale continued until 
about 1915, with considerable production reponed in 
1908. There was minor work here in the 1920s and 
1930s. 

Geology. The deposits are located on a major Ter- 
tiary channel of the American River that enters the 
area from the south and continues north to Dutch 
Flat. The gravel deposits are more than a mile wide in 
an east-west direction, three miles long in a north-south 
direction, and up to 400 feet deep. The lower ce- 
mented blue gravel yielded as much as several dollars 
per yard. The upper gravels contain quartz with clay 
and sand and averaged 11 to 17 cents per yard, while 
the top gravels ran to four to five cents per yard. 
Bedrock is slate in the west portion and gabbroic rock 
to the east. 

Bibliography 

Anon. July 24, 1875 to Feb. 19, 1876, Hydraulic mining at Gold 
Run — The Blue Lead ancient river channel: Min. and Sci. Press. 

Hobson, J. B., 1890, Gold Run district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 10, 
p. 427. 

Jormon, Arthur, 1927, Gold Run: California Min. Bur. Rept. 23, 
pp. 81-86. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1900, Colfax folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary grovels of the Sierra Nevada, 
Indiana Hill and Gold Run: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 145. 

Logan, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, Gold Run district: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 62-63. 

Lydon, P. A., 1959, Geology along U. S. Highway 40: Mineral Infor- 
mation Service, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1-9. 

Granite Basin 

Location. The Granite Basin district straddles the 
Butte-Plumas County line about 30 miles northeast of 
Oroville and 30 miles west southwest of Quincy. It 
includes the Buckeye, Gold Lake, Milsap Bar, Soap- 
stone Hill, and Merrimac areas. The area was placer- 
mined during and after the gold rush. There was some 
lode mining here in the 1930s, and there has been 
minor prospecting since. 

Geology. Several granitic stocks are intrusive into 
slate, quartzite and limestone of the Calaveras Forma- 
tion (Carboniferous to Permian) and amphibolite. Ex- 
foliation has formed several round granitic domes, of 
which Bald Rock is the most prominent. Serpentine, 
some Tertiary basalt and a few patches of Tertiary 
auriferous gravel are present. The quartz veins usually 
occur in the granite. The veins are narrow, but the 
ore bodies often are rich. Pyrite and galena are abun- 
dant. 

Mines. Lode: Hardquartz, Hose, Reynolds. Placer: 
Buckeye drift. Coquette, Horseshoe, Milsap Bar, Rob- 
inson. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1937, Plumas County, Granite Basin Mining Company: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 33, pp. 108-109. 

Heilonen, A. M., 1951, Melomorphic and igneous rocks of the Merri- 
mac area. Geol. Soc. America Bull. Vol. 62, pp. 565-607. 

Lydon, P. A., 1959, Geological section and petrography along the 
Poe tunnel, Butte County: California Div. Mines Spec. Rept. 61, 18 pp. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1920, Plumas County, Granite Basin mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 18-21. 

Turner, H. W., 1898, Bidwell Bor folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 43, 6 pp. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



53 



Granite Springs 

This district is in the northwest corner of Mariposa 
County and the southwest corner of Tuolumne 
County in the vicinity of Lake McClure and Don 
Pedro Reservoir. The mines apparently were last 
worked in the 1930s. The region is underlain chiefly 
by greenstone with some interbeds of graphitic slate. 
There are a considerable number of northwest-striking 
gold-quartz veins often associated with diorite dikes. 
Most of the deposits are relatively shallow. 

Mines. Mariposa County: Anita, Burr $350,000, 
Florinita, Jackson, White Rock. Tuolumne County: 
Buzzard Roost, Diamond, Hedley, Oak Mesa, Solambo. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1957, Mariposa County, Burr mine: California 
lour. Mines and Geology, vol. 53, p. 247. 

Graniteville 



Location and History. This district is in east-cen- 
tral Nevada County about 30 miles east of Nevada 
City. It is also known as the Eureka district. An 
extensive belt of gold mineralization in this region 
extends from the vicinity of the town of Graniteville 
south-southeast to the Emigrant Gap district, a dis- 
tance of about 10 miles. The district includes the 
Gaston mine area, which sometimes has been classified 
as a separate district. The Alleghany-Washington gold 
belt lies a few miles to the west, and the American 
Hill district is to the north. The Graniteville district 
was first placer-mined during the gold rush, and quartz 
mining began soon afterward. Considerable mining 
activity continued from the 1860s until about 1900, 
and there was much activity again during the 1930s. 
The Ancho-Erie and a few other mines were worked 
for a short time after World War II. 

Geology. The district is underlain by slate, schist, 
and phyllite of the Blue Canyon Formation (Carbonif- 
erous) in the west and granodiorite in the east. In addi- 
tion, there are several patches of Tertiary gravel and 
several glacial moraines. 

Ore Deposits. Three main north-striking vein sys- 
tems run through the district. One in the western 
portion of the district is in slate and schist and con- 
tains the Culbertson, National, and Ancho-Erie mines. 
One to the east is in granodiorite and contains the 
Wisconsin, Baltic, and Iowa mines. The veins in the 
central system are along the slate-granodiorite contact. 
Properties in the central system include the Rocky 
Glen and Gaston mines. The quartz veins are as much 
as 15 feet thick. The ore contains free gold and vary- 
ing amounts of auriferous sulfides. The milling ore 
usually averages Vi ounce per ton or less with very 
little high grade. Some of the ore shoots had stoping 
lengths of several hundred feet. The veins were mined 
to depths of as much as 500 feet. The Tertiary gravels 
at Graniteville and at Shands r^vo miles to the west 
have yielded some gold. 

Mines. Alpha, Ancho-Erie $1 million+, Ander- 
son, Artie, Azalie, Baltic, Barren, Birchville, Blue Bell, 



Celina Flat, Cooley, Culbertson, Eagle Bird, Gaston 
$2 million?, German, Gold Bug, Hotwater, Iowa, IXL, 
Jim, Keller, Last Chance, Lindsay, Mountain View, 
National, Rainbow, Rattlesnake, Republic, Rockv 
Glen 1300,000-1-, Star, Washington, Wisconsin, Yel- 
low Metal, Yuba $2 million-|-. 

Bibliography 

Hobson, J. B., and Wiltsee, E. A., 1893, Eureka mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Repl. 11, pp. 308-310. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Eureka district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 8, 
pp. 448-451. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1900, Colfax folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada; 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 141. 

Logan, C. A., 1930, Nevada County, Gaston mine: California Div. 
Mines Rept. 26, pp. 110 and 113. 

Logan, C. A., 1941, Nevada County, Ancho and Erie group, Birch- 
ville mines: California Div. Mines Rept. 37, pp. 383 and 386. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevada County, Graniteville mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 11-13. 

Grass Valley 

Location. This famous mining district is in west- 
ern Nevada County in the immediate area of the town 
of Grass Valley. The Nevada City district adjoins it 
on the northeast and the Rough-and-Ready district 
is to the west. 

History. Placer gold was first found in Wolf Creek 
in 1848 shortly after Marshall's discovery at Coloma. 
The earliest mining was done by David Stump and 
two companions who came from Oregon. The shallow 
placers were rich but were exhausted quickly. Gold- 
bearing quartz was discovered at Gold Hill in 1850 
and soon afterward at Ophir, Rich, and iVIassachusetts 
Hills. Quartz mining soon developed into a major 
industry that was to last more than 100 years. The 
Gold Hill and Allison Ranch were the leading lode 
mines during the 1850s. Mining was curtailed some- 
what during the Comstock rush of 1859-65, but the 
mines were productive again in the late 1860s. The 
camp declined in the lf"70s, and 'ly 1880 ' nly the 
Empire and Idaho mines were active. In 1384 the 
North Star mine was reopened and activities increased; 
the North Star, Empire, Idaho-Maryland, Pennsyl- 
vania, and W.Y.O.D. all were highly productive. By 
1900, the Idaho-Maryland mine had yielded a total of 
$12.5 million. From 1900 to 1925, the North Star and 
Empire mines were the largest producers, the Idaho- 
Maryland having been idle in 1901-19. By 1928, the 
North Star had had a total output valued at $33 
million. 

In 1929 the Empire and North Star groups were 
purchased by the Newmont Mining Corporation. This 
merger, which resulted in the Empire-Star Mines Co., 
included other important mines, such as the Pennsyl- 
vania, W.Y.O.D., and Sultana. From 1930 to 1941, the 
district was enormously productive. The 1930-40 out- 
put of Idaho-Maryland Alines Corp., which included 
the Idaho-Maryland and Brunswick mines, was $26.7 
million. The Empire-Star group yielded 1,074,284 
ounces of gold from 1929 to 1940. Nearly 4000 miners 



54 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Empire Mine, Gross Valley District. Mules frequently hauled ore cars, as in this underground scene at the 
The photo wos taken in about 1910. 



Nevodo County. 



were at work in the mines during the 1930s and early 
1940s. The mines were shut down during World War 
II, but the Empire, Pennsylvania, North Star, and 
Idaho-Maryland reopened soon afterward. However, 
operations gradually decreased; the Idaho-Mar\'land 
stopped gold mining in 1956 and the Empire-Star 
group in 1957, closures that ended nearly 106 years of 
gold-mining operations in the Grass Valley district. 
Some tungsten ore was mined in 1954-57 at the New 
Brunswick unit of the Idaho-Maryland mine. 

Grass Valley was the richest and most famous gold- 
mining district in California. The value of the total 



output of the lode mines is estimated to have been at 
least $300 million, and the placer mines yielded a few 
million dollars more worth of gold. The r\vo largest 
operations, the Empire-Star and Idaho-Maryland 
groups, had total outputs of $130 million and $70 mil- 
lion, respectively. Many famous mining engineers and 
geologists worked in the Grass V^alley district. A num- 
ber of important inventions and improvements were 
made in mining and milling equipment in the Grass 
Valley gold mines. Many of the miners were of Corn- 
ish descent and were often known as "Cousin Jacks". 
For many years the town and the mines were served 
by the Nevada County Narrow Gauge Railroad, 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



55 




Photo 23. End of a Shift, Empire Mine, Gross Volley District. A shift, circa 1900, ascends after a work tour at the Nevado 
County mine. Many of these miners were Cornishmen — "Cousin Jacks." 



56 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 24. Idaho-Maryland Mine, Graji Valley District. This photo, taken in obouf 1930, 

mine. Pfiofo by Wo/ter W. Bradley. 



shows the Idaho shaft at the Nevada County 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



57 




Photo 25. New Brunswick Mine, Grass Valley District. This is a 1955 view of the Nevada County mine, which was 
a member of the Idaho-Maryland group. Phofo by D. W. Carlson. 



which extended north from Colfax. A few historic 
mine structures are still standing, but most of the 
extensive surface plants of the major mines have been 
dismantled. The old power house at the North Star 
mine and its 32-foot Pelton wheel are part of a Nevada 
County historical display. 



Geology. An elongated body of granodiorite is in 
the central portion of the district (fig. 8). This body 
is five miles long in a north-south direction and '/z to 
two miles wide. It is intrusive into older metamorphic 
rocks and itself is cut by various dike rocks. Immedi- 
ately east and west of the intrusion are dark green- 




Photo 26. Scotia Mine, Grass Valley District. This scene shows the Nevada County mine in the 1940s. Photo by O/of P. Jenkins 



58 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 







EXPLANATION 

'>,Ta'>J'J Andes ite, tuff and breccia 
Gronodiorite 
Gobbro and diorite 
Serpentine 



"grd 



j-gbd'i 



N.--SP. 



Greenstone, slate, omptiibolite, 
end schist 



A^x' Ore veins 



i 



SCALE 

3000 



Figure 8. Geologic Mop of Gross Valley District, Nevada County. The major veins and vein systems ore shown. The names opply to veins, not 
mines. AUer Johnston, 1940, plata 1, and Lindgren, Nevodo City Special Folio, 1896. 



Stones classified as inetadiabase and metadiabase por- 
phyry (so-called "porphyrites"), and conrinuingto the 
northeast are amphibolite schist, serpentine, gabbro 
and diorite, and slate. Just north of the granodiorite 
and to the southwest arc slates, phyllitc, quartzite, and 
schist of the Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to 
Permian). A number of intermediate to basic dikes are 
present also, as well as a few aplite and granite por- 
phyry dikes. Overlying part of the district to the east 
and to the northwest are Tertiary gravels, in turn 
largely overlain by andesite. 

Ore Deposits. This is the most heavily mineralized 
and richest gold district in the state with a very large 
number of productive veins in a relatively small area. 
The veins fall into two major groups: 1) those of the 
granodiorite-greenstone area, which have gentle dips, 
and 2) those of the serpentine-amphibolitc area, with 



steep dips (see fig. 8). The veins of the granodiorite 
area are either in the granodiorite or in the adjacent 
greenstone, entering the granodiorite at depth. One 
group of veins strikes north and dips gently (about 
35° on the average) either east or west. This group 
includes the Empire, Pennsylvania, Osborne Hill, 
Omaha, VV.Y.O.D., and Allison Ranch veins. The other 
group of veins in the granodiorite strikes west or 
northwest and dips gently north. The North Star and 
New York Hill veins are included in this group. In 
the serpentinc-amphibolite area the veins strike north- 
west and dip steeply southwest; a few dip northeast. 
These occur mostly in the amphibolite near or at the 
serpentine contact. The Idaho-Maryland, Brunswick, 
and Union Hill mines are here. 

The veins usually range from one to 10 feet in thick- 
ness and consist of quartz with some calcite and an- 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



59 



kerite. They fill minor thrust faults. Many veins con- 
tain several generations of quartz. There are numerous 
northeast-striking, vertical or steeply-dipping fractures 
or "crossings" that commonly are boundaries of ore 
shoots. The ore contains free gold and varying 
amounts of sulfides, chiefly pyrite. Present in smaller 
amounts are galena, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, sphal- 
erite, and pyrrhotite. Galena is commonly associated 
with gold. 

The ore shoots vary considerably in size and shape, 
and the distribution of gold within the shoots is erratic. 
Some have pitch lengths of up to several thousand feet, 
and the veins have been developed to inclined depths 
of as much as 11,000 feet. Much specimen ore has been 
found, but milling ore usually averaged from 0.25 to 
0.5 ounce of gold per ton. Coarse-grained scheelite is 
present in several veins, notably in the Union Hill and 
New Brunswick mines. 



Mines. A\zx, Alaska, Alcade, Allison Ranch $2.7 
million. Alpha, Bella Union, Ben Franklin $750,000, 
Big Diamond, Black Hawk, Bow, Boundary, Buena 
Vista, Bullion, Cassidy (Linden), Centennial $500,- 
000-1-, Cheranne, Coe $500,000+, Conlan, Crown 
Point* $130,000+, Daisy Hill*, Dakota*, Diamond, 
East Star *, Empire *, Empire-Star group $130 million. 
Empire West *, Empress, Eureka t $5.7 million, Gas- 
ton, General Grant, Gladstone, Golden Center (Drom- 
edary) $2.5 million+. Golden Gate, Golden Treasure, 
Gold Hill*, Gold Point t, Goodall, Granite Hill, 
Grant, Hartery $350,000, Hermosa, Heuston, Home- 
ward Bound *, Houston Hill, Idaho t, Idaho-Maryland 
group $70 million. Independence, Inkmarque, Kate 
Hayes *, Larimer, Le Due, Lone Jack, Magenta, Mary 
Ann, Maryland t, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Hill *, 
New Brunswick t. New Eureka t, New Homeward 
Bound, New Ophir *, New York Hill, Normandy- 



EXPLANATION 

Andesite 
h/V-^J.yj Gabbro and diorife 
I , . ; ' ■] Serpentine 
^^^^^^^J [Slate] Coloveras Formotion 



Greenstone and ampfiibolite 
Vein 




— 500 FEET 

— 1000 
—1500 




EXPLANATION 
Granodiorite 
I Greenstone and omptiibolite 
Vein 

Figure 9 (fop). Section through Idaho-Marylond Mine. After Johnston, 1940, figure 65. 
Figure 10 (bottom). Section through Empire and Pennsylvania Mines. After Johnston, 1940, figure 62. 



500 tOOO 1500 FEET 



60 



California Division of Minfs and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Dulinaine, Northern Bell. North Star *. Norunihagua 
Si milli()n + , Oaidand Si 00.000, OIJ Brunswick t. Olii 
Eureka t. Old Homeward Bound, Omaha, Orleans, 
Osborne Hill *, Peabod\-, Pennsvlvania *. Phoenix, 
Polar Star, Prescott Hill. 'Prudential 1100,000, Repub- 
lic, Reward, Rich Hill, Rocky Bar, Rose Hill SIOO,- 
000-f, Scotia, Sebastopol, South Idaho +, Spring Hill 
5300,000+, Stockton Hill, St. John, Sultana *, Syndi- 
cate, Telegraph *, Union Hill t 1750,000, Wisconsin, 
W>oming, W.Y.O.D. 

Bibliography 

Crowford, J. J., 1894, Gold— Nevada County: Colifornio Min. Bur. 
Rept. 12, pp. 185-203. 

Crawford, J. J., 1896, Gold— Nevada County: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 13, pp. 234-271. 

Farmin, Rollin, 1938, Oislocoted inclusions in gold quartz veins at 
Grass Valley, California: Econ. Geology, vol. 33, pp. 579-599. 

Farmin, Rollin, 1941, Occurrence of scheelite in Idaho-Maryland 
Mines at Grass Valley, California: California Div. Mines Rept. 37, 
p. 224. 

Honks, H. G., 1886, Nevada County: California Min. Bur. Rept. 6, 
pp. 44-49. 

Hobson, J. B., 1890, Gross Valley district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 10, pp. 370-384. 

Hobson, J. B., and Wiltsee, E. A., 1893, Grass Valley mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 11, pp. 267-285. 

Hoover, H. C, 1896, Some notes on crossings: Min. and Sci. Press, 
vol. 72, pp. 166-167. 

Howe, Ernest, 1924, The gold ores of Gross Valley, California: Econ. 
Geology, vol. 19, pp. 595-621. 

Irelan, William, 1888, Grass Volley district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 425-435. 

Johnston, W. D., Jr., 1932, Geothermal gradient at Grass Valley, 
Calif.: Washington Acod. Sci. Jour., vol. 22, pp. 267-271. 

Johnston, W. D., Jr., 1940, The gold-quorti veins at Gross Valley, 
Colifornio: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 194, 101 pp. 

Johnston, W. D., Jr., and Closs, Ernst, 1934, Structural history of 
the fracture systems at Grass Valley, Colif.: Econ. Geology, vol. 29, 
pp. 39-54. 

Knoebel, J. B., 1931, The veins and crossings of the Grass Valley 
district: Econ. Geology, vol. 26, pp. 375-398. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1895, Smortsville folio, Colifornio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1896, Nevada City special folio, California: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 29, pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1896, Gold-quartz veins of Nevada City and 
Gross Valley districts: U. S. Geol. Survey, 17lh Ann. Rept. pt. 2, 
pp. 1-262. 

logon, C. A., 1930, Nevada County, Grass Valley district: California 
Div. Mines Rept. 26, pp. 96-99. 

Logan, C. A., 1941, Mineral resources of Nevada County — gold 
quartz mining: California Div. Mines Rept. 37, pp. 380-431. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevada County, Grass Valley district: Coli- 
fornio Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 14-30. 

In addition to the above references, many reports on mining 
methods, equipment, ond mining activities in the district have oppeared 
in various periodicals. Very many private reports also have been mode 
on various mines. 

Gravel Range 

This district is in south-central Tuolumne County 
and north-central Mariposa County about 1 5 miles east 
of Groveland. The principal sources of gold have 
been several bodies of quartzitic Tertiary channel 
gravels that are part of the Tertiary Tuolumne River. 
The deposits are in the Gravel Range, at Dorseys and 
north of Smith Station. They were mined chiefly by 
hydraulicking. Bedrock consists of granodiorite in the 
east and slate and schist in the west. In places the 
gravels are capped by andesite. 

• Part of the Empire-Star group, 
t Part of the Idano-Maryland group. 



Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiory gravels of the Sierro Nevodo: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 217-218. 

Turner, H. W., and Ronsome, F. L., 1897, Sonoro folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 41, 7 pp. 

Greenhorn Mountain 



Location and History. This district is in Kern 
County about 28 miles northeast of Bakersfield. The 
first discovery of gold in Kern County was made in 
Greenhorn Creek in 1851 by a member of General 
John C. Fremont's party. A rush soon followed, and 
the town of Petersburg was established. Gold-mining 
activity declined before 1890, but there has been minor 
prospecting since. Most of the output has been from 
placer mining. 

Geology. Much of the area is underlain b\- quartz 
diorite. There are a few bodies of metamorphic rocks 
and also some pegmatite dikes. The chief placer de- 
posits were in Greenhorn, Fremont, Bradshaw, and 
Black Gulch Creeks. There are numerous small, poorly 
mineralized quartz veins, most of which are a few 
miles east of David Guard Station. The gold is in the 
free state and there is very little sulfide mineralization. 
Uranium-bearing peat bog was discovered in 1955 in 
the northwest part of the district. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Green Horn Mountain district: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 14, p. 482. 

Troxel, B. W., and Morton, P. K., 1962, Kern County, Greenhorn 
Mountain district: California Div. Mines and Geology, County Report 1, 
pp. 34-35. 

Greenwood 

Location. This district is in northwestern El Do- 
rado County. It consists of the northwest segment of 
the Mother Lode gold belt, which splits at Garden 
V'alley (the east segment continues through George- 
town). This segment of the belt is several miles wide 
and extends from the point of the split northwest 
through Greenwood and Spanish Dry Diggings to the 
Middle Fork of the American River, a distance of 
about eight miles. 

History. Placer mining began in this area shortly 
after the beginning of the gold rush. The town was 
named for Caleb and John Greenwood, who estab- 
lished a trading post here in 1850. The district flour- 
ished during the 1850s, when the American River was 
mined and the seam deposits hydraulicked on a large 
scale. The river was mined by diverting the main 
stream with a series of flumes, tunnels, and wingdams. 
The gold-bearing gravels were removed from the 
bedrock and sent through sluices or long toms. Major 
mining activity continued through the early 1900s, 
much of the later placer mining done by Chinese. This 
district ^\as quite productive again during the 1930s, 
when the Sliger, Taylor, and Grit lode mines were 
active. Since about 1955, numerous skin divers have 
been mining the Middle Fork of the American River 
b\' small-scale methods. 

Geology. There are two northwest-trending belts 
of slate of the Mariposa Formation (Upper Jurassic) 
Yz to one mile apart. Chert, impure quartzite, and slate 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



61 




Photo 27. Mining Operotions, Grizzly Flat District. The photo was taken in the ISSOs. Photo courtesy of Bancroft Library. 



lie to the west, and greenstone and amphibolite schist 
lie in the center and to the east. A number of small 
lenticular bodies of serpentine and talcose schist are 
enclosed in the bedrock, which is deeply weathered in 
places. 

Ore Deposits. There are several wide and some- 
times extensive zones of quartz veins and veinlets and 
mineralized schist containing free gold and auriferous 
pyrite. Where deeply weathered, the bedrock was 
eroded, and the gold in the seams and veinlets re- 
mained and became concentrated. Such deposits are 
known as seam deposits or "seam diggings". The upper 
portions were mined by hydraulicking, and later the 
unweathered veins at depth were mined by conven- 
tional underground methods. Considerable specimen 
material has been recovered from this district, includ- 
ing crystallized gold. The famous Fricot nugget of 
crystallized gold (201 ounces), which was taken from 
the Grit mine in 1865, is on display in the Division 
of Mines and Geology exhibit in the Ferry Building, 
San Francisco. Milling-grade ore bodies commonly 
averaged 1/5 to more than 1/2 ounce of gold per ton. 
Some of the veins were mined to inclined depths of 
2000 feet. 

Mines. Admiral Schley, Argonaut 1100,000+, 
Bazocoo, Cedarburg, Centennial, Esperanza $100,- 
000+, Eagle, French Hill 1100,000+?, Greenwood, 
Grit, Hines-Gilbert $100,000+, Homestake, Maltby, 
Nancy Lee, Oakland Cons., Railroad Hill, Red Mount, 



Revenge, Rosecranz $100,000+, San Martin, Sebas- 
topol, Sliger $2.85 million, Taylor $1 million. 

Bibliography 

Clork, W. B., and Carlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, Grif, 
Rosecranz, and Sliger mines: California Jour. Mines and Geology, 
vol. 52, pp. 415-416, 423-424, and 425-426. 

Fairbanks, H. W., 1890, Geology of the Mother Lode region: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 81-82. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio, 
California: U. 5. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, pp. 

Logon, C. A., 1935, Mother Lode gold belt of California, Seam mines: 
California Div. Mines Bull. 108, pp. 43-47. 

Preston, E. B., 1893, Taylor mines: California Min. Bur. Repf. 11, 
p. 205. 

Ronsome, F. L., 1900. Mother Lode district folio, California: U. S. 
Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Grizzly Flat 

Location. The Grizzly Flat district is in south-cen- 
tral El Dorado County about 25 miles east of Placer- 
ville. It is in the Sierra Nevada east gold belt and in- 
cludes the Hazel Valley and Baltic Peak areas. It is 
both a lode and placer gold-mining district. 

History. The streams were originally mined during 
the gold rush. The camp was established in 1850 and 
named for a grizzly bear that surprised a group of 
miners during an evening meal. The Mt. Pleasant mine 
was discovered in 1851. There was much activity in 
both the lode and placer mines from the 1870s through 
the early 1900s. There was some mining activity again 
during the 1930s. The Hazel Creek mine was discov- 



62 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



ered in 1948 and was worked on a fair-sized scale 
until 1958. 

Geology. The southern part of the district is un- 
derlain by granodiorite, which extends west from the 
mass of the Sierra Nevada batholith. To the north is 
slate, phyllite, and graphitic and mica schist of the 
Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to Permian), 
which in places contains small tactite bodies. There 
are several patches of Tertiary gravels overlain by 
andesite that are part of the south-extending Tertiar\' 
channel of the Mokelumne River. 

Ore Deposits. A number of north-trending quartz 
veins and stringers are found in both the granodiorite 
and metamorphic rocks. The ore contains free gold 
and abundant sulfides, especially galena. The ore aver- 
ages Yz to more than one ounce of gold per ton, but 
few ore shoots were more than 100 feet long or at- 
tained much depth. The Tertiary channel gravels are 
thin and the channels narrow, but in some places they 
were extremely rich. 

Mines. Lode: Blue Gt)uge, Cosumnes (Melton) 
$100,000-f. Daily and Bishop, Eagle, Eagle King, 
Hazel Creek $ 1 million-|-, Morey, Mt. Hope, Mt. 
Pleasant $1 million-|-, Sunday. Placer: Grizzly Flat 
drift, Payne drift. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Carlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, Blue 
Gouge, Cosumnes, and Hazel Creek mines: California Jour. Mines, 
vol. 52, pp. 411, 413, and 416-418. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Grizzly Flat district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 177-180. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Plocerville folio: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 180-181. 

Logan, C. A., 1938, El Dorado County, Blue Gouge, Melton, and 
Mt. Pleasant mines: California Div. Mines Rept. 34, pp. 224-225, 238, 
and 241-242. 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, El Dorado County, Eagle King and Mt. Pleasant 
mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 285 and 292. 

Grub Gulch 

Location and History. This district is in east-cen- 
tral Madera County at the site of the old town of 
Grub Gulch, seven miles north of Coarsegold and 35 
miles northeast of Madera. The site is at the north- 
west end of a 20-mile-long belt that extends from here 
southeast through the Coarsegold and Fine Gold dis- 
tricts. This district has been the most productive por- 
tion of this belt. It includes part of the area that also 
was known as the Potter Ridge district. The camp was 
established shortly after the discovery of Coarsegold 
in 1849. There was much activity from the 1880s 
through the early 1900s but very little mining has 
been done since. A few small suction dredges were 
active in the 1940s and 1950s downstream in the 
Chowchilla River. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The district is under- 
lain by a northwest-trending belt of mica schist and 
quarrzite with granodiorite to the west. A series of 
gold-cjuartz veins arc variously oriented. The veins 
range from one to 10 feet in thickness. The ore con- 
tains free gold and varying amounts of sulfides. The 



milling-grade ore was reported to have yielded up to 
one ounce of gold per ton. The greatest depth of 
development is 800 feet. 

Mines. Bullion, Butterfly, Conary, Crystal Spring, 
Enterprise $100,000, Gam'betta $500,000, Hoboken, 
Josephine $360,000, Lucky Bill, Savannah, Starlight, 
Woodland. 

Bibliography 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1890, Potter Ridge mining district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 197-204. 

McLaughlin, R. P., and Bradley, W. W., 1916, Madera County, gold: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 539-553. 

Hammonlon 

Location. The Hammonton district is in south- 
central Yuba County along the lower Yuba River 
about 10 miles east of Marysville. It is a major dredge 
field that extends along the river about eight miles. 
It also is known as the Yuba River district. 

History. The river and streams here were first 
worked during the gold rush by small-scale placer 
methods. However, this soon ceased because the river 
level was raised by a large influx of hydraulic mine 
tailings. Bucket-line dredging began in the district in 
1903 under the direction of W. P. Hammon. In 1905 
his interests were taken over by Yuba Consolidated 
Gold Fields, which had just been organized. This con- 
cern perfected large-scale bucket-line dredging here 
into one of the most eflficient methods for mining 
placer gold. Yuba Dredge No. 20 was one of the 
largest gold dredges in existence. The district was 
dredged almost continuously from 1903 to 1968 and 
was the principal source of gold in California for 
some time. The estimated total output from dredging 
was estimated in 1964 at 4.8 million ounces. 

However, operations have been gradually curtailed; 
in 1967 onl\- two dredges were operating. On October 
1, 1968 the last dredge was shut down, thus ending 
a major industry that had existed for nearl\' 70 years. 
More than a billion cubic yards of gold-bearing gravels 
were dredged. The extensive piles of gravel have be- 
come increasingly important as sources of aggregate. 

Gold-Bearing Gravels. The gold-bearing gravels 
are in and south of the Yuba River, wliich flows west- 
southwest through the area. Digging depths range 
from 60 to 80 feet on the upper end to 100 to 125 feet 
in the vicinity of the tou n of Hammonton. ."Xs much 
as 45 feet of the upper gravels are hydraulic mine- 
tailings. Bedrock in the upper eastern end of the field 
consists of metamorphic rocks, while, in the central 
and western portions, the gravels are underlain by 
clav. The gold recoveries have been as follows: M^/yA 
in 1915-16; 14('-15«'/yd in 1920-22; 8<'-9«'/yd in 
1928-29; 12(*/yd in 1948-49, and 16.56('/vd in 1959. 
The hydraulic tailings were reported to have averaged 
6f'/yd at the old price. The gravels are medium to fine 
and are free-washing. Minor amounts of platinum 
were recovered. 

According to the April, 1960 issue of .Mining 
World, in 1959 Yuba Cons, reported four dredges 
treated 16,642,265 cu. yds. with an average content of 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



63 




Photo 28. Yuba Consolidated Dredge, Ho 



nmonton District. Dredge No. 17 operi 
token a decade eorlit 



ited in the district in Yuba County until 1966. This photo was 



I6.56(' per yard. Reserves in the area were estimated 
to be about 93 million cu. yds. Estimates are that about 
235 million yds. of gold-bearing gravels are in the field 
but be\'ond depths of existing equipment. 

Operations. Hammon and Evans, 1903-05 (bought 
by Yuba Cons.), r\vo dredges; Marysville Dredging 
Co., 1906-25 (bought by Yuba Cons.), five dredges; 
Pacific Gold Dredging Co., 1916-23, one dredge; Yuba 
Cons. Goldfields, 1905-1968, 21 dredges, not all worked 
at the same time. 

Bibliography 

Doolittle, J. E., 1908, Yuba district: California Min. Bur. Bull. 36, 
pp. 88-91. 

Lindgren, 1895, Smartsville folio, California: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1895, Marysville folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 17, 2 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada, 
Yuba dredge field: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 221. 

Logon, C. A., 1931, Yuba County, gold dredging: California Div. 
Mines Rept. 27, pp. 253-257. 

O'Brien, J. C, 1952, Yuba County, Yuba Consolidated Goldfields: 
California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 48, pp. 150-151. 

Sawin, Herbert, 1946, Placer mining for gold in Colifornia, Deep 
gravels dredged successfully; California Div. Mines Bull. 135, pp. 
316-322. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Yuba County, gold dredgers: Colifornia Min. 
Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 425-437. 

Winston, W. B., 1910, Gold dredging in California, Yuba County: 
Calif. Min. Bur. Bull. 57, pp. 165-174. 

Hardin Flat 

Location. This is a small Sierra Nevada east gold 
belt district in south-central Tuolumne County. It is 
west of Yosemite National Park on the Big Oak Flat 
road and two miles east of the tow n of Hardin Flat. 
The town was named for "Little Johnny Hardin", an 
eccentric Englishman who once owned a sawmill here. 



There are a number of small prospects that are inter- 
mittently worked, mostly by weekend prospectors. 

Geology. The principal rock in the area is grano- 
diorite that is cut by narrow aplitic dikes. There are 
a number of narrow quartz veins that in places have 
yielded small but rich pockets of gold near the sur- 
face. Some sulfides are present. 

Mines. Five Star, Golden Arrow, Huff, Mayflower, 
New Hope, Santa Maria. 

Hildreth 

Location and History. This district is in east-cen- 
tral Madera County at the site of the town of Hildreth 
about 35 miles east of Madera. It is on the northwest 
end of an indistinct belt of gold mineralization that 
extends southeast through the Temperance Flat and 
Big Dry Creek districts in Fresno County. Apparently 
the chief period of mining in the area was from about 
1860 to 1890, with possibly some prospecting and 
development again during the 1920s and 1930s. The 
district was named for the Hildreth brothers, farmers 
who settled here about 1870. 

Geology. The principal rock in the district is 
medium- to coarse-grained granodiorite with several 
narrow northwest-trending beds of slate and schist. 
There are a number of north-striking quartz veins con- 
taining free gold and often abundant sulfides. The 
veins are as much as 20 feet thick, and several have 
been developed to inclined depths of about 600 feet. 

Mines. Abbey 5100,000-^?, Golconda, Hanover, 
Hildreth, Morrow (Moro, Bazinet), .Mud Springs 
1250,000, Volcano No. 1 $100,000. 

Bibliography 

Goldstone, L. P., 1890, Hildreth mining district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 10, pp. 194-197. 



64 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Hildralti mining diilrlct: California Min. 
Bur. Kept. 8, pp. 202-205. 

McLaughlin, R. P. and Bradley, W. W., 1916, Madera County, gold: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 539-553. 

Hite Cove 

Location and History. Hite Co%e is in central Mari- 
posa County on the South Fork of the Merced River. 
Placer mining began in the area shortly after the be- 
ginning of the gold rush, and the Hite mine was dis- 
covered in 1862 by John R. Hite. He operated the 
property for 17 years and became quite rich. The mine 
was active again during the early 1900s. There has 
been some prospecting in the area in recent years. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The district is under- 
lain by graphitic schist and slate, quartzite, and horn- 
fels. These rocks are cut by a variety of aplitic and 
granitic dikes, some of which are associated with gold- 
quartz veins. There are a number of northwest-strik- 
ing quartz veins up to 12 feet thick. The ore contains 
native gold and often abundant sulfides. The greatest 
depth of development is about 800 feet. 

Mines. Brown Bear, Bunker Hill, Confidence, 
Emma, Eureka, Georgia Point, Hite $3 million, Hite 
Central, Kaderitas, Mexican, Williams. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1957, Mariposa County, lode mines: California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 53, pp. 72-187. 

Costello, W. O., 1921, Mariposa County, Hite Cove district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 17, p. 94. 

Lowell, F. L., 1916, Moriposa County, Hite mine: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 14, pp. 583-584. 

Hodson 

Location. This district is in the Sierra Nevada west 
gold belt in southwestern Calaveras Count>' a few 
miles west of Copperopolis. A belt of lode-gold de- 
posits extends from the site of the old town of Hod- 
son northwest through Salt Springs Valley, a distance 
of about 10 miles. At one time this district was also 
known as the Felix district. 

History. Small-scale placer mining probably was 
done here during the gold rush, and the mining of 
rich surface pockets soon followed. The district was 
highly productive during the 1890s and early 1900s 
when the Royal mine and other properties were 
worked on a large scale. The 120-stamp mill at the 
Royal mine, erected in 1903, was one of the largest 
mills in California. The mines were active again during 
the 1930s and early 1940s. Copper ore from Copper- 
opolis was treated at the Mountain King Mill during 
World War II. More recent exploration work, includ- 
ing diamond drilling, has been done in the district, but 
very little of it has been gold mining. 

Geology. On the west side of the mineralized belt 
are northwest-trending beds of slate of the Mariposa 
Formation (Upper Jurassic). Metavolcanic rocks, 
chiefly massive greenstones and amphibolite of the 
Logtown Ridge Formation (Upper Jurassic), are on 
the east. The central portion has been intruded by 
numerous serpentinized bodies in or adjacent to the 
northwest-trending Hodson fault zone. 



Ore Deposits. The deposits consist of large low- 
grade bodies of mineralized schist and greenstone 
knoM n as "gray ore," which contain some disseminated 
free gold, auriferous pyrite and minor amounts of 
other sulfides. The deposits are associated with the 
Hodson fault. One of the larger gray ore bodies is 
several thousand feet long, 500 feet wide, and has been 
mined to an inclined depth of several thousand feet. 
Some high-grade pockets have been taken from quartz 
veins and stringers containing free gold and sulfides. 

Mines. Butcher Shop, Empire, Gold Knoll, Gold 
Metal, Mountain King $1 million. Pine Log, Ranch, 
Royal $5 million-!-, Wilbur Womble. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, gold: 
California Div. Mines ond Geology County Report 2, pp. 32-93. 

Knopf, Adolph, 1929, Royal mine: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 
157, p. 72. 

Logan, C. A., 1936, Calaveras County, Royal mine: California Div. 
Mines Rept. 32, pp. 285-287. 

Storms, W. H., 1900, Royal Consolidated gold mine: California Min. 
Bur. Bull. 18, pp. 126-127. 

Taliaferro, N. L., and Solari, A. J., 1948, Geology of the Copperop- 
olis quadrangle: Colifornio Div. Mines Bull. 145, pi. 1. 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, Calaveras County, Royal Consolidated ond 
Wilbur Womble mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 103, 113. 

Homer 

Location. The Homer district is on the east slope 
of the Sierra Nevada in west-central Mono County in 
the vicinity of Lundy Lake, about six miles \\ est of 
Mono Lake. The district has also been known as the 
May Lundy or Lundy district, because the May Lundy 
mine was the principal source of gold here. 

History, .\lthough this area was prospected during 
the Comstock silver rush of the 1860s, the lode de- 
posits were not discovered until 1877. The district was 
organized in 1879. The May Lundy mine was named 
for the daughter of W. J. Lundy, who operated a saw- 
mill here in the 1870s. This mine was worked on a 
major scale until 1911. Accumulated tailings were 
treated during the late 1930s, but there has been only 
minor prospecting since. The mine has a total produc- 
tion of $3 million. 

Geology. The principal geologic feature is a two- 
to four-mile-wide belt or roof pendant of meta- 
morphic rocks that extends northwest along the Sier- 
ran crest for many miles. These rocks consist of schist, 
slate, and hornfcls of Triassic and Jurassic age. Grano- 
diorite lies on both sides of this belt. The Sierra Ne- 
vada Mountains here have been prominently shaped 
by Pleistocene glaciation. 

Ore Deposits. A series of northwest-striking and 
southwest-dipping quartz veins are found at or near 
the metamorphic-granitic contacts. The veins usually 
average two to three feet in thickness. The ore con- 
tains free gold, pyrite, and smaller amounts of other 
sulfides. Milling-grade gold ore yielded as much as one 
ounce per ton with a high content of silver. Several 
ore shoots at the May Lundy mine had stoping lengths 
of up to 300 feet. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



65 




Photo 29. Doss (Ginac 



Hornitos District. This 1934 view of the Mariposo County 
Ralph Baversfock, from coHecfion of Dr. Horace Parke 



Hodsel mill, ot left. Phofo by 



Bibliography 



Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1962, Mines near Yosemite: California Div. Mines 
and Geology, Mineral Information Service, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 1-4. 

DeGroot, Henry, 1890, Homer district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 10, 
p. 342. 

Eakle, A. S., end McLaughlin, R. P., 1919, Mono County, May Lundy 
mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 166-167. 

Sampson, R. J., and Tucker, W. B., 1940, Mono County, May Lundy 
and Parrot mines: California Div. Mines Rept. 36, pp. 128-129 and 
130-131. 

Whiting, H. A., 1888, Homer mining district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 367-371. 

Honcut 

Location and History. This is a gold-dredging dis- 
trict in southwest Butte County along Honcut and 
Wilson Creeks northeast of the town of Honcut. The 
name comes from Hoankut, an Indian village once 
situated on the Yuba River just below the mouth of 
Honcut Creek. The Bangor district is just to the east. 
The creeks were first worked by hand methods in the 
early days. Bucket-line dredging began in 1909 and 
continued until around 1920. There was some dragline 
dredging in the district during the 1930s. 

Geology. Pleistocene gravels and Recent creek 
gravels overlie bedrock of greenstone and green schist. 
Digging depths averaged about 20 feet. The dredged 
area covers about 1000 acres. 

Bibliography 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Butte County, gold dredging: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 187-198. 

Winston, W. B., 1910, Honcut Creek dredging district: California 
Min. Bur. Bull. 57, pp. 158-159. 

Honey Lake 

There are a few small lode-gold mines and prospects 
sev'eral miles south of Honey Lake in southeast Lassen 
County and eastern Plumas County. These include the 
Plinco and Honey Lake mines. The Honey Lake or 
Badger mine was discovered in 1900 and worked dur- 



ing the 1920s and 1930s. The deposits consist of nar- 
row and shallow quartz veins in granitic rock, which 
in places contain free gold and pyrite. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1936, Lassen County, Honey Lake gold mines: Califor- 
nio Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 435-436. 

Hope Valley 

This is a small gold- and tungsten-mining district 
in northwestern Alpine County about 1 miles west of 
Markleeville. The area was first prospected during the 
early 1860s, followed by minor intermittent prospect- 
ing and development since. Some tungsten was pro- 
duced during World War II and the Korean War. 

The ore deposits are associated with two north- 
trending roof pendants of homfels, quartzite, and 
schist that are surrounded by granodiorite. The de- 
posits consist of narrow gold-quartz veins and pyrite 
and tungsten-bearing garnetiferous tactite. Small 
amounts of copper also are present. 

Hornitos 

Location. The Hornitos district is in the Sierra 
Nevada west gold belt in western Mariposa County 
about 15 miles west of the town of Mariposa (see 
fig. 4) . The district contains a several-mile wide belt of 
lode-gold mines that extends from the \'icinity of the 
Exchequer Reservoir south-southeast through Hornitos 
to the Indian Gulch area. 

History. The streams in the area were first worked 
in 1849, and lode mining began in 1850 at the Wash- 
ington mine. The town was first settled by Me.xicans 
who had been driven out of nearby Quartzburg. The 
name Hornitos is a diminutive of "homo" or small 
bake oven, from the Spanish. Mining activity was 
great from the 1860s through the 1880s, lesser from 



66 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



the 1890s to the 1920s. The Mt. Gaines mine was 
worked on a major scale during the 1930s. Since 
World War II the area has been prospected, but there 
has been very little recorded production. Historically, 
this is the most productive district of the Sierra Ne- 
vada west gold belt. 

Geology. The district is underlain by greenstone 
and green schist in the west portion and slate in the 
east. Also present are smaller amounts of amphibolite, 
mica schist, and homfels. A number of small grano- 
diorite intrusions are exposed, along the margins of 
w hich chiastolite-mica schist has developed. 

Ore Deposits. A number of north-trending quartz 
veins and stringers containing free gold and varying 
amounts of sulfides, chiefly pyrite, are present, as well 
as several large bodies of mineralized greenstone or 
"gray ore". Some of the veins have very flat dips. 
The ore shoots vary considerably in size with stoping 
lengths ranging from a few to as much as 400 feet. 
Some of the veins have been mined to inclined depths 
of more than 1500 feet. Milling-grade ore commonly 
contains from Y-, to more than Y^ ounce per ton in 
gold. 

Mines. Badger $80,000+, Doss $100,000, Duncan, 
Lost Douglas, Martinez, Mt. Gaines $3.59 million. 
Numbers 1, 5, 8, and 9, Ruth Pierce $600,000, Wash- 
ington $2,377,000. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., 1957, Mariposa County, gold: California Jour. Mines 
and Geology, vol. 53, pp. 69-1 87. 

Costello, W. O., 1921, Mariposa County, Hornitos district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 17, p. 94. 

Lowell, F. L, 1916, Moriposa County, gold: Colifornia Min. Bur. 
Rept. 14, pp. 575-600. 

Hunter Valley 

Location and History. This district is in the north- 
west corner of Mariposa County, in the general area 
of Hunter Valley, the Don Pedro Reservoir and Lake 
McClure. It was named for William W. Hunter, a 
well-known engineer. There was extensive placer gold- 
mining here during the 1850s and some copper mining 
in the 1860s. The lode gold mines were active until 
the early 1900s. Some mining was done again during 
the 1930s, and the Pyramid mine has been prospected 
recently. 

Geology. The district is underlain by northwest- 
trending belts of slate of the Mariposa Formation 
(Upper Jurassic) and greenstones, chert and slate of 
the Amador Group (Middle to Upper Jurassic). Sev- 
eral small diorite and granodiorite intrusions are 
mapped. 

Ore Deposits. A number of northwest-striking sys- 
tems of gold-quartz veins are in the slate, chert and 
greenstone. Numerous stringers and cross veins are 
present. A number of high-grade pockets have been 
found. The ore contains free gold and often abundant 
sulfides, and milling ore commonly averaged one ounce 
per ton in gold. None of the veins have been mined 
to depths of more than a few hundred feet. 

Mines. Blue Cloud, Cotton Creek, Iron Duke, 
Morning Star, Oak and Reese $500,000-$60O,O00, Or- 



ange Blossom, Pyramid $200,000, Schoolhouse, Yel- 
lowstone. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., 1957, Mariposa County, Ooks and Reese and Pyramid 
mines: Colifornio Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 53, pp. 145-147 and 
158. 

Costello, W. O., 1921, Mariposa County, Hunter Valley district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 17, pp. 94-95. 

Turner, H. W., and Ronsome, F. I., 1897, Sonora folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Altos of the U. S., folio 41, 7 pp. 

Indian Diggings 

Location. This district is in south-central El Do- 
rado County about 30 miles southeast of Placerville. 
It includes the Indian Diggings, Henry Diggings, Omo 
Ranch and Brownsville areas. Indian Diggings is best 
known as a placer-mining district, but there are a 
number of lode deposits. The Fairplay district lies to 
the west. 

Geology. The district is underlain by quartz-mica 
schist, graphitic slate, green schist, quartzite, and lime- 
stone. The central part of the area has been intruded 
by a round quartz-diorite stock. Portions of the bed- 
rock are overlain by patches of Tertiary auriferous 
gravel and extensive andesite flows. 

Ore Deposits. The channel gravels are part of the 
Tertiary Mokelumne River, which extends south into 
this area from the Grizzly Flat district. The channel 
then extended west and southwest toward Fiddletown 
in Amador County. Indian Diggings was on a branch 
of this channel. Large amounts of gold came from 
these channel deposits, especially those at Indian Dig- 
gings, where the bedrock is limestone that contained 
numerous rich potholes. Mining was done by both 
hydraulicking and drifting. A number of narrow 
north-striking quartz veins in quartz diorite contain 
small but often rich ore shoots. The ore contains free 
gold and abundant pyrite, galena, and smaller amounts 
of other sulfides. 

Mines. Placer: April Fool, Armstrong, Carrie Hale, 
Chic, Christion, Deep Channel, Dorsey, Drusy, Hay- 
ward, Hidden Treasure, Irish Slide, Last Chance, Little 
Bill, Lucky Jack, Old Chink, Omo, Patterson, Payne, 
Peacock, Richmond, Syracuse, Telegraph, Tomcat, 
Yellow Aster, Yellowjacket. Lode: Black Oak, Gold 
Note, Independence, Polar Bear, Potosi, Stillwagon. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Carlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, Placer 
deposits: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 52, pp. 429-435. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiory gravels of the Sierra Nevoda: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 180-181. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio, 
California: U. S. Geo!. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. $., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Indian Hill 
Indian Hill is in western Sierra County about 10 
miles west of Downieville and just south of the Brandy 
City district. Much of the production here has come 
from the Indian Hill and Depot Hill hydraulic mines. 
These mines were extensively worked from the 1850s 
to the 1880s, and intermittent development work and 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



67 



mining continued through the 1930s. The Depot Hill 
mine has been prospected recently. The deposits are 
on the LaPorte-Brandy City Tertiary channel. The 
lower gravels contain abundant quartz and are as much 
as 100 feet thick. They are overlain in places by inter- 
volcanic gravels and andesite. Bedrock is granite with 
amphibolite to the west and slate, schist, and serpen- 
tine to the east. There are also a few gold-quartz veins 
in the district. 

Bibliography 

Logon, C. A., 1929, Sierra County, Indian Hill mine: California Div. 
Mines Rept. 25, pp. 192-193. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1920, Sierra County, Indian Hill mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 13-14. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 

Inskip 

Location. Inskip is in northeastern Butte County 
about seven miles north of Sterling City. The Kim- 
shew district lies to the east and the Magalia district 
to the south. The area was active before and during 
the early 1900s. 

Geology. There are a number of narrow gold- 
quartz veins in slate, amphibolite and greenstone. The 
ore bodies usually are small but contain abundant sul- 
fides. 

Mines. Bluebird, Cain, Excelsior, Fitzpatrick, In- 
skip, Lost Treasure, Midas, Rawhide, Walker, Wild 
Yankee. 

Bibliography 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Butte County, gold-quartz mines: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 211-224. 

Iowa Hill 

Location. The Iowa Hill district is in central Placer 
County in the vicinity of the old mining town of that 



name. It is an extensive placer-mining district that in- 
cludes the Roach Hill, Monona Flat, Strawberry Flat, 
Succor Flat, Grizzly Flat, Shirttail Canyon, and Kings 

Hill areas. 

History. Placer mining began along the American 
River and its tributaries soon after the beginning of 
the gold rush. Hydraulic and drift mining apparently 
began here in 1853, and by 1856 the output was as 
high as $100,000 per week'. By 1880 more than $20 
million had been produced from the district. Drift 
mining continued through the early 1900s, and there 
was appreciable activity again in the 1930s. Most of 
the town was destroyed by fire in 1922. The Big 
Dipper, Occidental and a few other mines have been 
intermittently worked in recent years. Also snipers 
and skin divers have been active in the district. 

Geology. A main Tertiary channel of the Ameri- 
can River crosses the area. There are numerous 
branches and intervolcanic channels, including the 
Succor Flat intervolcanic channel, which comes in 
from the northeast, and the west-trending Morning 
Star and Grizzly Flat deep channels. The deep channel 
gravels are well-cemented and in places yielded Vi 
ounce of gold or more per yard. The lowest seven 
feet were the richest but there also were some rich 
benches. The bedrock is uneven, and consists of hard 
slate and phyllite of the Cape Horn Formation (Car- 
boniferous) and amphibolite, which contains a number 
of deep and rich potholes. To the east the gravels are 
overlain by thick beds of andesite. There are a few 
gold-quartz veins in the district. 

.Mines. Big Dipper $1.2 million. Blue Wing 
Quartz, Brunn, Buckeye, Campbell, Canyon, Carey, 
Copper Bottom, Dewey Cons., Drummond, Elizabeth 
Hill, Excelsior, Fitzpatrick, Glcason $1 million-)-, 
Golden Star, Golden Streak, Goodwin, Haymes, H 
and H, Iowa Hill, Irish and Bryne, Jupiter, Keystone, 
King's Hill Point, King's Hill Quartz, Lebanon, Mo- 
hawk, Morning Star, Occidental, Old Jupiter, Penn 




xhmsm'WA 




Photo 30. Big Dipper Drift Mine, Iowa Hill District. This early view of the Plocer County mine looks cost. Photo courtesy of Calif. Slate Library. 



68 



Califqrnia Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



. ^ T^^ — ^PENN VALLEY ^. 

i^^^MONONA /strawberry „..„„„„ \ 

7^ PI AT^ SUCCOR \ 

vy>» ^Kc-" COPPER BOTTOM 

<STAR LITTLE INDIAN ^^"^ r'^RMOI^LL 




EXPLANATION 

di!-) Hydraulic mine 
>- Adit 
B Shaft 
_jj ,'' Tertiory channel (approximate course) 
>t— Direction of flow 

Figure 11. Map of lowo Hill Ditfrict, Placer County. The mop ihow» mine loeotions ond Terfiory channel cour.ei. AIIt Chandra, 1961, Plate 3, 

and Hobson, 1890. 



Valley, Randall, Roach Hill, Star United, Strawberry, 
Twenty One, Welcome, Winchester, Wisconsin Hill, 
Union. 



Bibliography 

Chandra, D. K., 1961, Geology and mineral deposHs of the Colfax 
nd Forejthill quodronglei: California Div. Minei Spec. Rept. 67, 50 pp. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



69 




Photo 31. Amodor-Stor Mine, Jackson-Plymouth District. This 1952 view of the 
Amador County mine looks west. The dump is composed moinly of block slote. Photo 
by D. W. Carlson. 



Hobson, J. B., 1890, Iowa Hill mining district: California Min. Bur. 
Repf. 10, pp. 419-425. 

Jormon,' Arthur, 1927, Iowa Hill: California Min. Bur. Rept. 23, 
pp. 86-87. 

lindgren, Waldemar, 1900, Colfax folio: U. S. Geo!. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada, 
Iowa Hill and Wisconsin Hill: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, 
pp. 148-149. 

Logon, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, Big Dipper, 
Morning Star, and Succor Flat channel mines: California Div. Mines 
Rept. 32, pp. 52-54, 65-66, and 79. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Placer County, Iowa Hill district; California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 16, p. 318. 

Irish Hill 

Location. The Irish Hill district is in northwestern 
Amador County about five miles north of lone. It 
includes the Muletown and the Forest Home areas. 

Geology. Several extensive patches of Eocene 
quartz-rich channel gravels and younger gravels exist. 
They were first mined by ground sluicing and hy- 
draulicking and later by dragline dredging. Bedrock 
consists of slate, phyllite, greenstone, and amphibolite. 
There are also several copper mines here. 

Bibliography 

Piper, A. M., Gale, H. S., Thomas, H. E., and Robinson, T. W., 1939, 
Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Moketumne area: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 780, plate I. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of 
the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Jackson-Plymouth 

Location. A 20-mile-long belt of gold mineraliza- 
tion runs through western Amador County. On the 
belt, a portion of the Mother Lode, are the towns of 
Jackson, Sutter Creek, Amador City, Drytown, and 



Plymouth. Because of the uniform nature of the gold 
mineralization along this belt, the several districts and 
sub-districts have been grouped together here under a 
Jackson-Plymouth heading. 

History. This entire belt was settled early in the 
gold rush when the streams were placer-mined. Jack- 
son was settled by California Spanish at least as early 
as 1849. It was first known as Botilleas, but the name 
was soon changed in honor of Colonel Alden Jackson. 
Sutter Creek was named for Captain John A. Sutter 
who visited the region in 1846. Amador City was 
settled in 1851 and Plymouth in 1852. Drytown 
flourished from 1848 until 1857 when rich placer 
deposits were worked. Most of the important lode 
deposits were discovered during the 1850s. The Argo- 
naut mine was first developed in 1850, the South 
Spring Hill and Lincoln in 1851, the Plymouth in 1852, 
the Original Amador and Keystone in 1853, the Cen- 
tral Eureka in 1855 and the Kennedy in 1856. Lode 
mining developed into a major industry that was to 
last 90 years. 

By 1875 mines such as the Keystone, South Spring 
Hill, Oneida, Old Eureka, and Plymouth had become 
large and highly profitable operations. However, the 
Argonaut, Kennedy, Central Eureka, Bunker Hill, 
Fremont-Gover, and Lincoln Cons. (Lincoln, Wild- 
man, and Mahoney), major gold sources of a later 
date, did not become important until the 1880s and 
1890s. The properties constituting the Plymouth Cons, 
mine were consolidated in 1883, the Kennedy Mining 
and Milling Company was organized in 1885, and the 
Argonaut Mining Company in 1893. From the 1890s 
until 1942, this belt was one of the more important 
gold-mining districts in the narion. The value of pro- 



70 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 32. Central Eureka Mine, Jackson-Plymouth District. This 
1952 view of the Amador County mine looks northeost at the Old 



Eureka shoft. The mine wos shut down 
token. Photo by Jeffrey Schweitzer. 



year after the photo was 



duction ranged from $2 million to $4 million annually. 
Several thousand miners were employed, many of 
whom were of Italian, Austrian, and Serbian extrac- 
tion. 

There were two noted lawsuits between the Argo- 
naut and Kennedy mines in 1894 and 1897 in which 
the former accused the latter of conducting mining 



operations in their ground. Several disastrous fires have 
occurred in the district, including one at the Argonaut 
mine in 1922 that caused the loss of 47 lives. This fire 
began on the 3350-foot level of the mine and trapped 
a whole shift of miners on the 46S0-foot and 4800- 
foot levels. 




Photo 33. Kennedy Mine and Mill, Jacbon-Plymouth District. This 
view, looking north, shows the Amador County mine and 100-stamp 
mill in about 1936. At that time, the Kennedy was the deepest mine 



in the United Stotes, with a vertical depth of 5,912 feet. Photo 
courfesy of Calif. State Library. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



71 




Photo 34. Kennedy Mine, Recent View. Thii view, to the north, 
shows the tailings wheels, headframe and remaining building»at 



the Amador County mine. The structures ore now a historical dis- 
play. Photo by Mary Hill. 



72 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 35. Argonaut Mine and Mill, Jackson-Plymouth District. This view of the Amador County mine, in about 1920, looks west. In 1922, on un- 
derground fire in this mine took 47 lives. Photo cour>esy of Calif. Slait library. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



73 




Photo 36. Plymouth Consolidated Mine, Jackson-Plymouth District. This view, to the south- 
west, shows the Empire shaft at the Amador County mine in 1952. Photo by D. W. Cor/son. 



As mining operations progressed to greater and 
greater depths, costs increased, especially because in 
some mines, the grade of ore decreased at depth and 
it became necessary to mine larger amounts. A number 
of immense mills were erected, including those at the 
Kennedy mine, which employed 100 "stamps" each, 
one at the South Eureka with 80 "stamps" and those 
at the Argonaut and Oneida, which had 60 "stamps" 
each. The ground became extremely heavy at depth 
and required much timbering. As costs continued to 
increase during the early 1900s and were accelerated 
during World War I, a number of mines were shut 
down. The South Spring Hill mine was shut down 
in 1902, the Lincoln Cons., in 1912, the Oneida and 
Zeila in 1914, the South Eureka in 1917, and the 
Bunker Hill and Treasure in 1922. However, the dis- 
trict continued to yield large amounts of gold as the 
Argonaut, Kennedy, Central Eureka and others in- 
creased the size of their operations. The Old Eureka 
and Central Eureka merged in 1924; the new opera- 
tion was known as the Central Eureka, for a time as 
the Hetty Green, as it was controlled by that finan- 
cier. The district's output increased after the 1934 rise 
in the price of gold. The veins continued to be devel- 



oped at greater and greater depths until the Argonaut 
and Kennedy became the deepest mines in the coun- 
try. Each has a vertical depth of more than 5900 feet. 
The Central Eureka, South Eureka, and Plymouth 
Cons, are more than 4000 feet deep. 

All of the mines were shut down soon after the 
beginning of World War II. The Central Eureka mine 
was reopened in 1945, but because of greatly increased 
costs it was shut down again in 1953. This was the 
last active major gold mine on the Mother Lode. 

Jackson-Plymouth was the most productive district 
of the Mother Lode belt, with a total output estimated 
by the author at about $180 million. If large-scale gold 
mining were ever to be done here again, it would be 
most desirable to consolidate the major mines and 
operate them as a unit. Some are connected under- 
ground and all produced considerable water. 

The remaining surface plant of the Kennedy mine 
is now a museum. The large wooden tailing wheels 
and the superintendent's office at this mine, long noted 
landmarks, are historical displays. Several other dis- 
tinctive old mine buildings have been preserved, in- 
cluding the Keystone mine office, which is a motel, 
and the Zeila office, which is a private home. 



74 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



EXPLANATION 



Auriferous gravel 



Mariposa Formotion. Slofe, 
some conglomerote 



Calaveras Formation. Schist, 
slate ond metactiert 




AMADOR 
COUNTY 



CALAVERAS 
COUNTY 



Figure 12. Geologic Mop of Jackjon-Plymouth District, Amador County. The locotions of the mines are 
shown. After Turntr, 1894a; Lindgrtn and Turner, 1894; Knopf, 1929, ond Cor/son ond Clark, 1954. 



Geology. The gold deposits are in a north- and 
northwest-trending mile-wide belt of gray to black 
slate of the Mariposa Formation (Upper Jurassic), 
with some interbcddcd coarse and occasionally sheared 



conglomerate and minor sandy and gritty layers (fig. 
12). Massive greenstone of the Logtown Ridge For- 
mation (Upper Jurassic) lies west of the belt of Mari- 
posa Formation slate. Metasedimentary rocks, chiefly 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



75 





4800 LEVEL 




iM 



EXPLANATION 

{^For figures 13, 14, and 15 j 

Slote of Mariposa Formation 

Greenstone of Logtown 
Ridge Formation 

Gold-quartz vein 



2600 LEVEL 

Figure 13 (topleft). Section through Argonaut Mine. After Knopf, 1929. 
Figure 14 (fop right). Section through Kennedy Mine. After Knopf, 1929. 
Figure 15 (bottom). Section through Keystone mine. AHet logon, 1935. 



76 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



graphitic schist, metachcrt and amphibolite schist of 
the Calaveras Fomiation (Carboniferous to Permian) 
are to the east. Several deposits of Tertiary auriferous 
channel gravels are exposed south of Jackson. 

Ore Deposits. The ore bodies occur in massive and 
sheared quartz veins often with abundant fault gouge. 
The veins are mainly in slate of the Mariposa Forma- 
tion. The veins sometimes are tens of feet thick; in 
places the Keystone vein is as much as 200 feet thick. 
Usually there are many stringers. The ore bodies 
contain disseminated fine free gold, pyrite, and minor 
amounts of other sulfides. The sulfides usually average 
one to two percent of the ore. In addition, greenstone 
bodies with disseminated auriferous pyrite known as 
"gray ore" sometimes are adjacent to the quartz veins 
at depth. The milling ore usually is low to moderate 
in grade (Y-, to % ounce of gold per ton), but a 
number of the veins have been mined to inclined 
depths of 4000 to 6000 feet. The ore shoots usually 
had stope lengths of 200 to 500 feet, but pitch lengths 
were much greater, and often nearly vertical. A num- 
ber of high-grade pockets were found. The ground 
was nearly always heavy and required much timber- 
ing. During mining operations, it was usually neces- 
sary to fill stoped-out areas with waste. 

Mines. Alma, Alpine, Amador Gold $100,000-}-, 
Amador King |100,000-|-, Amador Queen No. 1 
$100,000-1-, Amador Queen No. 2 $100,000-f, Ama- 



dor Star $100,000-)-, Anita, Argonaut $25.2 million, 
Ballard, Bay State $100,000-(-, Bellwether, Bunker 
Hill $5.1 million, Central Eureka Group $36 mil- 
lion, Crown Point, Detert Group, Fremont-Gover 
$5 million, Good Hope, Italian $140,000-f, Harden- 
bergh $100,000-|-, Kennedy $34.28 million. Key- 
stone $24 million, Lincoln $2.2 million. Mammoth, 
Mayflower, Mineral Point, Moore $564,000-}-, New 
London, North Star et al., Oneida $2.5 million-|-. 
Original Amador $3.5 million, Plymouth Cons. $13.5 
million, Potosi, South Eureka $5.3 million. South Jack- 
son, South Spring Hill $1.1 million. Treasure $1 mil- 
lion, V^alpanso $100,000-1-, Wildman-Mahoney $5 
million, Zeila |5 million-f . 

Bibliography 

Brown, J. A., 1890, Amador County: California Min. Bor. Repf. 10, 
pp. 98-123. 

Carlson, D. W., and Clark, W. B., 1954, Mines and mineral resources, 
Amador County, lode gold mines: California Jour. Mines and Geology, 
vol. 50, pp. 167-195. 

Fairbanks, H. W., 1890, Geology of the Mother Lode region: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 67-78. 

Irelon, William, Jr., 1888, Amador County, Mother Lode mines; 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 41-96. 

Knopf, Adolph, 1929, The Mother Lode system of California: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 157, pp. 49-70. 

Logon, C. A., 1927, Amador County, gold quartz mines: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 23, pp. 149-185. 

Logan, C. A., 1935, Mother Lode gold belt of California: California 
Div. Mines Bull. 108, pp. 55-124 and 141-142. 

Preston, E. B., 1893, Amador County, quartz mines: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 11, pp. 139-146. 




Photo 37. Eogle-Showmut Mine, Jacksonville District. This 1914 view, 
looking northeast, shows the lOO-stomp mill, the tramway and the tail- 



ings pond at the Tuolumne County mine. The Tarantula min 
Photo courtesy of Tuo/umne County Museum. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



77 




Photo 38. Crystal! 



Mine, Jamestown District. This is an early view of the Tuolumne County mine. Photo 
Covnly Museum. 



rfesy of Juotumne 



Ransome, F. I., 1900, Mother lode district folio, California: U. S. 
Geo). Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Storms, W. H., 1900, The Mother Lode region-Amodor County: Coli- 
fornia Min. Bur. Bull. 18, pp. 43-87. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio, Californio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Amador County, gold: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 14, pp. 14-52. 

Jacksonville 

Location. This district is in southwestern Tuol- 
umne Count)'. It is in that portion of the Mother 
Lode belt that extends through the vicinity of south- 
east Jacksonville to the vicinity of Moccasin Creek. 
The Jamestown district is just to the north, the Big 
Oak Flat-Groveland district is to the east, and the 
Coulterville district is to the southeast. 

History. Jacksonville, named for Colonel Alden 
Jackson — as was the town of Jackson in Amador 
County — was founded as a supply center in 1848. The 
placer deposits here were extremely rich, credited with 
a production of $9 million. Lode mining began in the 
district in the late 1850s. The Eagle-Shawmut mine 
was operated on a large scale from 1897 until 1942. 
The district was served for some years by the Hetch- 
Hetchy Railroad. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The deposits occur 
near or at the contact between serpentine on the west 
and slate and schist on the east interlayered with a 
number of narrow bands of greenstone. The ore de- 
posits consist chiefly of large but low-grade bodies of 
pyrite ankerite-quartz and mariposite-ankerite-quartz 
rock and numerous pyrite-quartz stringers. Most of 
the gold values are in the sulfides; there is not much 
free gold. The ore zones were as much as 180 feet in 
thickness. There are several adjacent but relatively 
barren massive bull quartz veins. Mining extended to 
depths of 3000 feet. The ore usually contained % 
ounce or less gold per ton; for years the mill heads 
at the Eagle-Shawmut mine averaged about 12.75 per 
ton. 



Mines. Clio |100,000-|-, Eagle-Shawmut |7.4 mil- 
lion, Harriman 1100,000+, Mammoth $100,000, Moc- 
casin, Orcutt, Republican, Tarantula $100,000-f-, 
Wheeler. 

Bibliography 

Knopf, Adolph, 1929, The Mother Lode system of California, Eagle- 
Shawmut and Clio mines: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 157, pp. 
79-83. 

Logon, C. A., 1935, Mother Lode gold belt of Colifornia: Clio, Eagle- 
Shawmut ond Harriman mines: California Div. Mines Bull. 108, pp. 
159-160 and 162-165. 

Ransome, F. L., 1900, Mother Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Storms, W. H., 1900, Eagle-Shawmut mine: California Min. Bur. Bull. 
18, pp. 132-133. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Tuolumne County, Eogle-Showmut mine: Coli- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 146-147. 

Turner, H. W., ond Ransome, F. L., 1897, Sonora folio California: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 41, 7 pp. 

Jamestown 

Location. The Jamestown district is in western 
Tuolumne County. It consists of that portion of the 
Mother Lode belt that extends from French Flat 
southeast through Rawhide, Jamestown, Quartz 
Mountain, and the town of Stent to the vicinity of 
the Belcher mine, a distance of about eight miles. It 
also has been called the "Jimtown" district. 

History. The streams and rich surface ores were 
first worked in the gold rush. Jamestown was estab- 
lished in 1848 by Colonel George F. James, a lawyer. 
Hydraulic mining began at Stent soon afterward, and 
the lode mines were active from the 1860s on. The 
placers at nearby Campo Seco yielded S5.5 million 
and those at Jamestown S3 million. From around 1890 
to World War I lode mining was a major industry; 
in 1906 more than 300 stamps were "dropping" in the 
various mills. There was some activity again during 
the 1920s and appreciable activity during the 1930s. 
There has been minor prospecting and development 
work in recent years at a few of the mines. The value 



78 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




^ Lode gold 



Figure 16. Geologic Mop of Jamestown District, Tuolumne County. 
The mop shows the locations of the mines. Modified from Eric, Strom- 
quitt and Swlnney, 1955. 



of the total output of this district is estimated at more 
than J30 million. 

Geology. In the north portion of the district, the 
deposits occur along a northwest-striking contact with 
serpentine to the southwest and phyllite, slate, and 
metacongiomerate to the northeast (fig. 16). In the 
central and south portion, the deposits are at or near 
the contact between massive greenstones and slates on 
the west and chlorite and amphibolitc schist to the 
east. Latite of Tuolumne Table Mountain crosses the 
belt north of Jamestown, and Tertiary gravel deposits 
underlie the latite in the vicinity of the town of Raw- 
hide and to the southwest. At Quartz Mountain the 
Mother Lode belt swings from a northwest-southeast 
strike to almost due south. 

Ore Deposits. Outcrops consist of massive quartz 
veins up to several tens of feet in thickness, adjacent 
bodies of ankerite-quartz-mariposite rock which some- 
times are scores of feet thick, as well as bodies of min- 
eralized schist and numerous parallel quartz stringers. 
These deposits often contain abundant disseminated 
sulfides (as much as eight to 10 percent of the total 
rock), which are mostly pyrite. The gold occurs in the 
native state or with pyrite. Milling-grade ore usually 
averaged ]/■; to Vs ounce gold per ton, but the ore 
shoots were large. The ore shoots had stoping lengths 
of as much as 400 feet or more, and several veins were 
mined to inclined depths of several thousand feet. \ 
number of high-grade pockets have been found in 
this district. In places silver is abundant, and tellurides 
have been encountered. 

Alines. Alabama $150,000, Alameda, ■\nderson, 
App-Heslep $6.5 million. Belcher, Crystalline $100,000, 
Defender, Dutch-Sweenev $3 million, Erin-go-bragh 
$282,000, Golden Rule, Harvard $2 million to $3 mil- 
lion, Hitchcock, Jumper $5 million, Mazeppa, New 
Era, Nugget, Omega, Rappahannock, Rawhide $6 mil- 
lion, Santa Ysabc! $1.5 million. 

Bibliography 

Eric, J. H., Stromquist, A. A., and Swinney, C. M., 1955, Geology of 
the Angels Camp and Sonera quadrangles: California Div. Mines Spec. 
Rept. 41, 55 pp. 

Fairbanks, H. W., 1890, Geology of the Mother lode region: Coll. 
fornio Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 50-56. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, App, tteslep, and Gem mines: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 660-664. 

Knopf, Adolph, 1929, The Mother lode system of Colifornio: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 157, 88 pp. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



79 




Photo 39. Harvard Mine, Jamestown District. This 1955 view shows a massive 
quartz vein at the Tuolumne County mine. Photo by D. W. Carlton. 




Photo 40. Jumper Mine, Jamestown District. This view of the Tuolumne County mine was token in about 1910. Photo courtesy of Calif. Sfala Library. 



80 



'^«,iFORNiA Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 41. Rawhide Mine, Jamestown District. This northward view, 
token probobty in the 1890s, shows the Tuolumne County mine ond 



the town of Rawhide. The headframe and hoisting works are in the 
right center. Photo courtesy o^ Tuo/umne County Mutevm. 



Logan, C. A., 1928, Tuolumne County, quartz mines: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 24, pp. 8-9. 

Logon, C. A., 1935, App, Dutch, Harvard, Jumper, and Rawhide 
mines: Colifornia Div. Mines Bull. 108, pp. 156-158, 161-162, 165-168, 
and 171-172. 

Ransome, F. L., 1900, Mother Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Storms, W. H., 1900, The Mother Lode region-Tuolumne County: 
California Min. Bur. Bull. 18, pp. 128-141. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Tuolumne County, Dutch, Harvard, Jumper, and 
Rawhide mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 145-146, 149-151, 
152-153, and 159-160. 

Turner, H. W., and Ransome, F. I., 1897, Sonora folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 41, 7 pp. 

Jenny Lind 

Location. This district is between the towns of 
Jenny Lind and Milton in western Calaveras County. 
It extends west into eastern San Joaquin and north- 
eastern Stanislaus Counties. The area was first worked 
during the gold rush, and later hydraulicked. There 
was dredging here from 190.^ until about 1940 and also 
small-scale lode mining. The district has yielded more 
than 100,000 ounces of gold. 

Geology. The gold values are in river gravels and 
floodplain deposits in and adjacent to the Calaveras 
River. There are older terrace and shore gravels, some 
of which are overlain by hardpan. In places hydraulic 
mine tailings overlie the gravels. Dredging depths 
ranged from 20 to 40 feet, with the average nearer 20 
feet. Recovered gold values ranged from \0^ to 30^ 
per yard and hydraulic tailings were around lO^i per 
yard. There are a number of narrow gold-quartz veins 
in greenstone in the eastern portion of the district. 

Dredging Operations. Butte Dredging Co., Cala- 
veras Gold Dredging Co. 1903-16, El Oro Dredging 
Co., Isabel Dredging Co. 1908-25?, Milton Gold 
Dredging Co. 193S-? 



Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, gold: 
California Div. Mines and Geology County Rept. 2, pp. 32-93. 

Logon, C. A., 1919, Calaveras River area: California Min. Bur. Bull. 
85, pp. 32-33. 

Logon, C. A., 1936, Calaveras County, ancient shore-line deposits: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 324-325. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Calaveras County, gold dredging: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 124-127. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas 
of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Winston, W. B., 1910, Gold dredging in California: Colifornia Min. 
Bur. Bull. 57, pp. 207-208. 

Jerseydale 

Location and History. The Jerseydale district is in 
west-central Mariposa County. It is about 10 miles 
northeast of the town of Mariposa and just east of 
Whispering Pines. It includes the Feliciana Mountain 
area. The streams were first mined during the gold 
rush, and the lode deposits were discovered soon after- 
ward. Much activity continued from the 1870s until 
the early 1900s. Some mining was done again during 
the 1930s, with intermittent prospecting since. 

Geology. The principal rocks in the area are slate, 
graphite schist and phyllite of the Calaveras Formation 
(Carboniferous to Permian) and granitic rocks. Also 
present are greenstone and dioritic dike rocks. Numer- 
ous narrow quartz veins contain small but rich high- 
grade shoots and "pockets". Sulfides are abundant. 

Aiijies. Blue Bell, Buffalo, Comet, Early, Feliciana 
$159,000, King Solomon, Louisa, Monte Cristo, Roma 
$100,000. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., 1957, Mariposa County, Lode mines: Colifornia Jour. 
Mines ond Geology, vol. 53, pp. 69-187. 

Costello, W. O., 1921, Mariposa County, Jerseydoie-Sweetwater dis- 
trict: Colifornia Min. Bur. Rept. 17, pp. 97-98. 

Lowell, F. L., 1916, Mariposa County, Feliciana mine: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 14. p. 582. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



81 




82 



California Division of Minfs and Gfoi.ocy 



Bull. 193 




Photo 43. Jamison Mine, Johnsvllle District. This northward view of 
the Plumas County mine dotes back to about 1900. The Plumas-Eureica 



mine and the town of Johnsville are in the left background. Photo 
courtesy of Calif. Division of Beaches and Parks. 



Johnsville 

Location. The Johnsville district is in south-central 
Plumas County. Both a lode- and placer-gold district, 
it is at the north end of a major belt of gold minerali- 
zation that extends southward through the Sierra City 
district in Sierra County (sec fig. 22, p. 116). 

History. The river and stream gravels in the gen- 
eral area were first placer-mined in 1849 or 1850. The 
Eureka quartz vein, discovered in 1851, quickly 
brought many miners to the region, and most of the 
area was soon covered with claims. Considerable 
coarse gold was recovered from the creeks and con- 
siderable high-grade ore from the lode mines during 
those early years. Both the Plumas-Eureka and the 
Jamison mines were operated on a major scale until 
the early 1900s, when mining activity in the area 
declined. Johnsville was named for William Johns, 
manager of the Plumas-Eureka mine. There was inter- 
mittent activity in the district from the period of 
World War I until around 1943. 

The area suffered from a number of disastrous fires. 
Part of the tO\vn ai^ some of the mines became 
Plumas-Eureka State Pirk in 1959. The value of the 



total output of the district is unknown, and there 
have been a number of extravagant claims. The author 
estimates the production to be somewhere between 
$10 million and $20 million. This was a well-known 
early-day "snowshoe" or ski resort area. 

Geology. A considerable variety of rocks crops 
out in this district, including north- and northwest- 
trending belts of slate, schist, quartzite, and limestone 
on the west; metadacite or quartz porphyry to the 
south; a gabbroic intrusion in the central portion; and 
greenstone to the east. Portions of the region are over- 
lain by Tertiary andesite. Much of the central portion 
of the area is covered with glacial detritus. A number 
of patches of Tertiary gravels yielded gold in the 
early days. Massive bodies of magnetite are found to 
the west. 

Ore Deposits. There are a number of north- and 
northwest-trending quartz veins and several wide com- 
plex systems of quartz veins. The individual veins 
usually are only a few feet thick. These contain free 
gold and often abundant pyrite and varying amounts 
of galena, chalcopyrite, and arsenopyrite. A number 
of high-grade pockets were taken from near the surface 
in the early days. Milling-grade ore contained from a 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



83 



few dollars to more than one ounce gold per ton. The 
sulfide concentrates sometimes held more than $150 
in gold per ton. The ore shoots had horizontal stoping 
lengths of as much as several hundred feet. 

Mines. Lode: Jamison $1.5 million-|-, Plumas-Eu- 
reka $8 million-]-, Plumas-Mohawk, Round Lake. 
Placer: Beckwith Cons, drift, Continental drift, Queen 
drift. Brown Bear hydraulic. 

Bibliography 

Averilt, C. V., 1928, Mines and mineral resources of Plumas County: 
California D!v. Mines Rept. 24, p. 261-316. 

Averill, C. V., 1937, Mines and mineral resources of Plumas County: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 33, pp. 79-143. 

Durrell, Cordell, 1959, Tertiary stratigraphy of the Btoirsden quad- 
rangle, Plumas County, California: Univ. of Calif., Pubs, in Geol. Sci., 
vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 161-192. 

Irelon, William, 1888, Plumas-Eureka mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
8, pp. 476-478. 

Jackson, W. T., 1960, A history of mining in the Plumas-Eureka State 
Pork area, 1851-1890: California Div. Beaches and Parks, 56 pp. 

Jackson, W. T., 1961, A history of mining in the Plumas-Eureka State 
Park oreo, 1890-1943: Calif. Div. Beaches and Porks, 48 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 112. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1920, Plumas County, Johnsville mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 21-27. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio, California: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 



Jordan 



Location cmd History. This district is in central 
Mono County just north of Mono Lake and about 
15 miles south of Bridgeport. It is a lode and placer 
district that occupies an area on the east flank of the 
Sierra Nevada and the Mono Plains. It extends from 
Mono Lake north to the Keith district and includes 
the areas known as the Mono Diggings and Dogtown 
Diggings districts. Mono and Dogtown Diggings were 
first mined in 1857, and the district was organized in 
1879. Work continued steadily to the early 1900s, but 
the greatest output was during the 1870s and 1880s. 

Geology. The country rock in the area consists of 
homfels, limestone, schist, and slate with granitic rocks 
in the Sierra Nevada. To the east are Tertiary ande- 
sites, which in places are overlain by sands and gravels 
derived from the Sierra Nevada. Auriferous gravel de- 
posits occur in ill-defined channels that range from a 
few to more than 50 feet in thickness. The gold values 
varied considerably. Several quartz veins with abun- 
dant sulfides contain copper, silver and some manga- 
nese; there is some mineralized schist. The value of 
the total output of the district is unknown, but it is 
estimated to be several million dollars. 




Photo 44. Plumas-Eureka Mine, Johnsville District. This photo of the Plumas County mine was token in about 1900;^ Eureka Peak is in the back- 
ground. The mine is now part of Plumas-Eureka State Park. 



84 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Bibliop-aphy 

Whiting, H. A., 1888, Jordan mining diitrid: California Min. Bur. 
Repr. 8, pp. 363-367. 

Kearsarge 

The Kearsarge district is on the east flank of the 
Sierra Nevada about eight miles west of Independence 
in Inyo County. The district was named in 1864 for 
the U.S.S. Kearsarge, a famous Union warship. The 
Re.x Montis mine, the principal gold source, was 
worked on a substantial scale from 1875 to 1883, re- 
portedly yielding 12,333 ounces of gold and silver 
in 1877. The Kearsarge mine also has yielded some 
values. The deposits consist of narrow quartz veins 
in quartz monzonite that contain native gold, sulfides, 
and reportedly native silver. 

Bibliography 

Moore, J. G., 1963, Geology of the Mount Pinchot quadrangle: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Bull. 1130, 152 pp. 

Tucker, W. B., 1938, Inyo County, Rex Montis mine: California Div. 
Mines Rept. 34, pp. 415-416. 

Keith 

This district is on the east flank of the Sierra Nevada 
in western Mono Count)' about 10 miles northwest 
of Mono Lake and just north of the Jordan district. 
The principal source of gold apparently has been the 
Dunderberg mine, which was first worked in the 1860s 
and has been intermittently prospected since. There 
are several quartz-barite veins with minor amounts of 
free gold and abundant pyrite. Country rock is 
granite, quartzite, homfels, and schist. 

Bibliography 

Eakle, A. S., and McLaughlin, R. P., 1919, Mono County, Dunderberg 
mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. IS, pp. 166-167. 

Kelsey 

Location. The Kelsey district is in northwestern 
El Dorado County. It is that portion of the Mother 
Lode gold belt that extends from the vicinity of the 
town of Kelsey northwest to Garden Valley. 

History. This area was placer-mined soon after 
James Marshall's gold discovery in 1848 at Coloma, a 
few miles to the west. The camp was first settled Ijy 
and named for Benjamin Kelsey. Marshall spent his 
last days at Kelsey, and a building on his property 
once housed a pioneer museum. There was much lode 
mining from the 1860s through the early 1900s and 
again in the 1930s. Some intermittent work has been 
done recently at the Black Oak mine. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. A northwest-trending 
two-mile-wide belt of gray to black slate of the Mari- 
posa Formation (Upper Jurassic) is in the central por- 
tion of the district, with greenstone, slate, graphite 
schist, and quartzite to the west. Amphibolite, slate, 
and schist lie to the east. Serpentine lenses are also 
present both to the east and west. The ore deposits 
occur in quartz veins with numerous stringers. The 
veins range from one to 10 feet in thickness. Nearly 
half of the known output of some of the mines has 
been from small but extremely rich ore shoots. None 
of the mines has been worked to depths of more than 
600 feet. 



Mines. Big Four, Big Sandy J100,000-|-, Black Oak 
J 1.2 5 million. Gopher Hill, Gray Eagle, Hart, Ida 
Livingston, Kelsey $100,000-f-. Lady Emma, St. Clair, 
Vecrkamp, War I^agle, Yuba. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W.B., and Carlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, lode gold 
deposits: Californio Jour. Mines and Geol., vol. 52, pp. 40i-429. 

Fairbanks, H. W., 1890, Geology of the Mother lode region: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 10, p. 81. 

Lindgren, Woldemar, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Plocerville folio, 
California: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Logon, C. A., 1935, Mother Lode gold belt of Californio — Big Sandy, 
Block Oak, and Kelsey mines: California Div. Mines Bull. 108, pp. 19-21 
and 29. 

Kern River 

The upper Kern River between Bakersfield and 
Bodfish was the scene of a rush soon after the dis- 
covery of gold at Greenhorn Creek in 1851. However, 
the deposits in the river are believed to have been 
worked out in a short time. Many lode-gold prospects 
are in the area, but the only one of any consequence 
is the Gem gold mine near Democrat Springs. Ura- 
nium was discovered at Miracle Hot Springs in 1954, 
and there was a "boom" that lasted for a few years. 
Practically the entire region is underlain by quartz 
diorite. 

Bibliography 

Troxel, B. W., ond Morton, P. K., 1962, Kern County, Kern River 
Canyon district: California Div. Mines and Geology, County Rept. 1, 
p. 38. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1933, Kern County, Gem mine: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 29, p. 307. 

Keyesvllie 

Location and History. This district is in the south- 
ern Sierra Nevada in Kern County about 32 miles 
northeast of Bakersfield and t\vo miles southwest of 
Isabella Dam. Gold was discovered here in 1852 by 
Richard M. Keyes, and for a time this was the largest 
community in Kern County. The chief periods of 
mining were the 1850s, 1860s, 1890s, and 1909-15: 
The area was prospected during the 1930s, but little 
has been done here since, and Keyesville has become 
a ghost town. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. \'irtually the entire 
district is underlain by quartz diorite. The gold de- 
posits occur in a northeast-trending belt about three 
miles long. The veins consist of narrow quartz string- 
ers with fault gouge that contain free gold and small 
amounts of pyrite, arsenopyrite, and pyrrhotite. There 
are some placer deposits, including one of possible 
Pleistocene age. 

Mines. Bright Spot, High Grade, Homestake, 
Keyes $450,000, Keyesville, Keyesville Placer, Mam- 
moth $500,000, Mooncastle, Nephi, Nob Hill, Oppor- 
tunity, Sunrise, Virginia, Will Jean. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Kern County, Keyes district: Colifornio Min. Bur. 
Rept. 14, p. 483. 

Troxel, B. W., ond Morton, P. K., 1962, Kern County, Keyesville 
district. High Grade mine, and Mammoth mine: California Div. Mines 
ond Geology, County Report 1, pp. 38-39, 111-112, and 115-117. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1933, Kern County, Keyes district: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 29, p. 283. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



85 



Kimshew 

Location. The Kimshew mining district is in north- 
eastern Butte County and northwestern Plumas 
County about 10 miles northeast of Stirling City. It 
includes the Golden Summit area to the north. 

Geology. There are a number of moderate-sized 
deposits of Tertiary and Pleistocene gravel that have 
been mined both by hydraulicking and drifting and a 
few narrow gold-quartz veins. Bedrock consists of 
slate and amphibolite to the west and a granitic stock 
to the east. 

Mines. Brown, Carr, Cash Entry, Gallagher and 
Perkins lode, Golden Summit, Little Johnnie, Ream 
and Bumside, Reese and Jones, Snow, Wescott. 

Bibliography 

Oilier, J. S„ 1895, Lossen Peak folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas 
of the U. S., folio 15, 4 pp. 

Turner, H. W., 1898, Bidwell Bar folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas 
of the U. S., folio 43, 6 pp. 

Kinsley 

Location and History. This is an extensive district 
in the Sierra Nevada east gold belt in north-central 
Mariposa County. It is five miles east of Coulterville 
and about 25 miles north of Mariposa. The district in- 
cludes several places that at various times have been 
classified as separate districts but are grouped together 
in this publication because they adjoin each other and 
are geologically similar. These are the Greeley Hill, 
Bull Creek, Gentry Gulch, Smith Ridge, and Dogtown 
areas. The Cat Town district lies just to the south and 
the Coulterville district to the west. The area was 
placer-mined during the gold rush. Much lode mining 
was conducted from the 1860s through 1900 and again 
in the 1930s. Several mines including the Hasloe and 
Horseshoe have been worked intermittently in recent 
years. 

Geology. The district is underlain by slate, mica 
schist, quartzite, hornfels, phyllites and limestone 
lenses of the Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to 
Permian). Present are several small granitic stocks and 
a number of diorite, quartz-diorite and aplite dikes. In 
places these dikes are associated with the gold-quartz 
veins and are important in the localization of the ore 
bodies. 

Ore Deposits. Numerous north- and west-striking 
quartz veins range from one to five feet in thickness. 
The ore shoots generally are small, but commonly 
rich. The ore contains free gold and often abundant 
sulfides including galena and tetrahedrite, which are 
associated with rich ore. Molybdenite is present in a 
few places. 

Mines. Argo $18,000, Bandarita $1.52 million. Bob 
McKee, Bondurant $390,000, Bunce, Carrie Todd, 
Contention, Cranberry, Garibaldi, Gold King, Hasloe 
$3 million. Horseshoe, Last Chance, Lovely Rogers, 
Louisiana, Marble Springs $200,000, Moonlight, Quail 
$400,000, Red Cloud, Red Mountain, Texas Hill 
$74,000-f-. 



Bibliography 

Bov»en, O. E., 1957, Mariposa County, Bandarita, Bondurant, Hasloe, 
and Quail mines: California Journal of Mines and Geology, vol. 53, 
pp. 77-81, 106-108, ond 159-161. 

Castello, W. O., 1921, Moriposa County, Kinsley district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 17, pp. 95-96. 

Turner, H. W., and Ronsome, F. L., 1897, Sonora folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 41, 7 pp. 

Knighfs Ferry 

Location. The Knight's Ferry district is in north- 
eastern Stanislaus County and western Calaveras 
County. The town is located on the lower Stanislaus 
River about 12 miles east-northeast of Oakdale. 

History. The district was placer-mined during the 
gold rush. The town, which was named for William 
Knight, was an important staging and supply center 
for the mines and camps of the southern Mother Lode 
region. It was the seat of Stanislaus County govern- 
ment from 1862 to 1872. The town also was once 
known as Dentville for the Dent brothers who were 
brothers-in-law of President U. S. Grant. The old 
wooden covered bridge that is still standing was re- 
portedly designed by Grant in 1854. From the 1870s 
through the 1890s, numerous Chinese placer miners 
reworked the old tailings and small deposits over- 
looked by the Forty-Niners. There was dragline 
dredging in the district in the 1930s and early 1940s. 

Geology. The east portion of the district is under- 
lain by greenstone and quartz porphyry and the west- 
em portion by andesite. The gold was recovered from 
isolated patches of quartz-rich gravel of Eocene age, 
younger channel and terrace deposits buried under or 
adjacent to the Plio-Pleistocene latite of Tuolumne 
Table Mountain, and Recent gravels in and along the 
present channel of the Stanislaus River. 

Bibliography 

Taliaferro, N. I., ond Solari, A. J., 1948, Geology of the Copper- 
opolis quadrongle: California Div. of Mines Bull. 145, plates 1 and 2. 

Watts, W. I., 1890, Stanislaus County, gold: Colifornia Min. Bur. 
Rept. 10, p. 681. 

La Grange 

Location. This district is in southeastern Stanislaus 
County. It is primarily a dredging field that extends 
westward from the town of La Grange along the 
Tuolumne River for nine miles. This district also in- 
cludes a dredging field two miles to the south, on an 
older river channel, and surface "diggings" to the 
north. The town, originally known as French Bar, 
was founded in 1852, but the name was changed to 
La Grange in 1856 in honor of Lafayette's country 
home. For a time Bret Harte taught school here. The 
estimated output from dredging is $13 million worth 
of gold. 

Geology. The stream gravels in and adjacent to 
the present Tuolumne River are medium to coarse, 
loosely consolidated, and average 30 to 35 feet in 
thickness. The gravels are underlain by tuff. Dredge 
recoveries during the 1920s averaged \\.6^ per yard, 
but later recoveries are believed to have been less. 



86 



California Division of Minf^ and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Minor amounts of platinum were recovered. The 
dredged area is about nine miles long and Vi mile 
wide. A Pleistocene river channel two miles to the 
south \\ as dredged for a distance of 1 '/4 miles and is 
'X mile wide. Here the gravels were compact with a 
thick volcanic overburden. Thin Eocene gravel patches 
with abundant quartz boulders and interbedded clay 
and sand are exposed to the north. 

Concerns. La Grange Gold Dredging Co., 1907- 
42 and 1945-51, one dredge, the longest in the state; 
Tuolumne Gold Dredging Corp., 1938-43 and 1945-?, 
one dredge; Yuba Cons. Goldfields, 1941-42, one 
dredge. 

Bibliography 

Laizufe, C. M., 1925, Stanislaus County, La Grange Gold Dredging 
Co.: Californio Min. Bur. Rept. 21, pp. 207-208. 

Logon, C. A., 1919, Platinum and allied metals in California, Tuol- 
umne River: California Min. Bur. Bull. 85, p. 33. 

Logan, C. A., 1947, Gold — Stanislaus County: California Jour. Mines 
and Geology, vol. 43, pp. 92-94. 

Lowell, F. L., 1916, Stanislaus County, La Grange Gold Dredging 
Company: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 629. 

Winston, W. B., 1910, La Grange Gold Dredging Company: California 
Min. Bur. Bull. 57, pp. 210-211. 

La Porte 

Location. This district is in southwestern Plumas 
County in the general vicinity of the old mining town 
of La Porte, 25 miles south of Quincy and 50 miles 
northeast of Oroville. It was one of the great placer- 
mining districts of the state. 

History. The streams were placer-mined early in 
the gold rush and were reported to have had very 
rich yields. The town, first known as Rabbit Creek, 
was renamed in 1857 after La Porte, Indiana. Hy- 
draulic mining began in the middle 1850s and con- 
tinued through the 1880s. During this time the district 
was enormously productive; the output from 1855 to 
1871 alone was reported to have been at least $60 
million. Appreciable drift mining and some lode min- 
ing were carried on. Some mining activity continued 
until the period of World War I. The district was 
prospected again during the 1930s, but apparently little 
mining has been done here since. La Porte was a noted 
early-day "snowshoe" or ski resort. 

Geology. The main Tertiary channel of the North 
Fork of the Yuba River, known as the La Porte chan- 
nel, extended south-southwest from Gibsonville into 
this district. From here the channel continued south- 
west and south again to be joined by a branch from 
the east from the St. Louis-Table Rock area. The main 
channel today continues on south to the Poverty Hill 
and Brandy City districts. At La Porte, the channel 
is 500 to 1 500 feet wide and as much as 500 feet thick. 
The lower gravels are quartz-rich and up to 80 feet 
thick. Most of the gold was recovered from near bed- 
rock. The gravels are capped by thick beds of sand 
and "pipe" clay. During the heyday of mining in the 
district, these lower gravels yielded from Vio to as 
much as one ounce of gold per cubic yard. To the east 
the channel deposits are capped by andesite as much 
as 800 feet thick. Also to the east, considerable fault- 



ing has disturbed the channel gravels. Bedrock con- 
sists principally of amphibolite, with a one-mile wide 
belt of slate and quartzite of the Calaveras Formation 
(Carboniferous to Permian) in the central portion. 
There are some narrow gold-quartz veins in the dis- 
trict. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada; 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 103-113. 

Logon, C. A., 1928, Plumas County, La Porte mines: California Div. 
Mines ond Mining Report 24, pp. 303-306. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1920, Plumas County, La Porte mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 27-31. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio, California: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 

Last Chance 

Location. This extensive placer-mining district is 
in eastern Placer County in the vicinity of the old 
mining camp of Last Chance, 10 miles northeast of 
Michigan Bluff and 15 miles northeast of Forest Hill. 
It includes the "diggings" here and at Star Town, 
Deadwood, and American Hill. Last Chance got its 
name when a starving miner used his last bullet to kill 
a deer. The mines in the district were operated almost 
steadily from the early 1850s until about 1920. There 
was some activity again in the 1930s, and the El Do- 
rado and Last Chance mines have been intermittently 
worked in recent years. 

Geology. Most of the gold has come from three 
southwest-trending Tertiary channels. The lowest but 
youngest is the El Dorado channel, \\ hich is steep, 
only about 100 feet wide, and contains coarse gold. 
The next youngest is the Sharp Stick channel, which 
contains clay and coarse boulders. The oldest is the 
Big Channel which is quartzitic, well-cemented, and 
up to 800 feet wide. The gravels are capped by ande- 
site. Bedrock is slate and schist of the Blue Canyon 
Formation (Carboniferous), which encloses some nar- 
row north-striking gold-quartz veins. 

Mines. Beaman Ledge, Bear Wallow, Central, Dar- 
ling, Deep Canyon, Double O, El Dorado, Elkhom, 
Golden Riffle, Grizzly, Harkness, Home Ticket $200,- 
000+, Hornby, Last Chance, Little Hope, Missouri 
Flat, New Caledonia, Pacific, Pacific Slab, Peters, Rat- 
tlesnake, Rublin, Sharp Stick, Star Town. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1900, Colfox folio: U. S. Geol. Survey G«ol. 
Atlos of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, p. 158. 

Logon, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, placer mines: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 49-96. 

Woring, C. A., 1919, Placer County, drift ond hydraulic mines: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 352-379. 

Light's Canyon 

Location and History. This district is in northeast- 
ern Plumas County in the general area of Light's Can- 
yon. It was named for Ephriam Light, a pioneer 
rancher. It includes the Moonlight Valley, Indian Val- 
ley, Engelmine, and Kettle Rock areas. It is also an 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



87 



important copper-mining district; the Engels and 
Superior mines are located here. Placer mining was 
originally done in the district during the 1850s and 
continued through the early 1900s. The Lucky S lode 
mine has been prospected in recent years. For some 
years the district was served by the Indian Valley 
Railroad. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The central portion of 
the district is underlain by granodiorite and quartz 
diorite. To the south are various metamorphic rocks 
of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age similar to those found 
in the Taylorsville district (see Taylorsville district). 
North and east are Tertiary gravels and volcanic 
rocks. Both the Recent and Tertiary gravels have 
yielded moderate amounts of gold. The gold-quartz 
veins are narrow, but the ore often is rich. The ore 
contains abundant sulfides including pyrite, galena, 
chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. 

Bibliography 

Diller, J. S., 1908, Geology of the Taylorsville region: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Bull. 353, 128 pp. 

lindgren, Woldemar, 1911, Tertiory gravels of fKe Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 114-116. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1920, Plunras County, light's Canyon mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 31-36. 

Lincoln 
Lincoln is in western Placer County, 15 miles west 
of Auburn and 1 1 miles north of Roseville. The town 
was named for Charles Lincoln Wilson, who built 
the California Railroad here in 1861. During the 1930s 
considerable amounts of gold were recovered by drag- 
line dredging from gravels in lower Auburn Ravine, 
just east of Lincoln, and in Doty Ravine, a few miles 
to the north. This was probably the most profitable 
dragline dredge field in the state. Recoveries ranged 
from 15 to as high as 60 cents per yard. Digging depths 
ranged from 5 to 20 feet. The gravels are underlain 
by soft tuff. The total dredged area is about 1 200 acres. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemar, 1894, Sacramento folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 5, 3 pp. 

logon, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, Lincoln Gold 
Dredging Company: California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 82-83. 

Long Tom 

Location and History. The Long Tom district is 
in the southern Sierra Nevada in central Kern County. 
It is 23 miles northeast of Bakersfield and 10 miles 
south of Woody. The veins at the Long Tom mine, 
the chief source of gold in the district, were discov- 
ered prior to 1860 by prospectors looking for the 
source of placer gold in nearby creeks. The mine was 
considerably active during the 1880s and again from 
1925 to 1939. It has an estimated total output of $800,- 
000 to $900,000. 

Geology. The country rock in the district is quartz 
diorite with small gabbroic inclusions. A number of 
fracture zones contain small gold-bearing quartz 
stringers with minor amounts of sulfides. The deposits 
do not extend to depths of more than a few hundred 
feet. 



Bibliography 



Brown, C. G., 1916, Kern County, long Tom district and mine: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 483 and 502. 

Goodyear, W. A., 1888, Kern County, gold: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
8, pp. 319-320. 

Troxel, B. W., and Morton, P. K., 1962, Kern County, Long Tom 
mine: California Div. Mines and Geology, County Rept. 1, pp. 114-115. 

Loraine 



Location and History. This district is in the south- 
em Sierra Nevada in central Kern County in the vicin- 
ity of the town of Paris-Loraine. It is about 35 miles 
east of Bakersfield and 12 miles north of Tehachapi. 
The area was first prospected in the 1850s, but the 
principal period of mining activity was from 1894 until 
around 1912. The district was active again in the 1920s 
and 1930s, and there has been intermittent prospecting 
since. It is also known as the Amalie district. 

Geology. The district is underlain by a large roof 
pendant of slate and mica schist of the Kernville Series 
(Paleozoic?) in quartz diorite and granodiorite. There 
are a number of quartz veins ranging from one to 10 
feet in thickness which contain free gold and abundant 
sulfides, especially silver sulfides. The veins occur in 
both the metamorphic and granitic rocks. Milling- 
grade ore commonly averages more than Vi ounce of 
gold and two ounces of silver per ton. Several ore 
shoots had stoping lengths of up to 300 feet, and sev- 
eral veins were mined to depths of 600 feet. 

Mines. Amalie $600,000, Barbarossa, Cowboy $600,- 
000, Deerhunter, Ella, Ferris, Golden Cross, Golden 
Peak, New Deal, Zenda 34,000 ounces-|-. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Kern County, Amalie district: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 14, p. 482. 

Crawford, J. J., 1894, Amalie mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 12, 
p. 141. 

Tucker, W. B., 1923, Kern County, Amalie mining district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 19, p. 156. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sompson, R. J., 1933, Amalie district: California 
Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 280-281. 

Lowell Hill 

Location and History. This district is in south- 
central Nevada County about six miles northeast of 
Dutch Flat. It includes the Remington Hill, Negro 
Jack Hill, and Liberty Hill areas. The district was 
hydraulicked from the middle 1850s through the 1870s, 
and Liberty Hill was worked again from around 1896 
to 1915. 

The total output is unknown, but it exceeds $1 
million. Lindgren, in 1911, estimated that two million 
yards had been removed and 16 million remained at 
Liberty Hill and that 1.75 rnillion yards had been re- 
moved and 6 million remained at Remington Hill. 
Other estimates of remaining gravel at Liberty Hill 
range from six to 10 million yards. 

Geology. The deposits are in a southwest-trending 
Tertiary channel that joins the Dutch Flat channel. 
There is a lower well-cemented blue gravel that con- 
tains gabbro and serpentine boulders and yielded 18 to 
23 cents a yd. An upper quartz-rich gravel is in places 



88 



California Division of Minfs and Geology 



Bull. 193 



covered by heavy cla\'. Bedrock is slate of the Blue 
Canyon Formation (Carhonifcrous) and some serpen- 
tine. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1900, Colfox folio, Californio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, pp. 146-147. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevado County, Lowell Hill mining district: 
Californio Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 30-33. 

Magalia 

Location. The Magalia district is in north-central 
Butte County 15 miles northeast of Chico. It is 
bounded on the west b\- Doe Mill Ridge and on the 
east by the West Branch of the Feather River. It 
extends from Paradise on the south to several miles 
west of Powellton on the north. This district includes 
the placer deposits at Nimshaw, Forks of Butte, 
Mineral Slide and De Sabla and lode deposits at Toad- 
town. The Butte Creek dredging district adjoins this 
district at Ccnterville. 

History. This region was extensively mined during 
and after the gold rush. The town was started in 1850 
by E. B. Vinson and Charles Chamberlin. It was first 
known as Dogtown, renamed Magalia about 1862. 
The Magalia mine was discovered in 1855 and the 
Indian Springs mine in 1860. Large-scale mining con- 
tinued until the 1890s; there was some activity from 
the early 1900s through the 1930s. There has been 
minor prospecting and development work since World 
War II. Some of the old mining properties have been 
made into housing subdivisions. The famous 54-lb. 
Willard, Dogtown, or Magalia nugget was found here 
in 1859. This is one of the more productive placer- 
mining districts in the state. Several local residents have 
estimated the total output to be S40 million, but that 
figure is too high (author). iMuch of the output has 
come from drift mines. 

Geology. There are a number of south-southwest- 
trending steep, narrow, and rich channels. The longest 
channel is the Magalia or Mammoth channel that 
flowed along the east side of the district. Other pro- 
ductive channels include the Dix, Emma, Little 
Magalia, Pershbaker, and Nugget channels. In the 
south portion of the district there are shore gravels. 
The gold was extremely coarse, and a number of other 
large nuggets besides the Willard were taken here. 
Bedrock is slate and greenstone \\ith smaller amounts 
of serpentine. The channels are faulted in places with 
the downstream side being thrown up. Water has 
always been a problem in the drift mines. A few gold- 
quartz veins in greenstone are associated with diorite 
dikes. 

Mines. Drift: Bader, Black Diamond, Cole, Cory, 
Dix, Emma $1 million-|-, Ethel, Genii, Indian Springs, 
Kelly Hill, Lucky John, Lucretia, Magalia $1 million, 
Mammoth, Mineral Slide, Nuggett, Oro Fino, Parry, 
Pershbaker, Pete Wood, Pitts, Princess, Ro\al, Steifer, 
Willard. Hydraulic: Centerville, Kohl, ' Red Hill. 
Lode: Springer, Toadtown. 




/ 
/ 
, / 

CENTERVILLE-.'.""«£^ff^'- 

I '.V* SLIDE',',, 



EXPLANATION 



^—— Tertiory channel 
•'..*• Shore grovels 
/■ Adit 



B Shoft 

5^ Hydroulie mine 



Figure 17. Sketch Mop of Magalia District, Butte County. The 
northern port of the Butte Creek district is also shown. The channels 
ore not all of the same geologic age. 



Bibliography 

Irelon, Wm., 1888, Mogolio Consolidated mine: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 117-118. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevado: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 84-86. 

Logon, C. A., 1930, Butte County, placer mines: California Div. Mines 
Rept. 26, pp. 383-406. 

Preston, E. B., 1893, Willard, Red Hill, and Indian Springs mines: 
Colifornio Min. Bur. Rept. 11, pp. 158-159. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Butte County, drift mines: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 15, pp. 198-209. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



89 



Mammoth 

Locatioji. The Mammoth or Lake district is in 
southwestern Mono County about 50 miles south of 
Bridgeport. The district is on the east flank of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains and is just east of Mammoth 
Lakes, a well-known resort area. The Devil's Postpile 
National Monument is about 10 miles to the west. 

History. Gold and silver-bearing veins were dis- 
covered here in 1878, and a short-lived "rush" 
followed. Much of the production at that time was 
from the Mammoth mine, which yielded $200,000 in 
1878-81. The district was organized in 1887. Several 
thousand people were in the area then, the principal 
settlements having been Mammoth City, Mill City, and 
Pine City. Some mining was done in the late 1890s, 
early 1960s, and again in the 1930s. The Beauregard 
mine was active from 1954 to 1958, and there has been 
minor prospecting and development work since. The 
value of the total production of the district is estimated 
at $1 million. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The district is under- 
lain chiefly by northwest-trending beds of metamor- 
phosed latite. Present in smaller amounts are schist, 
hornfels, marble, tactite, and quartzite. Granitic rocks 
are to the east and south. The ore deposits occur in a 
northwest-trending zone of alteration in the meta- 
morphosed latite. This zone, IVi miles long and Vi 
mile wide, contains disseminated pyrite. The pyrite 
has been oxidized so that the zone is stained a bright 
reddish brown. 

The ore deposits consist of northwest-striking and 
steeply-dipping quartz veins and stringers that contain 
free gold, auriferous pyrite, pyrrhotite, and smaller 
amounts of other sulfides. Silver commonly is abun- 
dant. Milling-grade ore usually averages 'X to Vi ounce 
of gold per ton. The veins range from a few to several 
tens of feet in thickness. 

Mines. Argosy, Beauregard, Don Quixote, Lisbon, 
Mammoth $200,000, Mammoth Consolidated $100,000, 
Monte Cristo $100,000, Sierra Group. 

Bibliography 

DeGroot, Henry, 1890, Lake mining district: California Mining Bur. 
Rept. 10, pp. 340-342. 

Mayo, E. B., 1934, Geology and mineral deposits of Laurel and 
Convict basins, southwestern Mono County; California Div. Mines Rept. 
30, pp. 79-87. 

Rinehart, C. D., and Ross, D. C, 1964, Geology and mineral deposits 
of the Mount Morrison quadrangle, Sierra Nevada, California: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 385, pp. 97-100. 

Sampson, R. J., ond Tucker, W. B., 1940, Mineral resources of Mono 
County, gold: California Div. Mines Rept. 36, pp. 120-140. 

Whiting, H. A., 1888, Lake mining district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 373-375. 

Mariposa 

Location and History. This district is in the vicin- 
ity of the town of Mariposa at the southeast end of 
the Mother Lode gold belt. The Mariposa mine was 
reported to have been discovered in 1849 by Kit 
Carson, and the first stamp mill in California was in- 
stalled there that same year. Much of this district was 
part of the Las Mariposas Grant of General John C. 
Fremont. The old courthouse in Mariposa erected in 



1854 is the oldest continuously used courthouse in 
California. The mines were worked until the early 
1900s and again during the 1930s. The Mariposa mine 
has been prospected in recent years. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The district is under- 
lain by northwest-trending belts of slate of the Mari- 
posa Formation (Upper Jurassic), serpentine, and 
greenstone. There are several massive quartz veins in 
slate or greenstone. The ore contains free gold, pyrite, 
and arsenopyrite, which often is associated with high- 
grade ore. The Mariposa mine has been developed to 
an inclined depth of 1500 feet. 

Mines. Evans II, Kane, Mariposa $2,395,000, 
Stockton Creek, Stockton Creek Tunnel. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., 1957, Mariposa County, Mariposa mine: California 
Jour. Mines ond Geology, vol. 53, pp. 128-130. 

Logon, C. A., 1935, Mother Lode gold belt — Mariposa County: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines Bull. 108, pp. 180-190. 

Ronsome, F. L., 1900, Mother Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Storms, W. H., 1900, The Mariposa mine: Colifornio Min. Bur. Bull. 18, 
pp. 142-143. 

Meadow Lake 

Location. This is a small lode-gold district in east- 
em Nevada County just southwest of Meadow Lake 
and approximately seven miles northeast of Cisco. 
Gold was discovered here in 1863, and there was a 
"rush" to the area that lasted from 1865 to 1870. Minor 
prospecting was done afterward until the early 1900s 
and again during the 1920s and 1930s. The total out- 
put of the district has been estimated to be valued 
at $200,000. 

Geology. The region is underlain chiefly by gran- 
odiorite with minor amounts of greenstone. There are 
a number of narrow quartz veins, which, in places, 
contain free gold and abundant sulfides. A number of 
high-grade pockets were encountered near the surface 
during the early days, but at depth the deposits pinch 
out or become very low in grade. 

Mines. Baltimore group. Excelsior, Great Western, 
Hercules, Mammoth, New Hope, Of What, Philadel- 
phia group. 

Bibliography 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Meodow Lake district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, p. 454. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1897, Truckee folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 39, 8 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1900, Colfox folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Logan, C. A., 1924, Nevada County, Meadow Lake district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 20, pp. 355-362. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevada County, Meadow Lake mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 33-37. 

Wisker, A. L., 1936, The gold-bearing veins of Meadow Lake district: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 189-204. 

Meadow Valley 

Location. This district is in west-central Plumas 
County about eight miles west of Quincy. It includes 
the Edmanton, Buck's Lake, Spanish Peak and Spanish 
Ranch areas. The Quincy district lies just to the east 



90 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 45. Hydroulic Mir 
This is a view of hydraulic 



ng in the 1860s, Michigan Bor District, 
lining and ground sluicing in Sacramento 



County 100 yeors ago. The locomotive headlights at right made night- 
time floodlights. Photo covriesy of Co/if. State Library. 



and the Granite Basin district to the southwest. The 
district was mined from the gold rush days through 
the early 1900s and has been prospected since. 

Geology. The east portion of the district is under- 
lain by quartzite, slate, schist, limestone, amphibolite, 
and serpentine. Meadow Valley is covered by Pleis- 
tocene lake beds. Granite lies to the west. There are 
a number of scattered patches of auriferous Tertiary 
gravel, in the vicinity of and northwest of Spanish 
Ranch, which were mined by hydraulicldng and drift- 
ing. The Pleistocene lake gravels also yielded some 
gold. The only source of lode gold was the Diadem 
mine. 

Bibliography 

lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 98-99. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1920, Plumas County, Edmonton and Spanish Ranch 
mining distrids: Colifornio Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 8-12 ond 46-49. 

Turner, H. W., 1898, Bidwell Bar folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 43, 6 pp. 

Michigan Bar 

Location and History. This is a placer-mining 
district in eastern Sacramento County in the vicinity 
of the old town of Michigan Bar. It extends to the 
west and south and includes the Sloughhouse area. 
Included are dredging fields in and near the Cosumnes 
River. The district was hydraulicked extensively in 
the 1850s and 1860s. Later it was worked by small- 
scale methods by many Chinese miners. The Co- 
sumnes River and some of the older bench gravels 
were dredged in the 1930s and early 1940s. Also some 
drift mining was done. Fire clay is mined here now. 
The total gold production is unknown, but it has been 
estimated to be at least 1,700,000 ounces. 



Geology. Eocene gravels interbedded with several 
layers of clay and thin sands are distributed over the 
eastern part of the district in the vicinity of Michigan 
Bar. The gravels are coarse, well rounded, have a sandy 
matrix, and usually are not too well-cemented. The 
dredged area is several miles long. 

Bibliography 

Carlson, D. W., 1955, Socromento County, gold dredging: California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 51, pp. 135-142. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1894, Sacramento folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 5, 3 pp. 

Piper, A. M., Gale, H. S., Thomas, H. E., ond Robinson, T. W., 1939, 
Geology and ground-woter hydrology of the Mokelumne area: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 780. 

Michigan Bluff 

Location. The Michigan Bluff district is in south- 
central Placer County. It is best known as a placer- 
mining district, and includes the Turkey Hill, Byrd's 
Valley, and Baker Ranch areas. The Damascus district 
is to the north and the Forest Hill district is to the 
west. 

History. The town, first settled in 1850, was origi- 
nally known as Michigan City. In 1858 the land began 
to slide into the river, so the town was moved higher 
up on the mountain side and became Michigan Bluff. 
Hydraulic mining began here in 1853, and the district 
soon became highly productive. During the middle 
and late 1850s, the gold output averaged $100,000 per 
month. Leland Stanford, Governor of California and 
one of the builders of the Central Pacific Railroad, 
operated a store here from 1853 to 1855. His old home 
still stands. Activity in the area declined during the 
1870s, but some work continued intermittently 
through the early 1900s and again in the 1930s. Much 
of the region was devastated by fire in 1960. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



91 



Geology. This district is at the junction of two 
major Tertiary channels, one that comes in from the 
north from the Damascus district and the other comes 
in from the southeast from Ralston Divide. Just to the 
north at Baker Ranch there is an intervolcanic channel. 
The lovt'er gravels at Michigan Bluff are nearly pure 
quartz with many large boulders. The gravels were 
extremely rich, the gold yield from six million yards 
reportedly having been $5 million. Much of the gold 
was coarse. Bedrock is slate and schist, and to the west 
there is serpentine. Some narrow gold-quartz veins are 
present. 

Mines. Placer: Adams, Anna Sue, Baker Ranch, 
Beehive, Big Gun (Michigan Bluff) $1 million-f, 
Bowen, Bower, Britt, Buckeye, Burnham, Burns, Bur- 
roughs, Drummond, Eastman, El Dorado Hill, Frank- 
lin, Golden Chief, Golden Gate, Gorman, Hazard, 
Hoffman, Imperial, Lightfoot, Manhattan, Mary Anna, 
Rainbow Land, Russel, Sage Hill, Turkey Hill, Wash- 
burn, Washington, Weeks, Weske. Lode: Bunker Hill 
and Nihill, Champion, Daniel Webster. 

Bibliography 

Jarman, Arthur, 1927, Michigan BlufF: California Min. Bur. Rept. 23, 
p. 90. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1900, Colfax folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlos of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierro Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 152. 

logon, C. A., 1936, Gold Mines of Placer County, Michigan BlufF 
district: California Div. Mines Rept. 32, p. 70. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Placer County, Michigan Bluff district: Californio 
Min. Bur. Rept. 15, p. 318. 

Mill Creek 

Location. This is a small district in southeastern 
Fresno County in the vicinity of the town of Dunlap 
about 40 miles east of Fresno. Superficial placer mining 
was done in Mill Creek and other streams during the 
early days. Small-scale lode mining was done from 
the 1880s through the 1900s, but little or nothing has 
been done since. 

Geology. The area is underlain by granodiorite 
and related rocks with narrow slate belts. Some lime- 
stone lenses and schist are present. A few shallow 
north-trending veins a few feet thick contain free gold 
and varying amounts of sulfides. The veins usually are 
at or near granite-schist contacts. Most of the output 
has come from the Dixie Queen and White Cross 
mines. 

Bibliography 

Bradley, Walter W., 1916, Fresno County, M. and M. Mining Com- 
pany: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 447. 

Irelan, Wm., Jr., 1888, Mill Creek district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
8, pp. 207-208. 

Mineral King 

Mineral King is in central Tulare County in the high 
Sierra Nevada, about 37 miles east of Lemon Cove 
near Sequoia National Park. It is a small mining district 
that has yielded minor amounts of gold, silver, copper, 
lead, and zinc. Gold- and silver-bearing ore was dis- 
covered here in August 1873, and a "rush" to the area 
was on during the following year or two. However, 
little mining has been done in the district since, and it 



is now a well-known resort area. The Mineral King 
deposits occur in a belt of contact metamorphism in 
calcareous slate, impure limestone, and granodiorite. 
The ore is complex and consists of quartz and epidote 
rock containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, 
arsenopyrite and, in places, gold and silver. 

Bibliography 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, Tulare County, Mineral King mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 947-954. 

U. S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources of the United States 
1883-84, p. 642. 

Mokelumne Hill 

Location. Mokelumne Hill is in northwestern Cala- 
veras County. It is both a placer- and lode-mining dis- 
trict and includes the Chili Gulch, Old Woman's 
Gulch, and Golden Gate Hill areas. 

History. The streams in the area were placer-mined 
early in the gold rush. Mokelumne Hill, first known 
as Big Bar, developed as a mining camp in 1848. Chili 
Gulch was first known as Chilean Gulch, from the 
large number of Chilean miners who worked here. 
They were discriminated against and often were forced 
to leave the mining regions. There was also a number 
of French miners in the district who had disputes with 
the Americans. Later in the 1870s Chinese miners were 
active in this district in great numbers. 

Large amounts of gold were recovered by hydrau- 
licking and drifting, but output declined in the 1870s. 
The Quaker City, Boston, and other lode mines 
yielded substantial amounts of gold from the 1880s 
until about 1900. Mining was done in the district again 
in the 1930s, and there has been intermittent prospect- 
ing since. The gravels at Chili Gulch are now mined 
for aggregate. Many of the buildings in the old town 
of Mokelumne Hill are well preserved. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. A complex system of 
Tertiary channels, extending south and southwest 
from Mokelumne Hill, included eight distinct channels 
and remnants of several others, which range from 
Eocene to Pliocene in age. The so-called Chili Gulch, 
Stockton Hill, and Deep Blue channels have been the 
most productive. These contain a high percentage of 
quartz pebbles and boulders. In places they also con- 
tain large clear quartz crystals, some of which are 
piezo-electric grade. Usually the channels are not more 
than a few hundred feet wide. Bedrock consists of 
slate, greenstone, and graphite schist. 

The gold-quartz veins occur in the slate and green- 
stone and are up to 50 feet thick. The gold occurs 
in the native state and is associated with small amounts 
of pyrite. Several dacite volcanic domes crop out in 
the district, and to the northeast a granodiorite stock 
is exposed. 

Mines. Placer: America, Chappellet, Concentrator, 
Coffee Mill, Duryea, French Hill, Gopher, Green 
Mountain, Happy Valley, Hexter, Mosher, Neilsen, 
North Star, South Diamond, What Cheer, Werle. 
Lode: Boston $1 million. Easy Bird $300,000?, 
Hamby, Lamphear $122,000, Nuner, Quaker City 
$1 million-)-. 



92 



California Division of Mines and Geology 

ar 



Bull. 193 




«3| 



*.Ji 



i-m^ ''•*>■ — . * _ 




!|^^i'i|^^' 







Photo 46. Town of Monitor 



the 1870s. This westward view shows the main street of Monitor, Alpine County, 
Monitor Pass highway. Pfiofo courtesy of Calif. Slate Library. 



now traversed by the 



Bibliography 



Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Caloveras County, gold: 
California Division Mines and Geology County Rept. 2, pp. 32-93. 

Haley, C. S., 1923, Gold placers of California: Colifornio Min. Bur. 
Bull. 92, pp. 147-148. 

Knopf, A., 1929, The Mother lode system of California: U. S. Geo!. 
Survey Prof. Paper 157, 88 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada; 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 205-209. 

Logon, C. A., and Fronke, H., 1936, Calaveras County, placer mines: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 324-355. 

Ransome, F. L, 1900, Mother lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Storms, W. H., 1894, Ancient channel system of Calaveras County: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 12, pp. 482-492. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas 
of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Monitor-Mogul 

Location and History. Monitor and Mogul are in 
central Alpine County about six miles southeast of 
Markieeville. Mogul is in the north end, and Monitor 
is in the south end of the district. 

The region was intensely prospected during the late 
1850s and early 1860s. Substantial amounts of gold, 
silver, and copper were produced from such mines 
as the Alpine, Colorado, Curtz, and Morning Star. Op- 
erators had much difficulty in milling the sulfide-rich 
or "rebellious" ores, and shipped some ore all the way 
to Swansea, Wales, for treatment. Monitor, named for 
the famous iron clad warship of the Civil War, also 
was known as Loope. 

Operations declined in the 1880s, but there was 
some mining activity in the early 1900s and 1930s. 
The Zaca mine was w orked on a moderate scale dur- 
ing the 1960s. The value of the total gold and silver 



production is unknown, but some estimates have 
placed it between $3 million and $5 million. 

Geology. The district is underlain by volcanic 
rocks of Tertiary age. Andesitic tuff breccia is most 
common, but also present are various tj'pes of flow 
rocks including obsidian. In places, particularly at 
Colorado Hill, which is in the middle of the district, 
the volcanic rocks have been intensely altered and si- 
licified. These altered rocks have a bleached appear- 
ance, in places stained yellow, red, and brown by iron 
oxide. These bleached zones stand out prominently 
from the unaltered rock. 

Ore Deposits. The ore deposits occur in the zones 
of alteration and silicification. The gold, silver, and 
copper are nearly always associated with various sul- 
fide minerals, which include pyrite, chalcopyrite, enar- 
gite, sphalerite, galena, argentite, and arsenopyrite. A 
number of other ore minerals also are present. The ore 
occurs in disseminated form, in veins and seams, and 
occasionally in tabular sulfide masses. In places high- 
grade pockets have been found. 

Mines. Alpine, Curtz, Georgiana, Globe, Lincoln, 
Morning Star, Orion, Red Gap, Silver Hill. Zaca 
mines: Advance, Colorado, Tarshish. 

Bibliography 

Eokle, A. S., 1919, Alpine County, Mogul and Monitor districts: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 8-25. 

Evans, J. R., et a/., 1966, Guidebook along the east-centrol front of 
the Sierra Nevodo-Zaca mine: Geol. Society Sacramento annual field 
trip, June 18 and 19, 1966. 

Logon, C. A., 1921, Alpine County, copper: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 17, pp. 402-404. 

logon, C. A., 1923, Alpine County mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
18, pp. 358-361. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



93 



Moore's Flat 



Location. The Moore's Flat district is in north- 
central Nevada County about 15 miles northeast of 
Nevada Gty. It is both a lode and placer district and 
includes the "diggings" at Moore's Flat, Oreleans Flat, 
Woolsey Flat, Snow Point, and Snow Tent. The Alle- 
ghany district adjoins the Moore's Flat district on the 
northeast. Moore's Flat was named for H. M. Moore 
who built a store there in 1851. 

Geology. A number of gravel deposits were ac- 
cumulated in a west-southwest-trending Tertiary 
channel of the Yuba River that continues west and 
southwest into the North Bloomfield district. At 
Moore's Flat, Lindgren (1911, p. 141) estimated, 26 
million cubic yards were removed and 15 million re- 
mained. The gravels are quartz-rich and in places 
more than 100 feet thick. Hydraulic mining here dur- 
ing the 1880s had reported gold recoveries of 11 to 
15 cents per yard. The gravels are capped by andesite 
on the south side of the district. Bedrock consists of 
amphibolite, slate, and serpentine. The gold-quartz 
veins usually are narrow and contain small but often 
rich pockets. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, p. 141. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Colfax folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Mooreville Ridge 

Mooreville Ridge is in southwest Plumas and south- 
east Butte Counties. It includes the Camel Peak and 
American House areas. A number of Tertiary channel 
gravel deposits in the area have been mined largely 
by hydrauHcking. The South Fork of the Feather 
River, which flows through the district, was mined 
also in the early days and skin divers are active in the 
area now. Bedrock in the district is granite, slate, ser- 
pentine, and amphibolite. The ridges are capped by 
Tertiary andesite and basalt. A few gold-quartz veins 
occur in the district. 

Mines. Butte County: Dodson hydraulic. Golden 
Trant, Ludlam hydraulic, Walters. Plumas County: 
American House hydraulic. Browns Hill, Davis Point 
hydraulic, Fall River, Sanborn, Walters. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 99-100. 

Turner, H. W., 1898, Bidwell Bar folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 43, 6 pp. 

Mormon Bar 

Mormon Bar is in south-central Mariposa County 
about three miles south of the town of Mariposa. 
The area was placer-mined during the 1850s and 1860s, 
and, by 1870, the easily worked placers were largely 
exhausted. The area was mined again in the 1930s by 
dragline dredges, and there has been minor prospect- 
ing since. The total gold production for the district 
is estimated at 75,000 ounces. The deposits are in and 



adjacent to Mariposa Creek. The average depth of the 
mined gravels was about six feet. 

Morris Ravine 

Location. This district is at the south side of Oro- 
ville Table Mountain three miles north of Oroville. 
It includes the Monte de Oro area. It is both a lode- 
and placer-mining district. Morris Ravine and other 
nearby ravines were first placer-mined during the gold 
rush. Drift and lode mining began soon afterward and 
continued until around World War I. There was some 
work again during the 1930s. The Morris Ravine mine 
has been intermittently worked in recent years. 

Geology. The bedrock in the district consists of 
amphibolite with smaller amounts of slate and phyllite. 
The slate contains fossil ferns. The bedrock is over- 
lain by sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Oroville 
Table Mountain, a mesa-like hill consisting of thick 
beds of sands, tuffs, clays and auriferous channel 
gravels capped by black basalt. Fossil leaves also have 
been found in the clays. 

Ore Deposits. The channel gravels are quartz-rich, 
well-cemented, and interbedded with sands and clays. 
The gold ranges from fine to coarse. A few small dia- 
monds have been recovered here. The veins usually 
are narrow but the Banner vein has been mined to a 
depth of 1000 feet. The ore bodies are large but low 
in grade (^o ounce of gold/ton). Small rich pockets 
were mined also. Sulfides are spotty but often rich. 

Mines. Placer: Alonte de Oro, Morris Ravine, 
Perkins and Goodall, Yuba. Lode: Banner $1 million. 
Bumble Bee $100,000-1-. 

Bibliography 

Creely, R. S., 1965, Geology of the Oroville Quadrangle: California 
Div. Mines and Geology Bull. 184, 86 pp. 

lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 86-89. 

Logan, C. A., 1930, Butte County, Banner mine: California Div. Mines 
Rept. 26, pp. 369-370. 

O'Brien, J. C, 1949, Butte County, gold: California Jour. Mines and 
Geology, vol. 45, pp. 426—433. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Butte County, gold-quartz mines: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 211-224. 

Mountain Meadows 

Mountain Meadows is in southwestern Lassen 
County a few miles southeast of West\vood and eight 
miles north of Greenville. Years ago placer gold was 
recovered from Tertiary gravels in the southeast end 
of the valley. These deposits are on the northwest end 
of a Tertiary channel known as the Jura channel, 
which extends southeast to the Taylorsville and Gen- 
essee districts. Bedrock consists of greenstone and 
amphibolite. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary channels of the Sierro Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, 116. 

Mountain Ranch 

Location. This is a small district in central Cala- 
veras County in the vicinity of the town of Mountain 
Ranch. It includes the Cave Qty area. 



9+ 



Caufornia Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 47. Princeton Mine, Mount Bullion District. This photo of this highly productive Mariposo County 

Phofo courttsy of CalH. State Library. 



ne was token probobly around 1900. 



Geology. The district is largely underlain by 
graphite schist, quartzite, limestone, and thin bodies 
of talcose schist. Patches of Tertiary auriferous gravels 
overlie the bedrock. A few narrow gold-quartz veins, 
in schist, contain small but sometimes rich ore shoots. 
The ore contains free gold and abundant sulfides, espe- 
cially galena. 

Mines. Lode: Gaston Hill. Placer: Cotton Flat, 
Foley, Hidden Cave, Humboldt, Mountain Ranch, 
Rose Hill. 

Bibliography 

Clark, Lorin, 1954, Geology and mineral deposits of the Calaveritas 
quadrangle: California Div. Mines Spec. Rept. 40, 23 pp. 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, gold: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines ond Geology County Rept. 2, pp. 32-93. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas 
of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Mount Bullion 

Location. The Mount Bullion district is in west- 
central Mariposa County about seven miles northwest 
of Mariposa. The district is in the southern end of the 
Mother Lode gold belt and extends northwest towards 
Bagby and Bear Valley (fig. 18). It includes the Agua 
Fria and Mount Ophir areas. 

History. This region was first placer-mined in 
1848, many of the miners having been of Spanish de- 
scent. Agua Fria Creek and other streams were highly 
productive (Agua fria means cold water in Spanish). 
Lode gold-mining began shortly afterward. Much of 
this district is in the Las Mariposa land grant, which 
originally belonged to General John C. Fremont. The 
mines in this grant were not located and surveyed in 
the same fashion as those on public lands, and to this 
day the land plats within this grant are difficult to co- 
ordinate with established survey lines. The grant later 
underwent lengthy litigation, and Fremont eventually 



went bankrupt. He named nearby Mount Bullion for 
his father-in-law. Senator Thomas Hart Benton, who 
was sometimes known as "Old Bullion". 

At Mount Ophir, which is now a ghost town, are 
the ruins of an early-day mint. From 1849 until 1854 
private coinage subject to federal inspection was au- 
thorized in California. It is believed that some of the 
now extremely rare and valuable octagonal fifty-dollar 
gold slugs were minted here from locally mined gold. 

Gold mining in the district continued fairly steadily 
from the 1850s through the 1870s. There was con- 
siderable activity from around 1900 to 1920 when the 
Princeton and other mines were worked. Some mining 
was done in the 1930s and early 1940s, and there have 
been a few intermittent small-scale operations since. 

Geology. As shown in figure 18, the gold mineral- 
ization is confined chiefly to a northwest-trending belt 
of slate, phyllite, and metasandstone of the Mariposa 
Formation (Upper Jurassic). Within this formation are 
two belts of pyrite-bearing metarhyolite that may have 
possible future economic significance. Greenstone of 
the Pefion Blanco Formation (Upper Jurassic) crops 
out to the east and west. Also present are thin bands 
of serpentine and numerous aplite dikes. 

Ore Deposits. Several north-northwest-striking sys- 
tems of quartz veins occur principally in slate. The 
veins usually range from four to 10 feet in thickness, 
although there are some massive ones that are consid- 
erably thicker. The ore contains free gold and pyrite, 
which is abundant in places. MilUng ore yielded from 
'X to Yz ounce of gold per ton, and considerable high- 
grade ore was recovered close to the surface. Some of 
the ore shoots were extensive; several in the Prince- 
ton mine had stoping lengths of more than 500 feet. 
The greatest depth of development is 1 600 feet on the 
incline. 

A number of extensive vein systems have not been 
thoroughly explored. Also, there are several extensive 



1970 

deposits of pyritic metarhyolite in the Mariposa For- 
mation that in places contain gold. These bodies are 
several miles long and 60 or more feet thick. 

Mines. Greens Gulch $119,000+, King Midas, 
Louis, Mt. Ophir 5250,000 to $300,000, Mountain 
View I, Nellie Kahoe, Ortega, Princeton 1 5 million. 
Sorrel. 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



95 



Bibliography. 

Bowen, O. E., 1957, Mariposa County, Mount Ophir and Princeton 
mines: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 53, pp. 139-140 and 
155-158. 

Costello, W. O., 1921, Moriposa County, Mt. Bullion-Beor Volley 
district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 17, p. 98. 

Knopf, Adolph, 1929, The Mother Lode belt of California, Princeton 
mine: U. S. Geo!. Survey Prof. Paper 157, pp. 84-85. 



.cu-o/ve^ 



\;'u\\^Jf, 



-__'v-/9Q_JUNIPER 



^BUFFALO 

NV'C'oLoRADO ' 
>X,^ NQ^^ MOCKINGBIRD ;-,' ^l"--,^'-' ^T^;^-;^ 



'^, ;;^-permit;^^ 



^^ 



.^.. 



UNT vV^u ':;(-', ii-'i' 'Tf-:^r\V 7''--'-''v' 7v 

.LION 7 NJ.''~ ■~v'/^i^■^ 1 -' t'l-'^'X' '"'^ '''<r 'i - 'S, "\y ^^^=^ «■«'■.» 

r '-'^;i,',i',^5^/v7n-^'»-i;:; -',/*>k.\V-\ " « ' ' 

BULLION \-- i' 'Ck-K.--^' ' ~ ':'-/.] i^ '-^ '■^^'V' ' - 



!JpRINCETON 



\7 '' ' l' '/ ^' -/ -^■-' V ' ^ v'/- ' ''<"-' ' 



l^MARIPOSA' 



EXPLANATION 



Slate, phyllife, and metasondstone 
(Mariposa Formotion) 

^ Metarhyolite; auriferous in port 
^ (Mariposa Formotion) 



Greenstone (Pefion Blonco Formation) 



a o 



■/^Tv.yc^N Serpentine and gabbro 
Granitic rocl(S 



\ 



^>-\\\^ Quartz veins 
a. _] I ^ M I 

0. IT L^ 

"' A Lode gold mine 

V Fault 
Figure 18. Geologic Map of Bagby, Maripoja, Mount Bullion and Whitlock Districts, Mariposa County. By O. E. Bowen and J. R. Evoni, 196<. 



96 



Californu Division of Mines and Geology 



Ball. 193 




Photo 48 Champion Mine, Nevada City District. This 1893 view of the Nevada County mine looks east. 



Logan, C. A., 1935, Mother Lode belt, Mariposa County: California 
Div. Mines Bull. 108, pp. 180-190. 

Ronsome, F. L., 190io. Mother Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Storms, W. H., 1900, The Princeton mine: California Min. Bur. Bull. 
18, p. 143. 

Murphys 

Location. The Murphys district is in south-central 
Calaveras County about seven miles northeast of An- 
gels Camp. It extends west to include the Esmeralda 
and Fricot Ranch areas. 

History. The streams were first mined during the 
gold rush. Murphys was established in 1848 or 1849 
and named for John M. Murphy, a member of Captain 
Weber's Stockton Mining Company. Lode mining 
probably began shortly afterward and continued al- 
most steadily until around World War I. Some of the 
mines have been prospected in recent years. The old 
town of Murphys, one of the best-preserved mining 
towns in the Sierra Nevada, is a popular tourist at- 
traction. 

Geology. The eastern part of the district is under- 
lain by graphite schist, slate, and a large limestone lens 
of the Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to Per- 
mian). The western part is underlain by slate, schist, 
green schist and numerous lenses of talcose rock de- 
rived from serpentine. A number of patches of aurif- 
erous Tertiary gravels overlie the bedrock. 

Ore Deposits. Quartz, occurring in a great many 
west-trending veins — mostly in schist and slate — is 
glassy and white, rose, or occasionally black. Rose- 
colored quartz is characteristic of this district. The 
ore bodies usually arc small and shallow, but often they 
are rich. The ore contains free gold and often abundant 
sulfides. Although there are no large mines, the district 
was quite productive because of the large number of 



Mines. Basco, Beatrice, Bence $200,000, Bonehard, 
Buckeye, Buckhorn, Crown Point, Cowbell, Dora 
Cons., Dragone, Economic, Esmeralda $300,000, Eu- 
reka, Fairplay, Falcon, Fricot Group, Great Divide, 
Gumboot, Hidden Treasure, K and J, Last Chance, 
Alalteson, Manhatten, Miralda, Oro y Plata, Piety Hill, 
Rocky Bar, Total Wreck. 

Bibliography . 

Clark, L. D., 1954, Geology and mineral deposits of the Caloveritos 
quadrangle: California Div. Mines Spec. Rept. 40, 23 pp. 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, gold: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines and Geology County Report 2, pp. 32-93. 

Logan, C. A., 1936, Calaveras County, gold quartz mines: California 
Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 235-323. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jockson folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas 
of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Calaveras County, gold quartz mines: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 66-114. 

Turner, H. W., and Ransome, F. L, 1898, Big Trees folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 51, 8 pp. 

Nashville 

Location and History. The Nashville district is in 
southwestern El Dorado County about 1 5 miles south 
of Placerville. It is in the Mother Lode gold belt. The 
area was mined during the gold rush when considerable 
quantities of high-grade ore were taken from near the 
surface. Originally known as Quartzburg, the town 
of Nashville was renamed by miners who came from 
Tennessee. Activity was considerable here during the 
1930s, when the Montezuma-Apex and Nashville mines 
were worked. There has been minor prospecting since. 

Geology. A north-trending belt of gray to black 
slate of the Mariposa Formation (Upper Jurassic) is 
in the central portion of the district. Massive green- 
stone is to the west, and schist, amphibolite, quartzite, 
and granitic rocks are to the east. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



97 



Ore Deposits. Several long north-striking massive 
quartz veins in the slate are up to 25 feet thick. These 
veins contain large but low- to moderate-grade ore 
bodies (1/7 to 1/4 ounce of gold per ton). Stoping 
lengths were up to 500 feet, and the veins were mined 
to inclined depths of 2000 feet. The ore contains free 
gold and pynte. Considerable fault gouge is present. 
The veins in greenstone to the west and amphibolite 
and schist to the east are usually only a few feet wide, 
but they have yielded appreciable amounts of high- 
grade ore. 

Mines. Bonanza, Briarcliff $120,000, Balmaceda, 
Last Chance, Manhattan, Monarch-Sugar Loaf $100,- 
000, Montezuma-Apex $1 million, Nashville $2 million. 

Bibliography. 

Clark, W. B., and Carlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, lode 
gold mines: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 52, pp. 401-429. 

Fairbanks, H. W., 1890, Geology of the Mother lode region: Colifor- 
nio Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 80-81. 

Lindgren, Woldemar, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio: 
U. S. Geological Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 4 pp. 



PP 



Logon, C. A., 1935, Montezuma 
30-34. 



California Div. Mines Bull. 108, 



Nevada City 

Location. The Nevada Qty district is in western 
Nevada County. The district covers an extensive area, 
from the vicinity of Indian Flat east through Nevada 
City, northeast to Willow Valley and southeast 
through Canada Hill and Banner Hill to the vicinity of 
the Lava Cap mine. It is both a lode- and placer-mining 
district and once was an important center of gold min- 
ing in California. 



History. Gold was first mined in this district in 
Deer Creek, which, in 1849, was called Deer Creek 
Diggings. The name Nevada was adopted in May 
1850 at a public meeting. The placers were rich, and 
the town grew fast. Hydraulic mining was first prac- 
ticed in California at American Hill here in 1852, by 
E. G. Matteson (hydraulicking was also done that same 
year at Yankee Jims in Placer County). Hydraulic 
mining flourished until around 1880. Drift mining 
began in the 1850s, and the drift mines were continu- 
ously active until around 1900. Gold-quartz was dis- 
covered in 1850, when the Gold Tunnel vein was 
found. However, important production of lode gold 
did not commence until the early 1860s because of dif- 
ficulties in milling the ore. By 1865, the output from 
lode-gold mining was averaging $500,000 per year 
and later ranged from $300,000 to $600,000. The Cham- 
pion and Providence mines were the major producers 
during these years. Later these two mines were in liti- 
gation, and in 1902 the Champion owners bought the 
Providence. Large-scale lode-gold mining was resumed 
in the district again during the 1930s when the Lava 
Cap and Banner mines were operating. From 1933 to 
1942, the Lava Cap yielded $12 million. There has been 
only minor activity since 1942. The old town of 
Nevada City, the county seat, is now a popular tourist 
center with numerous well-preserved old buildings. 
The Nevada County Narrow Gauge railroad served 
the area from 1877 to 1942. The total output of the 
district is unknown, but it is estimated by the author 
at more than $50 million and may have exceeded $70 
million. 




Photo 49. Lava Cap Mine, Nevada City District. This is a recent photo of a mine in Nevada County that yielded $12 million in gold in 1933-^2. 



98 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull 193 



_-9^— 



5^: 



^'y/A'- 



\: 



«"«"«".",","." VALLrSON'*/////'\''//v'v'y'',',''v'v''»'«'v'»'v\\|| ,"",'' ,^ 
."«"«"« "«"«'/|>fNEVINS/'>/ ///'•'east!" /,»,»//'», »,»/,»,>,',', »,»,»,»,», 



;yN 



Vt 



S^ 






'MANZANITA « « « . «",",",",",',",", V ^ VALLEY 



^ 



"."l/'" ""r'\""''-"""""-''»''»"J"»'' OV""" « " X " J,,oru^n !■»" .'%. BELLEFONTAINE V'^^^ •'^^^^ 

r . f ."."[".r.NEyADA »^«^x jx^xj/". x x . ".""5"'^-?^ 4^ . ..... .*r\r7".".v 



V<-.".'. 






EXPLANATION 



'"*''/v\'' 


Andesite and rhyolite 






XXX 


Gronitic rocks 








Serpentine 








Greenstone and amphibolite 






'wm, 


Slate, schist, end quartzite 



1 



^^^^ Gold beoring vein 
A Lode mine 

X Plocer mine 

Figure 19. Geologic Map of Nevada City Diifrlct, Nevada County. The map show, vein syilemi and the principal mines. After Hobson, »890, ond 

lindgrtn, 1896a. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



99 




Photo 50. Providence Mine, Nevada City District. This 1893 view of the mine, in Nevada County, looks southeast. The Champion mine is at 

left. Deer Creek in the foreground. 



Geology. The central portion of the district is 
underlain by granitic rocks, chiefly granodiorite (fig. 
19). Adjacent are beds of slate, mica schist, and quartz- 
ite, most of which are part of the Calaveras Forma- 
tion (Carboniferous to Permian). To the west and 
southwest are fairly extensive beds of massive green- 
stone, amphibolite, and serpentine. There are a number 
of fine- to medium-grained dioritic and aplitic dikes, 
some of which are associated with the gold-quartz 
veins. In places these rocks are overlain by Tertiary 
channel gravels capped by rhyolite and andesite. 

Ore Deposits. Several major gold-quartz vein sys- 
tems traverse the district. In the west portion one sys- 
tem extends northwest along a granodiorite-metasedi- 
mentary rock contact. In the southern and eastern 
portion of the district the veins strike nearly west and 
dip either north or south. There are also a few north- 
east-striking and southeast-dipping veins. The veins 
usually are one to four feet thick, but in places a few 
are as much as 1 5 feet thick. The ore contains varying 
amounts of free gold, often abundant pyrite and 
smaller amounts of other sulfides. Some of the ore 
bodies are extensive; the ore body at the Providence 
mine persisted to an inclined depth of more than 2700 
feet. Considerable high-grade ore has been recovered 
in the district. 

Several important Tertiary channels were sources of 
ore-bearing gravels. One, the Harmony channel, which 
enters the district from the northeast, was extensively 
mined by drifting. The pay gravel in this channel was 
150 to 200 feet wide, two to four feet deep, quartziric, 
often sub-angular and well-cemented. These pay 
streaks yielded $1.55 to $2.50 in gold to the ton, at the 
old price. The Manzanita channel, which yielded $3 
million, is just to the west. Northwest of town is the 



northwest-trending Cement Hill channel. In the south- 
em part of the district is the Town Talk channel, 
which was narrow but rich in places. Much of the 
placer gold taken from the channel deposits in this 
district was coarse. 

Mines. Lode: Alaska, Alice BeUe, Alpine, Bagley, 
Banner $1 million+, Belle Fontaine, Buckeye, Cale- 
donia, California Cons. $1 million, Canada Hill $1.13 
million. Carter, Central South Yuba, Champion $3 mil- 
lion, Coan, Deadwood $300,000, Enterprise, Federal 
Loan $200,000, Fortune, Franklin, Glencoe, Gold Flat, 
Gold Metal, Gold Tunnel $300,000, Gracie, Hoge 
$600,000, Kirkham, Lava Cap $12 million, Le Comp- 
ton, Massachusetts, Mayflower, Merrifield, Merrimac, 
Montana, Mohigan, Mountaineer $2 million to $3 mil- 
lion, Mt. Auburn, Murchie, National, Neversweat, 
Nevada City, Oustomah, Phoenix $200,000, Pittsburgh 
$1 million-|-, Sneath and Clay $180,000, Soggs, Spanish, 
St. Louis, Texas, Union, Willow Valley $130,000, 
Wyoming. Drift: Allison, Cold Springs, Coleman, 
Dean, East Harmony, Fountain Head, Grover, Hughes, 
Kansas, Knickerbacker, Live Oak, Manzanita, Ne- 
braska, Nevins, Odin, Pennsylvania, Phoenix, West 
Harmony, Yosemite. Hydraulic: American Hill, Buck- 
eye Hill, Canada Hill, Hirschmann. 

Bibliography 

chandler, J. W., 1941, Mining methods and costs of the Lava Cap 
Gold Mining Corporation, Nevada City: Calif. Div. Mines Kept. 37, 
pp. 409-425. 

Crawford, J. J., 1896, Champion, Harmony, Mayflower, and Provi- 
dence mines: Calif. Min. Bur. Rept. 13, pp. 239, 247-248, 252-253, 
and 260. 

Hobson, J. B., 1890, Nevada City district: Calif. Min. Bur. Rept. 10, 
pp. 384-389. 

Hobson, J. B., and Wiltsee, E. M., 1893: Nevada City mining district: 
Calif. Min. Bur. Rept. 11, pp. 285-296. 



100 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




1970 



Gold Districts — Sierr.\ Nevada 



101 



Irelan, Williom, Jr., 1888, Nevada City district: Calif. Min. Bur. 
Repf. 8, pp. 418-425. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1895, Smortsville folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

lindgren, Woldemor, 1896, Nevada City special folio, California: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 29, 7 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1896, Gold-quartz veins of the Nevada City 
and Grass Valley districts: U. S. Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 17, pt. 2, 
pp. 1-262. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, The Tertiary gravels of the Sierro Ne- 
vada: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 125-132. 

Logon, C. A., 1930, Nevada County, Geology of Gross Volley ond 
Nevada City districts: Calif. Div. Mines Rept. 26, pp. 97-99. 

Logan, C. A., 1941, Mineral resources of Nevada County: Calif. Jour. 
Mines and Geology, vol. 37, pp. 380-431. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevada County, Nevada City district: Calif. 
Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 37-44. 

Newtown 

Location. Newtown is in central El Dorado 
County 10 miles east of Placerville. It was originally 
known as Dogtown. Chiefly a placer-mining district, 
it includes the Camino and Pleasant Valley areas. 

Geology. Numerous deposits of auriferous gravels 
were deposited in the west-trending Tertiary chan- 
nel of the South Fork of the American River. They 
were mined during the early days by hydraulicking 
and drifting, and again by drifting through the 1930s. 
The lower gravels are quartz-rich and in places con- 
tain coarse gold. They are overlain by rhyolite and 
andesite. Bedrock is slate, schist, and quartzite with 
thin bands of serpentine. Granodiorite crops out to 
the north and south. 

Bibliography 

Clork, W. B., and Carlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, placer 
deposits; California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 52, pp. 429—435. 

lindgren, Waldemar, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

North Bloomfield 

Location. The North Bloomfield mining district is 
in north-central Nevada County about 10 miles north- 
east of Nevada City. This district also includes the 
"diggings" at Lake Qty to the west, Derbec to the 
north, and Relief to the east. 

History. Gold was discovered here originally in 
1851. Hydraulic mining began about 1853 and, by 
1855, had become a major industry. An extensive sys- 
tem of ditches and flumes supplied water to the mines 
from Bowman Lake and other reservoirs to the east 
in the high Sierra Nevada. The town of North Bloom- 
field was first known as Humbug City. Its name was 
changed to Bloomfield and then to North Bloomfield 
when someone discovered there was a Bloomfield in 
Sonoma County. 

As more and more gold-bearing gravel was exca- 
vated, the hydraulic pits here became enormous. The 
pit at the famous Malakoff mine is more than 7000 
feet long, 3000 feet wide, and up to 600 feet deep. 
The tailings from the hydraulic operations were al- 
lowed to flow into the rivers, a procedure that led to 
litigation with the farmers who lived downstream. In 
a famous court case in 1884 (Woodruff vs. North 
Bloomfield Gravel Mining Company (16 Fed. Rep. 



25)), Judge Lorenzo Sawyer issued an injunction 
against the dumping of mine debris into the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin Rivers and their tributaries. 
Injunctions against other mines soon followed, and 
hydraulic mining in the Sierra Nevada has not been 
important since that date. The Malakoff diggings and 
part of the old town are now a state park. The U. S. 
Geological Sur\'ey, beginning in 1966, initiated an ex- 
ploration program in this area to determine the extent 
of unmined gravels. Drilling and geophysical explora- 
tion have been done. 

The total output of the Malakoff mine is about 
13.5 million, and the Derbec mine has probably yielded 
$1 million to S2 million according to Lindgren (1911). 
He estimated that 30 million yards had been removed 
and 130 million remained at North Bloomfield; Jar- 
man (1927) estimated that 40 million yards had been 
removed and more than 50 million remained. 

Geology. The main channel of the Tertiary Yuba 
River entered this district from the northeast via Der- 
bec. A branch joined tliis channel from Relief Hill 
to the southeast. At North Bloomfield the main chan- 
nel curves west and north and then west again as it 
continued toward the North Columbia district. Al- 
though the gravels are as much as 600 feet thick, most 
of the values were obtained from the lower 130 feet 
of blue gravel. These gravels yielded from four to 
10 cents of gold per cubic yard. Bedrock consists of 
slate, schist, and phyllite. 

Bibliography 

Hobson, J. B., and Wiltsee, E. A., 1893, North Bloomfield mining 
district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 11, pp. 311-312. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, North Bloomfield mine: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 454-459. 

Jarman, Arthur, 1927, Bloomfield hydraulic mine: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 23, pp. 107-110. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1900, Colfax folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 139-141. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevada County, North Bloomfield mining 
district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 45-51. 

North Columbia 

Location. This district is in north-central Nevada 
County about seven miles northeast of Nevada City. 
It includes placer deposits in the North Columbia and 
Columbia Hill areas and lode deposits in the Delhi 
mine area. 

History. The district was first placer-mined during 
the gold rush and hydraulicked on a large scale from 
the middle 1850s to the early 1880s. It was named 
after Columbia Hill, and "North" was added to distin- 
guish it from Columbia in Tuolumne County. The 
Delhi lode mine was active from the 1860s to the 1890s. 
Chinese carried on small-scale placer mining from the 
1890s to the early 1900s. Some work was done again 
during the 1930s and the area has been prospected 
since. The total output of the district is unknown. 
The placer mines are estimated to have yielded $2 mil- 
lion to $3 million. Lindgren (1911) estimated that 25 
million yards of gravel had been removed and 165 



102 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 52. Main Hydraulic Pit, North Columbia District. The pit, in Nevada County, is nearly two miles long and a mile wide. The view is north. 



million remained. The lode mines have yielded more 
than %\ million. Beginning in 1966, the U.S. Geological 
Survey and U.S. Bureau of Mines have studied this 
district as part of their "heavy metals" programs (see 
also sections on Badger Hill and North Bloomfield). 

Geology. Extensive channel deposits lie at the 
junction of two major streams of the Tertiary Yuba 
River. A west-trending channel extends through the 
district from North Bloomfield and continues on to 
Badger Hill, and a branch enters the district from 
Blue Tent to the south. In places the gravels are as 
much as 500 feet thick. The lower gravels are coarse 
while upper bench gravels are fine. Much sand and 
clay are present. Bedrock is phyllite of the Delhi for- 
mation (Carboniferous). Several gold-quartz veins 
have yielded high-grade ore. 

Mines (all lode). Delhi $1 million, Enterprise, Griz- 
zly Ridge, St. Gothard. 

Bibliography 

Hobson, J. B., and Wiltsee, E. A., 1893, Columbia Hill district: Coli- 
fornio Min. Bur. Rept. U, pp. 305-308. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Columb.j Hill district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 444-447. 

lindgren, Woldemor, 1900, Colfox folio, California: U. S. Geo!. 
Survey Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 139. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevoda County, North Columbia mining dis- 
trict: California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 48-51. 

North San Juan 

Location. This district is in northwestern Nevada 
County nine miles northwest of Nevada City. It con- 
sists of the placer deposits that extend from the vicinity 
of North San Juan southwest for about IVi miles to 
the Sweetland area. It was named for a nearby hill 
with the "North" added to distinguish it from San 
Juan (now San Juan Bautista) in San Benito County. 

Geology. A main Tertiary channel of the Yuba 
River extends into the area from the Badger Hill and 
North Columbia districts from the east and another 
from Camptonville from the northwest. The channel 
then extends southwest through Sweetland into the 
French Corral district. The gravels are 1 50 to 400 feet 
thick and up to 1000 feet wide. The low gravels 
yielded up to 30(f per yard in gold, mostly from hy- 



draulicking. The bedrock is granodiorite with am- 
phibolite to the west. There are several narrow gold- 
quartz veins in the amphihplite. 



Bibliography 



aliforn 



U. S. Geol. 



Lindgren, Woldemor, 1895, Smartsville folio, C 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 121-125. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevada County, North San Juan 
district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 51-54. 



ng 



Ophir 

Location. This district is in southwestern Placer 
Count)' in the vicinity of the old town of Ophir. It 
extends east to Auburn and west to Gold Hill and 
includes the area known as the Duncan Hill mining 
district. 

History. Gold-bearing surface gravels were discov- 
ered at Ophir and Auburn in 1 848 and for several years 
yielded substantial amounts of the mineral. The quartz 
veins were then developed, and the Ophir and Duncan 
Hill districts were organized. Appreciable amounts of 
high-grade gold ore were recovered during the 1860s, 
1870s, and 1880s, but mining activity in the district 
declined after that. The mines were active again from 
the early 1900s through the 1930s with substantial pro- 
duction, but little has been done since. The value of 
the total output of the district is estimated at more 
than $5 million. 

Geology. The mineralized zone is on the northeast 
flank of a granodiorite and quartz-diorite stock that is 
intrusive into amphibolite schist (fig. 20). A series of 
west-northwest-striking and south-dipping quartz veins 
occur in the granitic rocks or along the granitic rock- 
amphibolite .schist contact. A few veins are in the am- 
phibolite. The ore contains free gold in places with 
often abundant pyrite, galena, and chalcopyrite; much 
of the ore is base. Milling ore ranged from 'X to one 
ounce of gold per ton. Considerable high-grade ore 
was taken close to the surface during the early 
da)'s. The veins range from one to five feet in thick- 
ness, and several were mined to depths of more than 
1000 feet. The ore shoots had stoping lengths of up 
to 250 feet. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



103 



Mines. Belmont, Black Ledge, Centenial % 1 50,000+, 
Conrad $50,000, Crater $750,000, Doig, Eclipse $100,- 
000+, Gold Blossom $216,000+, Grass Ravine, Green 
$150,000+, Green Emigrant $150,000+, Hathaway 
$336,000, Julian, Mina Rica $55,000, Moore $180,000, 
Oro Fino $500,000+, Pine Tree, Rock Creek $200,- 
000?, St. Lawrence, St. Patrick $148,000+, Three 
Stars $415,000. 

Bibliography 

Hobson, J. B., 1890, Ophir mining district: California MIn. Bur. 
Rept. 10, pp. 427-433. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Auburn district: California Min. Bur. Rapt. 
8, pp. 460-462. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1892, Gold-silver veins at Ophir: U. S. Geol. 
Survey 14th Ann. Rept., pt. 2, pp. 249-284. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1894, Sacramento folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. AHos of the U. S., folio 5, 3 pp. 

Logon, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, Ophir district: 
Colifornia Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 28-31. 

Lydon, P. A., 1959, Geology along U. S. Highway 40: California 
Div, Mines Mineral Informotion Service, Vol. 12, no. 8. pp. 1—9. 



Woring, C. A., 1919, Placer County, Ophir district: Colifornia Min. 
Bur. Rept. 15, p. 319. 

Oroville 

Location. This district is in southwestern Butte 
County. It is mainly a dredging field that extends from 
just west of the city of Oroville southwest along the 
Feather River to a point about five miles due east of 
Biggs. The field is one to two miles wide and nine 
miles long. 

History. Shallow placers were mined here during 
the gold rush. The area was settled in 1849: Oroville 
originally was known as Ophir City, but the name was 
changed in 1855. Around 1895, W. P. Hammon and 
others tested the area to determine the feasibility of 
mining on a large scale. They introduced bucket-line 
dredging in 1 898, the first in California. The field was 
highly productive from 1903 to 1916; in 1908 there 
were 35 dredges and 12 dredging companies active in 









■^V,r-^'--.'o'T; 






-^^^z, 












■ NEWCASTLE '. 



:l; 



■i: 



EXPLANATION 

|"'-'» '-] Granitic rocl<s 
pV'jI.";! Amphibolite 



X - 



Id-quortz vein 



Figure 20. Geologic Map of Ophir ond Penryn Districts, Placer County. The principal gold veins are 
shown. After lindgren, 1892 and 1894. 



1(H 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 53. Cherokee Mining Company Dredge, Or 



rille District. This 1904 photo shot 
operating here in Butte County. 



rtiest bucket-line dredges in California, 



the field. Output later declined, but dredging was done 
again from 1936 to 1942 and 1945 to 1952. The dredge 
field is now an important source of sand and gravel. 
The total output from dredging is estimated to be 
about 1,964,000 ounces of gold. 

Geology. The gold occurs in river gravels and 
adjacent terrace gravels on the flood plain. The gravels 
rest on a bedrock of soft but compact andesite and 
rhyolite tuff. Coarse boulders, which become finer 
downstream, are present along with alternating sand 
layers. Digging depths ranged from 25 feet upstream 
to as much as 55 feet downstream. The gold was fine 
and occurred chiefly in the gravels. It was 915 to 930 
in fineness. Dredge recoveries ranged from 15 cents 
to 25 cents per yard of gold at the new price. Minor 
amounts of platinum also were recovered. 

Concerns. Butte Dredging Co., El Oro Dredging 
Co., Feather River Development Co., Gold Hill Dredg- 
ing Co. 1938-50, Gold Run Dredging Co. 1906, In- 
diana Gold Dredging Co. 1908, Kentucky Ranch Gold 
Dredging Co. 1909, Natomas Cons. 1909-17, Oroville 
Dredging Ltd. 1906-16, Oroville Gold Dredging Co. 
1941-44, Oroville Union Gold Dredg. Co. 1914, Oro 
Water Light & Power Co. 1906-16, Pacific Gold 
Dredging Co. 1906-16?, Pennsylvania Dredging Co., 
Shasta-Butte Gold Dredg. Co. 1928-?, Viloro Syndi- 
cate Ltd. 1904-16?, Yuba Cons. 1935-52. Many other 
earlier concerns were consolidated around 1906. 

Bibliography 

Doolittle, J. E., 1908, Gold dredging in California, Oroville district: 
California Min. Bur. Bull. 36, pp. 68-88. 



Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 220-221. 

Logon, C. A., 1930, Butte County, gold plocer mines: California Div. 
Mines Repl. 26, pp. 383-384. 

O'Brien, J. C, 1949, Butte County, Yuba Consolidated Goldfields 
dredges: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 45, pp. 432-433. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Butte County, gold dredging: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 187-198. 

Winston, W. B., 1910, Gold dredging in California, Dredging in lh« 
Oroville district: California Min. Bur. Bull. 57, pp. 111-158. 

Pacific 

This is a placer-mining district in east-central El 
Dorado County, in the vicinity of Pacific House and 
about 20 miles east of Placerville. Several hydraulic 
and drift mines here were originally worked in 1850s 
or 1860s, with some work at the Pacific Channel drift 
mine in the early 1920s. The gravel deposits are on a 
Tertiary channel that extended west and southwest 
toward Placerville. The gravels are capped by andesite 
and rest on a granite bedrock. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemor, ond Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio, 
California: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Logan, C. A., 1920, El Dorado County, Pocific channel mine: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 17, pp. 428-429. 

Paloma 

This district is in northwestern Calaveras County in 
the vicinity of the old mining town of Paloma. Much 
of the gold produced in the district has come from the 
famous Gwin mine, which was operated on a large 
scale during the 1860s, 1870s, and from 1894 to 1908. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



105 



The mine, named for U.S. Senator William Gwin, had 
a total output valued at about $7 million. 

The gold-bearing veins are in the same belt of slate 
of the A4ariposa Formation (Upper Jurassic) on which 
the large Jackson district mines lie, in Amador County 
to the north (see fig. 12). The quartz veins strike 
north-northwest and dip steeply to the east. The ore 
contains free gold, pyrite, and arsenopyrite. Milling 
ore recovered from the Gwin mine averaged about 14 
ounce gold per ton. The great north ore shoot in this 
mine had a horizontal stoping length of up to 800 feet 
and a pitch length of 150iO feet. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., ond lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, Gwin mine: 

California Div. Mines and Geology County Report 2, pp. 56-59. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio, California: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Penryn 

Location. This district in southwestern Placer 
County in the vicinity of the town of Penryn, also 
has been known as Stewart's Flat. The Ophir district 
adjoins it on the north and northeast (fig. 20). The 
town of Penryn was named by Griffith Griffiths, who 
opened granite quarries here in 1860, after Penrhyn, 
Wales. Appreciable mining activity here during the 
1930s and early 1940s was highlighted by work at the 
Alabama, Chicago, and Sicily mines. 

Geology. The principal country rocks are gran- 
odiorite and quartz diorite with some diorite and gab- 
bro. A number of north- to northwest-striking quartz 
veins, cropping out with nearly vertical dips, range 
from one to five feet in thickness. The ore contains 
free gold with varying amounts of sulfides. Argentite 
and tellurides are occasionally present. The milling- 
grade ore usually averaged '/j to Vi ounce of gold per 
ton, but some was considerably richer. 

Mines. Alabama $1 million+, Chicago 1 100,000+, 
Elizabeth, Highway 40, Jenny Lind, Mary Len, Pen- 
ryn, Sicily $100,000-1-. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1894, Sacramento folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 5, 3 pp. 

Logan, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, Alabama and 
Chicago mines: California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 10-11 ond 16-17. 

Pike 

Location and History. This district is in the south- 
west corner of Sierra Count}' at the site of the old 
town of Pike or Pike Cit>'. Some of the early-day 
miners came from Pike, Missouri. The district, 1 2 miles 
northeast of North San Juan and 26 miles northeast 
of Nevada City, includes the Tippicanoe, Negro Tent, 
Snowden Hill, and Grizzly Gulch areas. The area was 
originally mined during the gold rush, and the Alaska 
mine was worked on a large scale from 1863 to 1916. 
The Pleasant View hydraulic mine was active in 1962 
and 1963. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The district is under- 
lain by metadiabase, serpentine, and irregular bodies of 
amphibolite. Fine-grained phyllite and quartzite of the 
Delhi Formation (Carboniferous) lie on the east side. 



Lenticular quartz veins with calcite occur chiefly in 
the metadiabase. The ore bodies contain free gold 
and often abundant sulfides, including galena. There 
are some extensive ore shoots and some high-grade 
pockets. The gold often is coarse. Several patches of 
Tertiary quartz-rich gravel are a few acres in extent, 
some of the gravel capped by andesite. 

Mines. Lode: Alaska $1 million-!-, American Flat, 
Beame, Blue Grouse, Bowman, General Grant. Placer: 
Grizzly Gulch, Mt. Alta, Orient, Pleasant View, Tip- 
picanoe, True Grit. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1942, Sierra County, Alaska mine: California Div. 
Mines Rept. 38, pp. 17-18. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1900, Colfax folio, Californio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 138. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1920, Sierra County, Pike mining district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 14-15. 

Pilot Hill 

Location. This district is in northwestern El Do- 
rado County in the vicinity of the town of Pilot Hill. 
The area was first mined during the gold rush. It was 
worked again in the 1930s with draglines and power 
shovels. 

Geology. The principal deposit is a 20- to 30-acre 
remnant of the main Tertiary channel of the Ameri- 
can River that extended northwest from Placerville. 
The gravels rest on greenstone and green schist. To 
the south are several bodies of gabbro and diorite. 
During the 1930s the yield from these gravels was 13 
to 60 cents per yard in gold. Also, there are a few 
narrow gold-quartz veins. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio: 

U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 

U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 164. 

Pine Grove 

Location. Pine Grove is in east-central Amador 
County about 10 miles east of Jackson. It includes 
the Irishtown and Clinton areas. It is a small Sierran 
east gold belt district that was first worked during the 
gold rush and has been intermittently prospected ever 
since. 

Geology. The district is underlain chiefly by gra- 
phitic slate, schist, and metachert. Granodiorite lies to 
the east and west. A number of narrow quartz veins 
containing small ore shoots are rich in places. The ore 
commonly contains abundant sulfides, especially ga- 
lena and chalcopyrite. A few small patches of Tertiary 
auriferous channel gravels overlie the bedrock. 

Mines. Black Wonder, Contini, Aiikado, Peterson, 
Pine Grove Unit, Rainbow, Red Hill. 

Bibliography 

Carlson, D. W., and Clark, W. B., 1954, Amador County, Black 
Wonder, Contini, Peterson, Rainbow, and Red Hill mines: California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 50, pp. 172, 177-178, 189, and 192. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas 
of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 



106 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull 193 




Photo 54. Contini Mine, Pine Grove District. This Amodor 
County mine is a typical Sierra Nevada East Gold Belt 
pocket mine. It has been worked on a small scale since the 



1940s. The 
Sc/iwettzer. 



looks west. Photo by itffray 



Photo 55. Red Hill Mine, Pine Grove District. 
This 1952 photo shows an Amador County pocket 
mine that was active in the 1940s. Much of the 
area around this mine has 4iow been subdivided. 
Photo by Jeffrey Scttweitzer. 




1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



107 




Photo 56. Ground Sluicing, Plocerville District. This photo of an operation in the district, in El Oorodo County, wo$ token in obout 1849. from 

the collecfion of Mrs. T. J. Lobbord, Son fronciscok 



Piute Mountains 

Location. The Piute Mountains are in the southern 
Sierra Nevada, in east-central Kern County near Clara- 
ville, about 14 miles southeast of Bodfish. Gold was 
probably discovered here during the 1850s, but the 
principal periods of mining were 1870 to 1900 and the 
1930s and early 1940s. Some tungsten has been pro- 
duced in the district. 

Geology. Most of the district is underlain by Meso- 
zoic granitic rocks. In the northwest portion a roof 
pendant of Mesozoic metasedimentary rock crops out. 
Most of the gold deposits are confined to a two-mile- 
wide belt that extends northwest through the Clara- 
ville area in granitic rock and then north in the meta- 
morphic rocks. The deposits consist of gold-quartz 
veins in shear zones. Some sulfides and also scheelite, 
in places, are present. Milling ore averaged about Yi 
ounce of gold per ton. Silver and antimony also are 
present. 

Mines. Amy, Blue Jay, Bright Star $600,000, 
Dearborn, Donnie, French, Gold Standard, Gwynne 
1770,000, Henry Ford, Hilltop, Jeannette, Jeanette- 
Grant, Jerry, Little Joe, Lone Star, Mary Ellen, Re- 
treat, Shellenberger, Simon, Surprise. 



Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Kern County, Bright Star mine: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 14, p. 490. 

Troxel, B. W., and Morton, P. K„ 1962, Kern County, Piute Mountains 
district: California Div. Mines and Geology, County Rept. 1, pp. 45-46. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1933, Kern County, Gwynne and 
Jeonette mines: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 307-309. 

Plocerville 

Location. Placerville is in west-central EI Dorado 
County. The district includes the lode mines of the 
Mother Lode belt, which extends north through the 
district, and the placer deposits here and in the ad- 
jacent Smith Flat, Diamond Springs, Texas Hill, Coon 
Hollow, and White Rock areas. 

History. Gold was discovered in the Placerville 
area in July 1848. The town was first known as Dry 
Diggings but had the nickname of Old Hangtown; 
three robbers were hanged here on October 17, 1849. 
From the middle 1850s through the 1870s, the hy- 
draulic and drift mines in the district were extremely 
rich. One 20-acre claim at Coon Hollow yielded $5 
million, and the Spanish Hill area yielded $6 million. 
Quartz mining began in 1852 at the Pacific mine, but 
the chief period of lode mining was from the 1880s 
until about 1915. There was some mining in the dis- 
trict again in the 1930s, but there has been little activ- 
ity since. Many of the mines in the district came 



108 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



under the control of the Placervillc Gold Mining 
Company. The value of the total output for the 
district is unknown, but the placer mines are esti- 
mated to have yielded at least |25 million. 

Geology. A belt of gray to black slate of the Mari- 
posa Formation (Upper Jurassic) one to two miles 
wide extends north through the central portion of the 
district. Greenstone and amphibolite are to the west, 
and schist and slate of the Calaveras Formation (Car- 
boniferous to Permian) and granodiorite lie to the 
east. The Tertiary South Fork of the American River, 
which has numerous tributaries, entered the Placerville 
basin from Newtown. In places the Tertiary gravels 
are overlain by thick beds of rhyolite tuff and andesite. 

Ore Deposits. Of the numerous tributaries of the 
main Tertiary channel in this district, probably the 
best known and one of the richest was the Deep 
Blue Lead. This channel extended south from White 
Rock to Smith's Flat and then west-southwest through 
the Texas Hill area (fig. 21). The lode-gold deposits 
are massive quartz veins as much as 20 feet thick with 
numerous parallel stringers. The ore bodies are low to 
moderate in grade (% to ^ ounce of gold per ton), 
but the veins have been mined to depths of 2000 feet. 
The ore contains finely disseminated free gold and 
small amounts of pyrite. The veins occur chiefly in 
slate. 

Mines. Lode: Elliott, Eplev $100,000+, Griffith, 
Guildford $200,000+, Harmon $100,000+, Larkin 
$125,000, Margurite, Oregon $100,000+, Pacific 
$1,486,000, River Hill, Sherman $136,000, Superior, 
True Cons. $100,000, Van Hooker $100,000+. 



Placer: Coon Hollow $10 million, Diamond Springs, 
Green Mountain, Negro Hill, Sacramento Hill, Span- 
ish Hill $6 million, Smith's Flat $2 milIion+, Texas 
Hill, White Rock $5 million. Drift: Benfield, Cedar 
Spring, Clark, Kumfa, Landecker, Lyon, Pascoe, Ri- 
vera, Texas Flill, Try Again, Union. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Carl.on, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, Placer, 
ville Gold Mining Company and Placerville area placer deposit: Cali- 
fornia Jour. Minei and Geology, vol. 52, pp. 422-423 and 432-434. 

DeGroot, Henry, 1890, Smiths Flat mines: California Min. Bur. Kept. 
10, pp. 179-180. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Van Hooker, Pacific, and Epiey, Cons, 
mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 181-187. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, pp. 171-180. 

logon, C. A., 1935, Harmon group: California Div. Mines Bull. 108, 
pp. 26-27. 

Rowlands, R., 1894, Map of the principol gravel mines in the vicinity 
of Placerville: California Min. Bur. Rept. 12, p. 100. 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, El Dorado County, Pacific mine: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 293-295. 

Poker Flat 

Location. This district is in northern Sierra County 
about 10 miles north of Downie ville. It includes the 
Howland Flat, Table Rock, Deadwood, Mt. Fillmore, 
Potosi, and Rattlesnake Peak areas. It is mainly a 
placer-mining district. 

History. The streams were first mined during the 
gold rush. The locality was extremely rich then; in 
one month gold valued at $700,000 was produced. 
Hydraulic mining was done on a major scale from 




Photo 57. California Gold Mine. The locole is uncertain, but it probably was in the Placerville district. Photo eourteiy of Soncroft library. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



109 



RIV£R_ 







Figure 21. Map of Placerville DUtrict, El Dorado 
County. The map shows mine locations. Aii^r C/ork and 
Carlson, 1956. 



1—7 * J?" B SHERMAN (L) 

' /_Y I i__/ 

,1 B HARMON (L) 






' PLACERVILLE .„ X j 



y SMITH s 
\ FLAT 



\ 



^BENFELO (D) 



PA_c,nc (L) -jrrtr'oSl,, ^ , 



i'.:i*>.^v X -r^::--^' 

/ %■/</= ■^••;>i"/„ TEXAS HILL / 

COON ••.*.;,.■".--""""„„..,„„ ^ •• '""" '"i 

HOLLOW ^^„, -^ ....ceoar""^-:::^,^,-&?h, „.->-"'x";;--'r^frD\"'' *"'" 

,, „.=SPRING (D) ""'".7!51g',„,'i" TEXA^S HILL ID) 

'"' ' UNION (Dl".'~ VrIVERA (0) 



B 
OREGON (L) 

B 

EPLEY (LP 




■U 



i, LANOECKER (H) 






B SUPERIOR (Li 
B LARKIN (L) 



EXPLANATION 

•tljl Tertiary gravel 

5?(H) Hydraulic mine 

(D) Drift mine 

ID Lode mine 

-< Adit 

B Shaft 



the late 1850s through the 1880s. Some lode mining 
and drift mining continued through the eariy 1900s, 
and the area was prospected in the 1920s and 1930s. 
The district was made famous by Bret Harte's tale, 
The Outcasts of Poker Flat. This district has been 
highly productive, the mines at Howland Flat alone 
being credited with an output valued at $14 million. 

Geology. The northern part of the district is 
underlain by amphibolite with some serpentine. To the 
south and east there are slates of the Blue Canyon 
Formation (Carboniferous). Substantial portions of 
the area are capped by andesite. Extensive deposits of 
Tertiary aiuiferous quartz gravels are part of the Port 
Wine channel, which extends west and northwest 
through this district and then west and southwest into 
the Port Wine district. The lower quartz-rich gravels 
were also gold-rich. Portions of the channel have been 



faulted. Some narrow gold-quartz veins occur in am- 
phibolite and slate. 

Mines. Placer: Caledonia, California, Clippership, 
Deadwood, Forest Queen, Gibraltar, Hawkeye, Herla- 
mer and Bunker Hill, Manchester, Miners Home, Pa- 
cific, Poker Flat, Potosi, Rattlesnake, Scott, Virginia, 
Tennessee, Winkeye. Lode: Alhambra, Mammoth, 
Mt. Fillmore Cons., New York. 

Bibliography 

LIndgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geo!. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 108-109. 

Logan, C. A., 1924, Gravel mines of Howland Flat Ridge: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 20, pp. 362-367. 

Logan, C. A., 1929, Sierra County, placer mines: California Div. 
Mines Rept. 25, pp. 184-211. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1920, Sierra County, Poker Flat district: Californio 
Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 15-19. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 



no 



Caufornia Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



111 



Polk Springs 

This is a small placer-mining district in eastern Te- 
hama County just south of Polk Springs. It is about 
30 miles east-southeast of Red Bluff. Some gold was 
recovered by hydraulicking years ago, the last work 
apparently having been done in the 1930s. The deposit 
consists of gravels up to 50 feet in thickness that con- 
tain pebbles of quartz, granitic rocks, and volcanic 
rocks. Bedrock is schist, which occurs with granitic 
rocks in a window completely surrounded by volcanic 
rocks. 

Port Wine 

Location. The Port Wine district is in northwest- 
ern Sierra County about 10 miles northwest of Down- 
ieville. The site was named by a party of prospectors 
who found a keg of port concealed in the bushes. 
The La Porte district adjoins on the northwest, the 
Poverty Hill district on the southwest, and the Poker 
Flat-Howland Flat district on the northeast. This dis- 
trict includes the "diggings" at Grass Flat, Queen City, 
and St. Louis. The area was extensively mined by hy- 
draulicking and drifting during and after the gold rush 
and has been intermittently prospected since. 

Geology. The Port Wine channel, a major branch 
of the La Porte channel, extends southwest through 
this area. It is roughly parallel to the La Porte chan- 
nel for some miles and joins it at Scales. The channel 
is well-defined and several hundred feet wide. The 
gravels are quartz-rich and in places are covered by 
"pipe" clay and andesite. Bedrock is slate, quartzite, 
amphibolite, and greenstone. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevadg: 
U. S. Geo!. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 108-110. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1920, Sierra County, Port Wine mining district: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 19-23. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio, California: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 17, 8 pp. 

Poverty Hill 

Location and History. This district is in western 
Sierra Count>% 10 miles northwest of Downieville and 
five miles south of La Porte. The Port Wine district 
is to the northeast, and the Brandy City district is to 
the south-southwest. Poverty Hill district includes the 
Scales and Mount Pleasant areas. The area was mined 
by hydraulicking and drifting during and after the 
gold rush. Mining here again during the 1930s and 
early 1940s included an attempt to work the Poverty 
Hill pit with a bucket-line dredge. 

Geology. The main channel of the Tertiary North 
Fork of the Yuba River, or La Porte channel, enters 
this district from the north and continues south and 
southwest to the Brandy City and Indian Hill districts. 
The Port Wine channel, a branch of the La Porte 
channel, enters the area from the northeast at Scales. 
This smaller branch channel parallels the main channel 
for some miles. At the Poverty Hill pit, the channel 
is up to 1 500 feet wide and 1 50 feet deep. The lower 
"blue" gravels are quartz-rich and cemented in places. 
There are a number of large boulders. At Scales the 



channel is similar. Bedrock consists of slate, quartzite, 
amphibolite and serpentine. Lindgren estimated in 1911 
that, at Poverty Hill, 2.25 million yards had been 
removed and 5 million yards were ultimately available, 
while at Scales and Mt. Pleasant, 4.05 million yards 
had been excavated and 60 million yards were ulti- 
mately available. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1942, Sierra County, Poverty Hill properties: California 
Div. Mines Rept. 38, pp. 35-37. 

Lindgren, Woldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 104-108. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1920, Sierra County, Poverty Hill mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 23-26. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio, Colifornia: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 

Quincy 

Location. This district is in central Plumas County 
in the general vicinit)' of Quincy, the county seat. 
It includes the Elizabethtown and Butterfly Valley 
areas. The Meadow Valley district lies just to the west 
and the Sawpit Flat district to the south. The district 
was first mined during the gold rush, and there has 
been intermittent prospecting and development work 
ever since. 

Geology. The principal rocks that underlie the 
district are slate, mica schist, and quartzite. Greenstone 
lies to the northeast and serpentine to the southwest. 
American and Thompson Valleys are underlain by 
Recent and Pleistocene alluvium. A few isolated peaks 
in the area are capped by basalt. 

Ore Deposits. Gold-quartz veins occur principally 
in slate and mica schist; some are as thick as 15 feet. 
The veins may be massive or consist of numerous 
parallel stringers. The ore contains free gold and vary- 
ing amounts of sulfides, chiefly pyrite. Although some 
of the veins have been developed for horizontal dis- 
tances of several thousand feet, none has been worked 
to depths of greater than a few hundred feet. There 
are a few small Tertiary channel gravel deposits to 
the south. The Recent and Pleistocene valley alluvium 
is gold-bearing in places. 

Mines. Placer: Bushman, Carr, Cascade, Elizabeth- 
town Flat, Imperial, Manhattan, Mill Creek, Newton 
Cons., Newton Flat, Riverdale. Lode: Bell, Butterfly, 
Fairplay, Gold Leaf Cons., Homestake, King Solomon, 
St. Nicolas, Tefltt, White Oak. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1937, Plumas County, gold: California Div. Mines 
Rept. 33, pp. 103-124. 

Lindgren, Woldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, pp. 111-113. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1920, Plumas County, Quincy mining district: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 36-41. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio, California: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 

Railroad Flat 
Location. This district is in central Calaveras 
County in the vicinity of the town of Railroad Flat, 



112 



California Division of Minf^ and Geology 



Bull. 193 



seven miles south of West Point and 13 miles east of 
Mokelumne Hill. The district was named by an early- 
day placer miner who had laid a few hundred feet of 
wooden railroad track on his claim. 

Geology. The area is underlain chiefly by gra- 
phitic schist, slate, quartzite, and metamorphosed chert 
(see fig. 25, p. 129). A number of narrow north-strik- 
ing quartz veins contain free gold and often abun- 
dant sulfides, especially galena. The ore shoots are 
small and usually do not extend to depths of greater 
than 200 feet, but they often are rich. 

Several deposits of quartz-rich gravels have been 
mined by drifting or hydraulicking. These gravels 
were deposited bv the south-trending Tertiary Fort 
Mountain channel. In places the gravels are overlain 
by rhyolite. 

Mines. A.V.G., Bald Eagle, Banner Blue (placer). 
Clary, Fine Gold $200,000, Jeff Davis. Kaiser Wil- 
heliri, Lampson (placer), Mohawk, Old Gray, Petti- 
coat, Foe, Prussian Hill, Sanderson $100,000+, Sum- 
mit, Swiss. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Mines and mineral resources 
of Calaveras County: California Div. Mines and Geology, gold, pp. 
32-93. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 210-212. 

Storms, W. H., 1894, Ancient channel system of Calaveras County: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 12, pp. 482-492. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas 
of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Turner, H. W., and Ronsome, F. L., 1898, Big Trees folio: U. S. Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 5^, 8 pp. 

Ralston Divide 

Location. This is a placer-gold district in south- 
eastern Placer County, 25 miles east of Forest Hill. It 
is an e.xtensive region that includes the Ralston Ridge, 
Long Canyon, and Nevada Point Ridge areas. It is 
just south of the Duncan Peak district. 

Geology. The deposits are along a west- and south- 
west-trending Tertiary gravel channel known as the 
Long Canyon channel, the eastward continuation of 
the main Michigan Bluff-Forest Hill channel. The 
gravels are interbedded with rhyolite tuffs and contain 
granitic boulders. The main Long Canyon channel is 
fairly broad and flat and covers large areas, but it is 
generally of low grade. The gold usually is fine. Bed- 
rock is slate and quartz-bearing schist of the Blue Can- 
yon Formation (Carboniferous), with granodiorite to 
the east. The gravels are capped by andesite and rhyo- 
lite. Mining was done by hydraulicking and drifting. 

Mines. Blacksmith Flat, Clydesdale, Goggins, 
Granite, Ralston, Russian Ravine, Zuver. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911. Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 152-153. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1900, Colfox folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Logan, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, placer mines: 
Colifoniio D'li Mines Repl. 32, pp. 49-96. 



Rattlesnake Bar 

Location and History. Rattlesnake Bar is in north- 
western EU Dorado County and southern Placer 
County. The placer mines here along the American 
River were highly productive during the gold rush. 
The town was established in 1849 and became good- 
sized until 1864, when it was destroyed by fire. The 
Zantgraff mine, the principal lode mine in the district 
with a reported production of $1 million, was active 
from 1880 to 1901 and again in the 1930s. Dragline 
dredging was done in the region during the 1930s. 
Part of the district is covered by the Folsom Reser- 
voir. 

Geology. The district is on the eastern flank of a 
major granodiorite stock that is intrusive into green- 
stones and amphibolite. A major body of serpentine 
and a limestone lens crop out in the area. Several ex- 
tensive deposits of Pleistocene shore gravels along the 
American River were hydraulickcd. The Zantgraff 
vein contains abundant sulfides, including galena and 
chalcopyrite, and was mined to a depth of 1 100 feet. 
This district also has yielded substantial amounts of 
chromite and limestone and some copper. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Carlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorodo County, Zantgraff 
mine: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 52, p. 429. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1894, Sacramento folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 5, 3 p. 

Rich Bar 

Rich Bar is in western Plumas County near the 
junction of the North Fork and the East Branch of 
the North Fork of the Feather River. During the gold 
rush this was an extremely rich placer-mining district; 
Rich Bar alone is credited with an output of $9 mil- 
lion. Later the river was mined by Chinese. The river 
here goes around a series of sharp bends, a course that 
has resulted in the formation of wide gravel bars. 
There are several narrow gold-quartz veins in the area. 

Rich Gulch 

Location. Rich Gulch is in north-central Calaveras 
County adjacent to the Mokelumne Hill district on 
the east and west of the West Point and Railroad Fiat 
districts. It includes the Jesus Aiaria area. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The area is underlain 
by graphite schist, quartzite, slate and numerous lime- 
stone lenses of the Calaveras Formation (Carbonifer- 
ous to Permian) that have been intruded by several 
small granodiorite stocks. The quartz veins usually are 
narrow and contain varying amounts of gold and sul- 
fides. Much high-grade ore was recovered from shal- 
low workings during the early days, but at depth the 
ore usually contains only a few dollars per ton in gold. 

Mines. Blue Jay, Ilex. Quartz Glen $300,000-1-, 
Rindge No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, Salvador. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, gold: 
Colifornia Div. Mines and Geology County Rept. 2, pp. 32-93. 

Irelon, William, Jr., 1888, Ilex Gold Mining Company: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 135-138. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



113 




-«.>4BMfc***^ -^ 



Photo 59. Lee Drift Mine, Rocklin District. This 1956 



looking east, shows the headframe and washing plant at the mine, in Placer 
County. 



logon, C. A., and Franke, H., 1936, Calaveras County, Rich Gulch 
district: California Div. Mines Rept. 32, p. 238. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas 
of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Rocklin 

Location. This is a placer-mining district in south- 
western Placer County, two miles east of Rocklin and 
two miles south of Loomis. A gravel channel of the 
Tertiary American River trends southwestward 
through the area. There are actually two channels: an 
upper loosely consolidated intervolcanic channel that 
contains some gold and a lower well-cemented quartz- 
rich channel that in places was rich. The lower gravels 
yielded $ 1 or more per yard in gold. The gold is fine, 
flat, and sometimes rusty. The lower channel is as 
much as 1500 feet wide. Bedrock is granodiorite, and 
in places the gravels are capped by andesite. The Lee 
drift mine, one of the principal sources of gold in the 
district, has been prospected in recent years. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1894, Sacramento folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 5, 3 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary channels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 163-164. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Placer County, The Rocklin district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 15, p. 319. 

Rough-and-Read/ 

Location and History. Rough-and-Ready is in 
western Nevada County about five nules west of Grass 
Valley. Placer mining began here during the gold 
rush. The town was founded in 1849 by the Rough 
and Ready military company led by Captain A. A. 
Townsend. He had once served under General Zach- 
ary Taylor, who was known as "Old Rough and 
Ready". Drift and hydraulic mining began in the late 



1850s, and lode mining became important in the 1860s. 
There was considerable activity that lasted until about 
1900. Some work was done in the district in the 1930s, 
and there has been minor prospecting since. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. A north-trending belt 
of amphlbolite one to two miles wide traverses the 
central portion of the district. Gabbro and diorite lie 
to the east and granodiorite to the north. Some or- 
bicular gabbro is present. A west-trending Tertiary 
gravel channel of the Yuba River crosses the north 
portion of the district. A number of north-strking 
quartz veins occur chiefly in amphibolite. The veins 
are one to five feet thick and contain free gold with 
pyrite and other sulfides. Considerable high-grade ore 
was taken out. None of the veins has been developed 
to depths of more than 500 feet. 

Mines. Lode: Alcade (Kenosha) $500,000, Black 
Bear, California, Ironclad, Mystery, Niagara, Norman- 
die-Dulmaine $100,000, Osceola, Seven-Thirty, Vul- 
can-Grey Eagle. Placer: Alta-Califomia, Jenny Lind. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1895, Smartsville folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 120-124. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevada County, Rough-and-Ready mining 
district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 54-57. 

Sampson Flat 

Location. Sampson Flat is in eastern Fresno County 
about eight miles north of Dunlap and 45 miles east of 
Fresno. The district includes the area known as Davis 
Flat. Sometimes it has been included in the Mill Creek 
District. It was placer-mined in the early days, and the 
lode mines were active from the 1880s until about 
1915. 



114 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Geology. The district is underlain by granodiorite, 
gabbro and small amounts of pyroxenite. Several north- 
trending quartz veins rvvo to three feet thick contain 
free gold and varying amounts of sulfides. There is 
some tungsten mineralization in bodies of tactite. 

Mines. Davis Flat, Delilah (Black Jack & Her- 
cules), Little Monitor, Oro Fino, Sampson. 

Bibliography 

BradUy, Wolter W., 1916, Fr«»no County, Delilah Mining Co.: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. R*pl. 14, p. 443. 

San Andreas 

Location. This district is in west-central Qilaveras 
County. It consists of that part of the Mother Lode 
gold belt that extends from the North Branch-Cottage 
Springs area southeast through San Andreas and Ken- 
tucky House to the vicinity of Fourth Crossing. It is 
both a lode- and placer-mining district. 

History. The streams were mined during the early 
part of the gold rush. San Andreas Gulch was first set- 
tled by Mexicans in 1848 or 1849. The Tertiary chan- 
nel deposits were mined by hydraulicking and drifting 
from the 1850s through the 1880s, and some drift 
mining has continued until the present time. Lode 
mining also began in the 1850s. Numerous lode mines 
were active from the 1870s until about 1900 and again 
during the 1930s. The Union gold mine was prospected 
for uranium in the middle 1950s. 

Geology. The area is underlain by northwest- 
trending belts of greenstone, amphibolite schist, slate, 
and lenticular serpentine bodies. At Kentucky House, 
a large body of dolomitic limestone contains lenses of 
high-calcium limestone mined by the Calaveras Ce- 
ment Company. To the east of San Andreas is a grano- 
diorite stock. Overlying portions of the district are 
numerous deposits of auriferous Tertiary channel 
gravels. 

Ore Deposits. The lode deposits consist of north- 
west-trending quartz veins with stringers that contain 
finely divided free gold and pyrite. The veins occur 
principally in amphibolite and greenstone. Most of the 
milling ore averages '/j ounce of gold per ton or less, 
but several of the ore shoots have been mined to 
depths of 700 feet. Considerable high-grade ore was 
taken from shallow workings during the early days. 
Small amounts of tellurides and uranium minerals have 
been found in this district. 

Mines. Lode: Commodore, Etna, Everlasting, Fel- 
lowcraft. Ford, Gottschalk, Golden Hill, Helen, Hol- 
land, Kate Hageman, Lookout Mtn., Mester, Pioneer 
Chief, Rathgeb, Thorpe, Union $200,000+. Placer: 
Benson, Central Hill, Lloyd, North Branch, Rising 
Star, Wheats. 

Bibliography 

Clork, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, gold: Cali- 
fornia Div. Minei and Geology County Rept. 2, pp. 32-93. 

Knopf, Adolph, 1929, The Mother Lode system of California: U. S. 
Geol. Suryey Prof. Paper 157, pp. 70-71. 

Lindgren, Woldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 209-210. 

Logon, C. A., and Franke, H., 1936, Colaveroi County, gold: Cali- 
fornia D'rr. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 235-364. 



Ransome, F. L., 1900, Mother Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Storms, W. H., 1894, Ancient channel system of Calaveras County: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 12, pp. 482-492. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio: U. S. GmI. Survey Geol. Atlas of 
the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Sowplt Flat 

Location. This is an extensive gold-bearing region 
in southern Plumas County. It is contiguous with the 
Quincy district to the north and the Gibsonville dis- 
trict in Sierra County to the south. It includes the 
Last Chance, Sawmill Flat, Monitor Flat, Onion Val- 
ley, Harrison Flat, Blue Nose Mountain, and Nelson 
Point areas. The district was named in 1850 for a pit 
that was dug for the use of a whipsaw. The region 
was extensively mined during the early days and has 
been intermittently prospected since. In recent years 
there has been some placer mining at Monitor Flat. 
Skin divers have prospected in the Middle Fork of the 
Feather River. 

Geology. The east portion of the district is under- 
lain by slate, schist, and quartzite of the Calaveras 
Formation (Carboniferous to Permian). Also there are 
several limestone lenses. To the west the district is 
underlain by serpentine and amphibolite. The ridges 
are capped by Tertiary andesite and basalt. 

Ore Deposits. The Tertiary gravels are largely 
quartz-rich, and in places, rich in gold. At Sawpit 
Flat the gravels are part of the Richmond Hill-Onion 
Hill channel, while those to the east at Bunker Hill 
and Blue Nose Mountain are in the northeast end of 
the famous La Porte channel. A number of gold- 
quartz veins are in the district, some of which are 
part of a vein system that extends along the contact 
zone between serpentine and schist and slate. 

Mines. Placer: Boulder West, Bunker Hill, Ford- 
ham, Golden Gate, H & G, Kelly, King Solomon, 
Mayflower, Morning Star Cons., Nelson Creek, Red 
Slide, Richmond Hill, Rio Vista, Smith, Turkeytown, 
Union Hill, Zumwalt. Lode: Bainbridge, Belfrin, Dean, 
Five Bear, Gold Point, Gold Run, Independence, Oro 
Fino, Oversight, Pilot, Pilot Peak, Plumas Bonanza, 
Rose Quartz, Sugar Pine, Wilson-Gomez. 



Bibliography 



Mines 



Averill, C. V., 1937, Plumos County, gold: Californi 
Rept. 33, pp. 103-124. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierro Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 110. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1920, Plumas County, Sawpit Flat mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 42-46. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio, Colifornio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 

Scotts Flat 



Location and History. This district is in west-cen- 
tral Nevada County about seven miles due east of 
Nevada Grv. It includes the Tertiary placer "dig- 
gings" at Scotts Flat, Quaker Hill, Hunts Hill, Buck- 
eye Hill, and Burrington Hill. The You Bet-Red Dog 
district lies immediately to the south and the Nevada 
City district to the west. The various mines were 
extensively hydraulicked from the 1850s through the 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



115 



1880s, and later the tailings were reworked by Chinese 
miners. Also there was drift mining in the district. 
The area was prospected during the 1930s. 

Geology. These deposits are in the north-north- 
west trending Tertiarj' gravel channel that extends 
from You Bet-Red Dog to North Columbia. A south- 
west-trending tributary comes into the area from 
Burrington Hill and joins this channel at Hunts Hill. 
At Hunts Hill and Quaker Hill the main channel is 
nearly 600 feet deep with bench gravels up to 300 
feet in depth. The deep gravels are well-cemented 
and quartz-rich and, in places, were very rich in gold. 
Tlie upper gravels usually are fine and contain abun- 
dant sand. The deep channel is believed to be con- 
tinuous all the way from Hunts Hill to the Blue Tent 
district, a distance of seven miles. Bedrock in the east 
portion is slate and in the west, phyllite and green- 
stone. On the major ridges the gravels are capped by 
Tertiary andesite and rhyolite. 

In 1911 Lindgren estimated that 12 million cubic 
yards of gravel had been removed from Scotts Flat 
and 35 million from Quaker Hill. He also estimated 
that a vast amount (140 million cubic yards) remained 
at Quaker Hill. The U. S. Army Engineers (Jarman, 
1927) estimated 50 million to 90 million cubic yards 
remained at Quaker Hill. They also estimated that 
6.75 million cubic yards had been removed, and 4 
million to 5 million remained at Hunts Hill. 

Bibliography 

Jarman, Arthur, 1927, Hunts Hill, Quaker Hill, and Buckeye Hill: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 23, pp. 100-101. 



Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 143-144. 

lindgren, Waldemor, 1900, Colfax folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Sheep Ranch 

Location. The Sheep Ranch district is in south- 
central Calaveras County about 16 miles east of San 
Andreas and eight miles north of Murphys. It includes 
the old Washington district just to the south and the 
El Dorado area to the west. 

History. The streams in the area were first mined 
during the gold rush. Drift mining of the Tertiary 
channel gravels began in the late 1850s and continued 
intermittently through the early 1900s. The Sheep 
Ranch mine, the largest source of gold in the district 
and the largest mine of the Sierra Nevada east gold 
belt, was first worked in 1868. Senator George Hearst 
had an interest in this mine from 1877 to 1895. It 
was operated on a major scale until around 1907 and 
again from 1936 to 1942. The Right Bower mine has 
been intermittently worked since 1946. 

Geology. The principal rocks underlying the area 
are slate, impure quartzite and graphite schist of the 
Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to Permian), 
which have been intruded by gabbroic stocks. The 
gravel deposits are quartz-rich and occur as patches. 
They are part of the Tertiary Fort Mountain channel, 
which extends south from the Railroad Flat district. 
In places the gravels are overlain by rhyolite. 




Photo 60. Sheep Ranch Mine, Sheep Ranch District. This westward 
view of the Calaveras County mine was taken in about 1905. With a 
total output of more thon $7 million, the Sheep Ranch mine was the 



most productive operation in the Sierra Nevada East Gold Belt. Photo 
courtesy of Hillcrest Studio, Angels Camp. 



116 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Figura 22. Geologic Mop of Sierra City and Johnsville Districts, Sierra and Plumas Counties. 
AU»r Turner, Oownievi//e folio, 1897. 



Ore Deposits. The quartz veins usually are a few 
feet thick and range from white to dark smoky gray 
in color. Smoky vein quartz is characteristic of some 
of the mines in this district. The ore contains free 
gold, which often is coarse, and varying amounts of 
sulfides. Appreciable quantities of high-grade ore have 
been recovered. The Sheep Ranch vein has been 
mined to a depth of about 3000 feet. The gravels usu- 
ally are fairly well-cemented and were rich in places. 

Mines. Lode: Bon Ton, Fenian, Mar John $360,- 
000, Right Bower, Sheep Ranch $7 million, Sonoma, 
Washington $600,000. Placer: Brassila, Lava Bed. 



Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, gold: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines and Geology County Rept. 2, pp. 32-93. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Sheep Ranch mine: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 131-133. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 210-212. 

Logon, C. A., ond Fronke, H., 1936, Colaveros County, Sheep Ranch 
mine: Colifornio Div. Mines Rept. 32, p. 288. 

Storms, W. H., 1900, Sheep Ranch mine: California MIn. Bur. Bull. 
18, pp. 104-105. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Colaveros County, Sheep Ranch mine: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 104-105. 

Turner, H. W., and Ronsome, F. L, 1898, Big Trees folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 51, 8 pp. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



U7 



Shingle Springs 

Location and History. This district is in the Sierra 
Nevada west gold belt in western El Dorado County. 
A belt of lode-gold mines extends from the Pyramid 
mine south through Shingle Springs to the vicinity of 
Brandon Corner, a distance of 10 miles. The district 
was first worked during the gold rush. The town was 
settled in 1850; the name derived from "a shingle 
machine used at a cluster of springs". There was ex- 
tensive mining activity here during the 1930s. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. A north-trending belt 
of greenstone, green schist, and slate four to six miles 
wide, which has been intruded by numerous serpen- 
tine bodies, both large and small, extends through the 
central part of the district. A granodiorite-gabbro in- 
trusion lies to the west. The ore deposits consist chiefly 
of large but low-grade bodies of mineralized talcose, 
amphibolite-chlorite schist or greenstone with numer- 
ous quartz veinlets and stringers. The values occur in 
disseminated auriferous pyrite found in both the wall 
rock and the quartz veins and stringers. The ore bodies 
commonly are found in both the wall rock and the 
quartz. Some quartz veins with high-grade pockets 
and abundant sulfides exist. Some of the deposits were 
mined by open-pit methods. 

Mines. Big Canyon $3 million-|-, Brandon, Bug- 
town, Crystal |100,000-|-, French Creek, Greenstone, 
Marcelias, Pyramid |1 million. Sugar Loaf, Vandalia 
$100,0004-. ' 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Carlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, lode-gold 
deposits: California Jour. Mines and Geol., vol. 52, pp. 401-429. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Vandalia and Big Canyon mines: Califor- 
nia Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 172-175. 

Lindgrcn, Woldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Logan, C. A., 1938, El Dorado County, Big Canyon, Pyramid, and 
Vandalia mines: California Div. Mines Rept. 34, pp. 219-223, 244-246, 
and 254. 

Sierra City 

Location. The Sierra City district covers an ex- 
tensive area in central Sierra County. It includes the 
Furnier, Loganville, Church Meadows, Gold Valley, 
and Sierra City-Sierra Buttes areas. It is located at the 
south end of the major belt of gold mineralization 
that extends north-northwest to the Johnsville district 
in Plumas County (fig. 22). 

History. This district was placer-mined soon after 
the beginning of the gold rush. Many coarse nuggets 
were recovered at that time. Sierra City was founded 
in 1850; destroyed by an avalanche in 1852, it was 
soon rebuilt. Many Indians lived in this district in 
those days. The famous roistering society E. Clampus 
Vitus originated in Sierra City. It was reorganized 
several years ago by the California Historical Society. 

The Sierra Buttes mine was opened in 1850, and 
most of the other important lode mines soon after- 
ward. A number of very rich high-grade surface 
pockets were discovered, including one at the Four 
Hills mine that yielded between $250,000 and $500,000. 
The district was highly productive from about 1870 



until 1914. There was some mining activity again dur- 
ing the 1920s and 1930s, and intermittent prospecting 
and development work has continued unril the present 
time. The value of the total output of the district 
is unkno\\n, but it is estimated to be at least $30 
million. 

Geology. A northwest-trending belt of Calaveras 
(Carboniferous to Pemiian) slate, schist, and quartzite 
with limestone lenses runs through the west portion; 
a quartz porphyry (metarhyolite) belt lies in the cen- 
tral portion, and greenstone and amphibolite schist, to 
the east. A belt of meta-tuff of the Milton Formation 
(Jurassic) extends along the east margin. A few ser- 
pentine lenses are present. The northeastern area is 
overlain by glacial moraines. Tertiary andesite caps 
some of the ridges and rhyolite caps some Eocene 
auriferous channel gravels. 

Ore Deposits. An extensive series of north- to 
northwest- and occasionally northeast-trending quartz 
veins range from a few feet to as much as 40 feet in 
thickness. The veins occur in all of the metamorphic 
rocks. The ore bodies contain free gold, pyrite, and 
minor galena and chalcopyrite. The ore shoots often 
were large (up to 300 feet long and several thousand 
feet deep) and usually averaged Vi to Vi ounce of gold 
per ton. Much high-grade ore was taken from the 
district. Several fairly extensive magnetite deposits are 
found in the north end of the district. 

Mines. Lode: Buffalo, Butcher Ranch, Butte Saddle 
$100,000-t-, Chipps, Cleveland, Colombo $400,000?, 
Empire, Four Hills $2 million. Great Northern, Ken- 
tuck $100,000-)-, Keystone, Klondyke, Loeffler, Lucky 
Bov, Monarch $106,000-|-, Peck,' Primrose, Phoenix 
$160,000-f, 1001, Roman, Sacred Mount $100,0004-, 
Sebastopol, Sierra Buttes $17 million to $20 million, 
Sisson, Sovereign, Wallis, William Tell, Willoughby, 
Young America $1.5 million. Placer: Hilda, Ladies 
Canyon $500,000, Pride. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1942, Mines and mineral resources of Sierra County: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 38, pp. 7-67. 

Goldstonc, L. P., 1890, Sierra County: California Min. Bur. Rept. 10, 
pp. 642-654. 

Irelan, William, 1888, Sierra Buttes mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
8, pp. 573-577. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierro Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 112-113. 

Logan, C. A., 1929, Sierra County, Sierra City district: California 
Div. Mines Rept. 25, pp. 155-156. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1919, Sierra County, Sierra City district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 26-28, 119-121. 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio: U. S. Geol. Survey, folio 
no. 37, 10 pp., 4 maps, 1 pi. 

Sierra Nevada Copper Belts 
Extending along the foothills of the west slope of 
the Sierra Nevada from Butte County on the north 
to Fresno County on the south is a discontinuous belt 
of copper and zinc mineralization. This belt also has 
been the source of substantial amounts of gold. Gold- 
bearing gossans in the oxidized zones overlying the 
copper-zinc deposits were mined during the gold rush. 
Later, during the copper "booms" of the Civil War 



California Division of Mines and Geology 




Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



119 



~~-^^ 5?ENGELS 

5?SUPERI0R^ 

5^ WALKER 

PLUMAS 



""l BIG BEND ^ 
(' 

' BUTTE 



r N^ 






SIERRA 

y ^ 

'NEVADA 



/ ^1- 

-'' ^.X'BO 

(yuba / ^'^ 

\ (X'SPENCEVILLE 

' I /placer 

SUTTER-' '^"^'-"^JLVE* ^^-- 
^>/')-J____/ EL DORADO 



SACRAMENTOi''^"=°''"'' ""-'-. — - 
) lAMADOR.^ 

? ! ^NEWTON 



.^'- \ 



SAN 



— ^PENN 

VCALAVERAS/ 



i 



^ \ ^^north'keystone 

OUAIL HILL'i^^^E^^TONE-UNlON 
napolEOnAo, f -rrini 




TUOLUMNE 



STANISLAUS ^>c'X'i-a victoria ^/ 

^^ \ ^BLUE MOON J 

^''^ \MARIPOSA_/ 

I ^ ^pocahon'tas 

y MERCED V ^/"EEN MOUNTAIN 

y^ ^sA>buchanan 

-^'' A JESSIE BELLEJ 

z' ^OAULTON ^-' 

/ \ MADERA 



SCALE 

20 30 40 



A ^COPPER KING 

FRESNO 
COPPER 



4 



FRESNO 



Figure 23. Map of Copper and Zinc Belts, Sierra Nevada. The foothill copper-zinc belt and the Plumas 
County copper belt are shown. The principal mines are marked. 



and World Wars I and II, considerable amounts of 
gold were recovered as a by-product. During the 
1930s a few gossan deposits in this belt were again 
mined for gold. 

The primary copper and zinc deposits consist of 
lenticular sulfide bodies in zones of alteration in 
greenstones and various types of schists. The ore 
bodies contain abundant pyrite with associated chalco- 
pyrite, sphalerite and some gold and silver. Most of 
the ore contains only a small fraction of an ounce of 
gold per ton, but a few ore bodies have yielded as 
much as one ounce of gold per ton. Also present are 
galena, bornite, tetrahedrite, covellite, and chalcocite. 



The most important mines in the foothill belt have 
been the Big Bend mine, Butte County, Spenceville 
and Boss mines, Nevada County; Dairy Farm and Val- 
ley View mines, Placer County; Copper Hill and 
Newton mines, Amador County; Penn, Quail Hill, 
Napoleon, Collier, Keystone-Union, and North Key- 
stone mines, Calaveras County; Blue Moon, Pocahon- 
tas, Green Mountain and La Victoria mines, Mariposa 
County; Buchanan, Jessie Belle, and Daulton mines, 
Madera County; and Fresno Copper and Copper King 
mines, Fresno County. 

Considerable by-product gold has been recovered 
from copper mines in northeastern Plumas County, the 
principal sources having been the Walker, Engels, and 



120 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Ball. 193 



Superior mines. However, few production figures are 
available, so the total gold output of these mines is 
unknown. In 1931, the Walker mine was the source 
of 432,000 tons of copper ore that had an average 
gold content of .05 ounces per ton. At the Walker 
mine, the ore bodies consist of \\ idc chalcopyrite-bear- 
ing quartz veins in schist and hornfels near granitic 
rocks. At the Engels and Superior mines, the ore 
bodies are bands of chalcop\ rite and bomite in sheared 
granitic rocks. 

Silver King 

Silver King is in southeastern Alpine County near 
the headwaters of Silver King Valley about 17 miles 
southeast of Markleeville. The area was prospected 
during the 1860s with apparently some production, but 
little or no mining has been done since. The country 
rock consists of slate, schist, and granite which in 
places are capped by andesite. A few bodies of schist 
contain disseminated pyrite, which in a few places 
is gold-bearing. Also there are a few narrow quartz 
veins. 

Bibliography 

Eokle, A. S., 1919, Alpine County, Sliver King district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 26-27. 

Irelan, William. Jr., 1888, Silver King district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, p. 39. 

Silver Mountain 

Location and History. Silver Mountain is in south- 
central Alpine County about 10 miles south of Mark- 
leeville. Gold and silver were discovered here around 
1860, and a rush began soon afterward. Kongsburg, 
later known as Silver Mountain City, \\ as established 
by Scandinavian miners in 1862. The town grew 
rapidly and had a population of nearly 3000 in the fol- 
lowing year. It was the first seat of government in 
Alpine County. 

However, the district was not too productive. Hun- 
dreds of claims were located, and vast sums of money 
were spent on long tunnels and unsuccessful reduction 
works. Many of the mines w ere controlled by the Isa- 
bel Mining Company of England. Activity declined 
in the 1870s, and by 1886 the town had been aban- 
doned. Some of the buildings were moved to Marklee- 
ville. The area has been prospected since, but there 
has been little recorded production. The total output 
of the district is estimated to be about $200,000 worth 
of gold and silver. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The gold- and silver- 
bearing deposits occur chiefly in altered volcanic rocks. 
The deposits consist of veins of silicified breccia con- 
taining pyrite, chalcopyrite, and other sulfides. Some 
deposits contain a series of parallel veins. The values 
usually are erratically distributed, although a few high- 
grade pockets were found in the early days. A few- 
quartz veins are found in granitic rocks in the western 
part of the district. 

Mities. Exchequer, Garfield, Isabella, I.X.L., Lady 
Franklin, Pennsylvania, Raymond Meadows. 

Bibliography 

Eokle, A. S., 1919, Alpine County, Silver Mountain district: Collfornia 
Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 22-23. 



Irelan, William, Jr., 1888. Silver Mountain district: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 38-39. 

Slate Mountain 

A few small lode mines and prospects exist in the 
general vicinity of Slate Mountain, which is in north- 
central El Dorado County about 10 miles northeast of 
Placerville and 10 miles southeast of Georgetown. The 
veins are narrow and occur in slate and schist. Years 
ago several small but rich surface pockets were re- 
covered. There are several tungsten prospects in the 
area. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemar, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio: 
U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Smartsville 

Location. This district is located in w estern Nevada 
and eastern Yuba Counties 20 miles east of Marysville 
and 15 miles west of Grass Valley. It includes the 
Mooney Flat, Sicard Flat and Timbuctoo areas. It is 
mainly a placer-mining district. 

History. The streams were placer-mined during 
the gold rush. The town was named for James Smart, 
who built a hotel there in 1856. The area was ex- 
tensivel\' hydraulicked from around 1855 to 1877. 
Some drift mining also was done during these years 
and continued through the early 1900s, but little work 
has been done here since. The value of the total out- 
put of the district is unknown. In 1877, it was reported 
to have been 513 million. 

Geology. The main channel of the Tertiary Yuba 
River enters the area from the north and goes through 
Mooney Flat. It then curves west and northwest 
through Smartsville and Timbuctoo and then west to 
Sicard Flat. The gravel deposits are extensive and up 
to 200 feet thick. The lowest "blue" gravel on bed- 
rock was the richest. The average yield during the 
major early operations was 37 cents in gold per yard, 
but some drifting yielded up to $3 per yard at the 
old price of gold. It has been estimated that 46.5 
million yards were removed prior to 1891. Bedrock 
is greenstone, and in places the gravel is overlain by 
andesite. 

Bibliography 

Hobson, J. B., and Wiltsee, E. A., 1893, SmartivllU mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 11, pp. 314-316. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1895, Smartsville folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, pp. 121-130. 

Snelling 
Location and History. The Snelling district is in 
eastern Merced County along the .Merced River be- 
tween the towns of Snelling and Merced Falls. It is 
principall>- a dredging field. Some placer mining 
and hydraulic mining of the terrace deposits along 
the river were practiced during the gold rush. The 
town, named in 1851 for Charles Snelling, who oper- 
ated a hotel and ranch here, was the governmental seat 
of Merced Count)- from 1857 until 1872. Gold dredg- 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



121 



ing began in 1907 and continued until 1919. There was 
dredging again from 1929 until 1942 and 1946 to 1952. 
The value of the total output of the district is un- 
known, but the dredges are estimated to have pro- 
duced about $17 million. 

Geology. The values were recovered from stream 
gravels and flood plain and terrace deposits in and 
adjacent to the Merced River. The gravels are loose 
with very little clay and range from 20 to 35 feet in 
depth. The dredged area is about nine miles long and 
Vi to \Vi miles wide. Bedrock is slate in the east and 
volcanic ash in the west. The gold is fairly fine and 
about 890 in fineness. A small amount of platinum is 
present. Dredge recoveries ranged from 10 to 30 cents 
in gold per yard, with the average close to 10 cents. 

Dredging Concerns. Merced Dredging Co., 1934-42 
and 1945-49, one dredge; San Joaquin Mining Co., 
1936-42, one dredge; Snelling Gold Dredging Co., 
1932-42 and 1946-52, two dredges; Yosemite Mining & 
Dredging Co., 1907-19, one dredge; Yuba Cons. Gold- 
fields, 1930-41, two dredges. 

Bibliography 

Davis, F. F., and Carlson, D. W., 1952, Merced County, gold: Cali- 
fornia Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 48, pp. 220-227. 

Lowell, F. L., 1916, Merced County, gold: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
14, p. 606. 

Winston, W. B., 1910, Merced County, dredging: California Min. Bur. 
Bull. 57, pp. 211-213. 

Sonora 

History. This is one of the famous pocket-mining 
districts of the Sierra Nevada east gold belt. Sonora, 
the seat of Tuolumne County, was founded in 1848 
soon after the discoverey of rich placer deposits here 
and at Shaws Flat to the north. It was named for the 
state of Sonora in Mexico. The placers were extremely 
rich; the Sonora placers were credited with an output 
of $11 million and those of Shaws Flat yielded $6 
million. The famous Holden Chispa nugget, which 
weighed over 28 pounds, was taken from within the 
city limits of Sonora in Holden's Gardens. In 1879 the 
Bonanza mine, also in town, yielded a pocket that 
contained $300,000. Later, large amounts of beautifully 
crystallized gold with tellurides were recovered from 
the Sugarman and Negro mine. Pocket mining con- 
tinued almost steadily until World War II, and there 
has been some prospecting and development work 
since. 

Geology. The central part of the Sonora district is 
underlain by a belt of crystalline limestone, which ex- 
tends south from Columbia. The limestone is asso- 
ciated with slate, schist, and quartzite; all are part of 
the Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to Permian). 
To the west is amphibolite and to the east is granodi- 
orite. 

Ore Deposits. The gold-quartz veins are largely 
confined to the slate, schist, and amphibolite. Much of 
the output from the lode mines has been from small 
but extremely rich pockets. The high-grade ore com- 
monly contains crystallized gold, and in a few places 



the telluride minerals petzite and sylvanite are present. 
The veins, usually only a few feet wide, are often 
associated with diorite and aplite dikes. The rich early- 
day placer deposits were in deep crevices and potholes 
in the limestone. 

Mines. Aetna, Bonanza $1.5 million. Eureka, Fair- 
view, Gerrvmander, Golden Gate $100,000-|-, Hope 
|200,000-f,' Josephine, Lazar $100,000-f, Lewis, Man- 
zanita, O'Hara $100,000-|-, Rainbow, San Guiseppe, 
Sell, Stockton, Stuart and Morris, Sugarman $1 mil- 
lion, Tanzy, Vandeiier. 

Bibliography 

Eric, J. H., Stromquist, A. A., and Swinney, C. M., 1955, Geology 
and mineral deposits of the Angels Comp and Sonora quadrangles: 
California Div. Mines Spec. Rept. 41, 55 pp. 

Logan, C. A., 1949, Tuolumne County, gold: California Jour. Mines 
and Geology, vol. 45, pp. 54-75. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Tuolumne County, gold: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 14, pp. 135-168. 

Turner, F. L., and Ransome, F. L., 1897, Sonora folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 41, 7 pp. 

Soulsbyville 

Location. The Soulsbyville district is in west-cen- 
tral Tuolumne County in the general vicinity of the 
towns of Soulsbyville and Toulumne. It includes the 
Arrastraville and Buchanan areas. 

History. This district was placer-mined during the 
gold rush. Lode mining began in the early 1850s, and 
there was a rush to the district that began in 1858 
after Ben Soulsby discovered rich ores. The mines 
were worked on a major scale until about 1915. There 
was some activity during the 1920s and 1930s, and 
there has been minor prospecting and development in 
a few of the mines since. This has been the most pro- 
ductive district in the Sierra Nevada east gold belt, 
with a total output value to be at least $20 million. 

Geology. Granitic rocks, of which granodiorite 
predominates, underlie the west-central portion of the 
district (fig. 24). These granitic rocks are intrusive 
into slate, schist, phyllite, and quartzite of the Cala- 
veras Formation (Carboniferous to Permian). Lime- 
stone is to the south and west, and the interstream 
ridges to the north are capped by andesite. Numerous 
dioritic and aplitic dikes are present, often associated 
with gold-quartz veins. 

Ore Deposits. A large number of unoriented gold- 
quartz veins occur in both the granitic and metamor- 
phic rocks, usually ranging from one to five feet in 
thickness. The ore bodies are often lenticular in shape 
and contain native gold and often abundant sulfides, 
especially galena, which is nearly always associated 
with the gold. Milling-grade ore usually ranged from 
Vi to one ounce of gold per ton, and considerable 
high-grade ore has been mined in the district. The 
maximum depth of development is 1 500 feet. 

Mines. Agua, Caliente, Black Oak $3.5 million. 
Black Hawk, Blue Lead, Buchanan $600,000, Car- 
lotta, Chickenfeed, Columbus $100,000-[-, Consoli- 
dated Eureka, Dead Horse, Draper $1 million, Drei- 



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California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



EXPLANATION 

l{^ Con 
o . fS"^":^ Slate, schist, and quortzite 
Limestone 




Figure 24. Geologic Map of Soulsb/ville and Confidence Districts, Tuolumne County. The locations of the 
mines are shown. After Turner and Ronsome, IS97 and 1898. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



123 




Photo 62. Soulsby Mine, Soulsbyville District. This is an early view of the highly productive 

o/umne County Museum. 



line, in Tuolumne County. Photo courtesy of Tu- 



sen, Empire, Fair Maiden, Fair Oaks, Garfield, Gilson 
(Piatt & Gilson) $1.25 million, Grizzly $1.5 million, 
Hattie Ester, Hunter $300,000, Jigger Bill Brothers, 
Junction, Lady Washington, Laura & North Star, 
Louisiana, Mammon, New Albany, Ophir, Park and 
Mason, Phoenix, Providence $700,000, Prudhomme, 
Seminole, Spring Gulch $250,000, Soulsby $5.5 mil- 
lion, Starr King $100,000, South United $1.7 mil- 
lion. Waif, Wheal RufF, Worcestor. 

Bibliography 

Goldstone, L. D., 1890, Soulsbyville mining district: California Min. 
Bur. Kept. 10, pp. 742-755. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Black Oak and Buchanan mines: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 665-669. 

Logan, C. A., 1928, Tuolumne County, gold-quartz mines: California 
Div. Mines and Mining Rept. 24, pp. 8-41. 

Storms, W. M., 1900, Black Oak mine: California Min. Bur. Bull. 18, 
pp. 137-138. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Tuolumne County, lode gold: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 136-166. 

Turner, H. W., and Ronsome, F. W., 1897, Sonora folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 41, 7 pp. 

Turner, H. W., and Ronsome, F. L, 1898, Big Trees folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 51, 8 pp. 



Spanish Flat 

Location and History. This well-known high- 
grade district is in west-central El Dorado County in 
the vicinity of the old mining town of Spanish Flat. 
It is about 10 miles north of Placerville and 3 miles 
northeast of Kelsey. The district was placer-mined 
soon after the beginning of the gold rush, and there 
has been intermittent mining ever since. Many of the 
early-day miners in this area, from South America, 
Mexico, and Portugal, were that time collectively 
known as "Spanish". The Alhambra mine, the largest 
source of gold in the district with a total output of 
$1.25 million, was active in the 1930s and 1940s and 
yielded much high-grade ore. Other mines in this dis- 
trict include the Brust, Shumway, and Timm mines. 

Geology. The gold-bearing veins in this district are 
in a northwest-trending belt or zone about two miles 
east of the Mother Lode belt (see fig.- 5). The de- 
posits consist of northwest-striking quatrz veins with 
numerous parallel stringers that occur in shear zones 



124 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 63. 
of the mine, 



Alhambra Mine, Spanish fiat C-utrid. Iliis \i-iil view 
in El Dorado County, looks west. At about the time 



the phoio woi token, miners discovered an ore pocket that held 
$550,000 in gold. Photo by Otaf P. Jenkins. 



w ith gouge. Country rock is amphibolite, chlorite, and 
graphite-quartz schist and slate. The ore shoots are not 
usually too extensive, but some have been extremely 
rich. A high-grade pocket discovered in the Alhambra 
mine in 1939 yielded $550,000. This pocket was a mass 
of native gold in quartz nearly 5 feet wide. The great- 
est depth of development is about 500 feet. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Carlson, D. W., 1956, El Dorado County, lode 
gold: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 52, pp. 401-429. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio, 
California: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Logon, C. A., 1938, El Dorado County, gold: California Div. Mines 
Rept. 34, pp. 215-272. 

Spring Garden 

A number of small lode mines and prospects occur 
in the general area of Spring Garden and Argentine 
Rock in south-central Plumas County. A patch of 
Tertiary auriferous gravel was mined by hydraulick- 
ing years ago and the area has been intermittently 
prospected in recent years. The country rock is green- 
stone, slate, and quartzite that is overlain to the south 
by andesite. 

Bibliography 

Turner, H. W., 1897, Downieville folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 37, 8 pp. 

Sweet Oil 

The Sweet Oil "diggings" in southwestern Plumas 
County about eight miles north of La Porte were 
mined by hydraulicking years ago. The gravel de- 
posits are believed to be located on a branch of the 
Tertiary La Porte channel. Bedrock is slate, and to the 
south the gravels are capped by andesite and basalt. 



Bibliography 

Turner, H. W., 1898, Bidwell Bar folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 43, 6 pp. 

Sycamore Flat 

Location. Sycamore Flat is in east-central Fresno 
County just north of Piedra and about 25 miles due 
east of Fresno. It also is known as the Hughes Creek 
district. Superficial placer mining was done here dur- 
ing the gold rush, and the lode mines were active 
from the 1880s until about 1915. There has been minor 
prospecting since then. 

Geology. The area is underlain by schist on the 
west, gabbro in the central portion, and granite in 
the east. There are a number of aplite dikes. Several 
narrow north-trending quartz veins with gentle to 
steep dips contain free gold and varying amounts of 
pyrite, chalcopyrite, and galena. A few high-grade 
pockets have been found here. One of the veins was 
mined to a depth of 300 feet. 

Mines. Eliza Jane $100,000-|-, Independence, Sun- 
nyside. 

Bibliography 

Brodley, W. W., 1916, Fresno County, Eliza Jane ond Sunnyside gold 
mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 444-445, 449-451. 

Irelan, Wm., Jr., 1888, Sycamore mining district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 206-207. 

Tahoe 

Location. This district is in eastern Placer County 
west of and north of Lake Tahoe. It includes the areas 
known as the Squaw Valley and Red, White, and 
Blue or Elizabethtown districts north of the lake and 
a few scattered lode-gold mines and prospects west 
of the lake. 



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Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



125 



History. Gold and silver were discovered north of 
Lake Tahoe in 1861 and soon brought many miners 
to the area. Settlements known as Elizabethtown and 
Neptune Qty were established a few miles northwest 
of what is now Kings Beach, and Claraville and Knox- 
ville were founded near the mouth of Squaw Creek. 
All of the prospects and these settlements were aban- 
doned after 1864. In 1932 gold was discovered at the 
Tahoe Treasure mine a few miles west of Chambers 
Lodge. This mine has been worked intermittently 
since. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. North of the lake lie 
massive andesite flows with andesitic tuffs and brec- 
cias. In places, zones of bleaching and silicification 
with impregnation of disseminated pyrite contain 
traces of gold and silver. West of the lake a few nar- 
row gold-quartz veins occur in granodiorite and py- 
ritic bodies in hornfels and schist. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1897, Truckee folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlos of the U. S., folio 39, 8 pp. 

Logon, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, Tahoe Treasure 
mine: California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 37-38. 

Taylorsville 

Location. This district is part of the Crescent 
Mills-Taylorsville-Genesee gold belt of east-central 
Plumas Count>^ It has not been as productive as the 
other two districts in this belt. The general region 
was first mined during the gold rush, and there has 
been intermittent prospecting and development work 
ever since. It was named for J. T. Taylor, who built 
a mill and hotel there in 1852. 

Geology. The Taylorsville area is underlain by a 
series of northwest-trending belts of Paleozoic and 
Mesozoic metamorphic rocks, serpentine, and grano- 
diorite. The gold-bearing quartz veins are narrow and 
strike in a northwest direction. The veins usually oc- 
cur in and near the granodiorite. The ore contains 
free gold and varying amounts of pyrite and chalco- 
pyrite. 

Alines. Buster, California, Deadman, Iron Dike, 
King Solomon (placer), Pettinger, Premium $180,000. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. v., 1937, Plumas County, gold: California Div. Mines 
Rept. 33, pp. 103-124. 

Diller, J. S., 1908, Geology of the Taylorsville region, California: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 353, 128 pp. 

Diller, J. S., 1909, Mineral resources of the Indian Valley region: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 260, pp. 45-49. 

MacBoyle, Errol, 1920, Plumas County, Taylorsville mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 49-52. 

Tehachapi 

Gold has been recovered from the Tehachapi Moun- 
tains a few miles south of the town of that name in 
south-central Kern County. Most of it came from 
the Pine Tree mine, which was' active from 1876 to 
1907 and had a reported total production of $250,000. 
The gold occurs in faulted and sheared quartz veins 
in granitic rocks. Scheelite also occurs locally in the 
quartz veins. 



Bibliography 

Troxel, B. W., and Morton, P. K., 1962, Kern County, Tehachapi 
district: California Div. Mines and Geology County Rept. 1, p. 52. 

Temperance Flat 

Location. Temperance Flat is in northeastern 
Fresno County on the south side of Millerton Lake. 
It is 10 miles northeast of Friant and about 25 miles 
northeast of Fresno. The area was placer-mined in the 
early days. Lode mining began at the Sullivan mine 
in 1853 and continued intermittently until about 1915. 
The area was prospected again during the 1930s. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The chief rock types 
are coarse-grained granite and granodiorite with dio- 
rite inclusions. Portions of the area are capped by thick 
flat beds of basalt of Table Mountain. A number of 
north-trending quartz veins, in shear zones in granidc 
rock, contain free gold and often abundant pyrite. 
Small amounts of other sulfides are present. A few 
small high-grade pockets containing, leaf gold have 
been found here. 

Mines. Henrietta, Keno, Quien Sabe, Providence, 
Rattlesnake, San Joaquin, Sullivan $100,000, Temper- 
ance, White Mule. 

Bibliography 

Bradley, W. W., 1916, Fresno County, John L. mine: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 14, p. 446. 

Crowford, J. J., 1896, Inyo, Keno, and Temperance mines: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 13, pp. 167-170. 

Irelan, Wm., Jr., 1888, Temperance Flat mining district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 214-215. 

Tioga 

Location. This district is at the crest of the Sierra 
Nevada in the vicinity of the Tioga Pass in eastern 
Tuolumne and western Mono Counties. 

History. Gold-bearing outcrops were discovered 
here as early as 1860, and the area was intermittently 
prospected during the next 20 years. A boom was on 
from 1880 to 1884 when the Great Sierra Consolidated 
Silver Company was driving the Great Sierra tunnel. 
During that time the towns of Dana City and Bennet- 
ville existed, and the Tioga Road (now State Highway 
120) was built, extending nearly 100 miles west to 
Groveland. The company failed in 1884. The tunnel 
was extended in 1933-34 to the projected extension of 
the ore body, but no values were encountered. His- 
torically this is an interesting area, but it is doubtful 
if the district has yielded more than a few thousand 
dollars. The only property that has had any develop- 
ment is the Great Sierra mine, where more than $300,- 
000 was expended. Nearly 350 claims were located in 
the district. 

Geology. A number of narrow to thick northwest- 
striking quartz veins and mineralized metamorphic 
rocks contain pyrite, which is abundant in places. 
Traces of gold and silver are present. If there was any 
production, it probably came from oxidized surface 
material. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1962, Mines neor Yosemite: California Div. Mines 
and Geology Mineral Information Service, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 1-4. 



126 



GU.IFORNIA Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



DeGrool, Hanry, 1S90, Tiogo diitrict: California Min. Bur. Rapt. 10, 
pp. 342-343. 

Hubbard, Douglau, 1958, Ghoit min»t of Yoiemil*, Awani Pr»u, 
Fraino, Colifornio, 40 pp. 

Sampson, R. J., ond Tuclter, W. B., 1940, Mono County, Tiogo min«: 
California Div. Min« R«pl. 36, p. 139. 

Whiting, H. A., 1888, Tiogo diltrict: Colif. Min. Bur. Repl. 8, pp. 
371-373. 

Tuttletown 

Location. This district is in the Mother Lode belt 
in northwestern Tuolumne County. The Carson Hill 
district lies to the north and the Jamestown-Rawhide 
district to the south. It includes the Jackass Hill and 
French Gulch areas. 

History. The streams and rich surface placers were 
w orked during the gold rush. The area was known as 
Mormon Gulch in 1848 but was renamed for Judge 
Anson H. Turtle, who built the first log cabin there. 
The Gillis brothers came here from Virginia City and 
it v\as in their cabin that Mark Twain stayed for fi%'e 
months in 1864-65 and Bret Harte for a night. A rep- 
lica of the Gillis cabin is now a tourist attraction. This 
area became a well-known pocket-mining district dur- 
ing the 1860s and was mined almost continuously until 
World War II. Some work has been done at the Gross 
and Street mine since then. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. A northwest-trending 
belt of amphibolite traverses the central portion of the 
district. Phyllite and slate are to both the northeast 
and southwest and serpentine lies to the south. Al- 
though this district lies between the Carson Hill and 
Jamestown districts, where large ore bodies were 
mined, most of the output here has been from small, 
rich pockets. These pockets occur in quartz veins and 
stringers and contain native gold, abundant pyrite, 
galena, and tellurides. The country rock adjacent to 
the veins commonly contains disseminated pyrite and 
ankerite. 

Mines. Albion Cons., Alta, Anti-Chinese, Arbona, 
Ball, Bown, Cardinelle, Chileno, Gagnere, Gross and 
Street, Marryatt, Norwegian $200,0004-, Patterson, 
Tarantula, Toledo. 

Bibliography 

Eric, J. H., Stromquist, A. A., ond Swinney, C. M., 1955, Geology 
and mineral deposits of the Angels Camp and Sonora quodrongles: 
Colifornio Div. Mines Spec. Rept. 41, 55 pp. 

logon, C. A., 1949, Tuolumne County, Gross and street mines: Cali- 
fornia Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 45, pp. 66-67. 

Nolan, T. B., 1929, Norwegian and Chileno mines: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Prof. Paper 157, pp. 77-78. 

Ronsome, F. I., 1900, Mother Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Turner, H. W., and Ransome, F. L., 1897, Sonora folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 41, 7 pp. 

Vallecito 

Location. Vallecito is in south-central Calaveras 
County about five miles east of Angels Camp and five 
miles south of Murphys. It a placer-mining district and 
includes the Douglas Flat and Dead Horse Flat areas. 

History. Daniel and John Murphy found gold here 
in 1848, and the district was first known as Murphys' 
Old Diggins. The name was changed to Vallecito in 



1854. The hydraulic mines were active from the late 
1850s through the 1880s. Drift mining was done at this 
time and again during the 1930s, when the Vallecito 
Western drift mine was operated on a fairly large 
scale. Dragline dredging was active in the district dur- 
ing the 1930s. 

Geology. The Tertiary Central Hill channel enters 
the district from the north from Murphys and then 
extends west toward Altaville and Angels Camp. Here 
the channel is joined by two small tributaries from the 
east and south, the one from the east known as the 
Murphy's Gulch channel. Farther east is the south- 
trending Cataract channel. The gravels, consisting of 
granitic material and quartz, were richest near bed- 
rock. The gold was fairly coarse. The gravels are over- 
lain in places by rhyolite and andesite and also by some 
Pleistocene gravels. Bedrock is limestone, schist, slate, 
and amphibolite, and to the west there is granodiorite. 

Bibliography 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Coloveros County, gold: Coli. 
fornio Div. Mines and Geology County Rept. 2, pp. 32-93. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiory gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 199-201. 

logon, C. A., and Fronke, H., 1936, Coloveros County, Vollecito- 
Western mine: California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 353-355. 

Steffo, Donald, 1932, Gold mining and milling methods and costs at 
the Vallecito Western drift mine: U. S. Bur. Mines Inf. Circ. 6612, 
13 pp. 

Storms, W. H., 1894, Ancient channel system of Coloveros County; 
Colifornio Min. Bur. Rept. 12, pp. 482-492. 

Turner, H. W., and Ransome, F. I., 1898, Big Trees folio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Alios of the U. S., folio 51, 8 pp. 

Volcano 

Location. This district, in north-central Amador 
County, is in the vicinity of the old mining town of 
Volcano, 15 miles northeast of Jackson. 

History. The creeks were first mined during the 
gold rush, and the town was settled by soldiers from 
Stevenson's 1st New York Volunteer Regiment. The 
town received its name in 1850, as it was believed then 
that the limestone caves were related to a volcano. 
During the 1850s this was one of the richer placer- 
mining districts in the state. Since the 1930s there has 
been a small output from dragline dredging in some 
of the creeks, and some of the channel gravels have 
been prospected in recent years. Many of the build- 
ings in the old town are well-preser\'ed, and the towtt 
is now a well-known tourist attraction. 

Geology. The central portion of the district is 
underlain by crystalline limestone of the Calaveras 
Formation (Carboniferous to Permian), which has 
many potholes and crevices that contained much rich 
gravel. The rest of the area is underlain by graphitic 
slate and schist. To the north and east several deposits 
of early Tertiary quartz-rich gravels were mined by 
hydraulicking and drifting. Those to the north are 
parts of the deposits of the ancestral Cosumnes River 
that extended west through the area and west-north- 
west towards the Fiddletown district. In places the 
gravels are capped by andesite. A few narrow gold- 
quartz veins are found in the district. 



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Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



127 




Photo 64. Early Placer Mining, Voica 



Bibliography 

Carlson, D. W., and Clark, W. B., 1954, Amador County, placer 
gold: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 50, pp. 197-200. 

Haley, C. S., 1923, Gold placers of California: California Min. Bur. 
Bull. 92, pp. 146-147. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 199. 

Volcanoville 

Location. The Volcanoville district is in north- 
central El Dorado County and south-central Placer 
County, about eight miles northeast of Georgetown 
and 30 miles east of Auburn. It includes the Kentucky 
Flat area. It is both a lode- and placer-mining district. 



Geology and Ore Deposits. A number of patches 
of andesite-capped Tertiary gravel were deposited by 
a channel that extended north through Kentucky Flat 
and then west through Volcanoville. An older well- 
cemented "white" channel contains much quartz 
gravel; there is a younger channel. The gold is coarse. 
Several gold-quartz veins in schist and slate, near or 
adjacent to a belt of serpentine, crop out in the west 
portion of the district. Some of the quartz veins have 
yielded high-grade pockets and well-developed quartz 
crystals. 

Mines. Placer: Bedrock, Buckeye Point, Kenna, 
Kenny, Kentucky Flat, Morris, Tiedeman. Lode: 
Boedner, Bootjack, Green, Josephine, Paymaster. 



128 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Bihliogr<iphy 



Clark, W. B., and Corlion, D. W., 1956, El Dcrodo County, ploc«r 
gold daposili: California Jour. Minoi ond Geology, vol. 52, pp. 
429-435. 

Irelon, William, Jr., 1888, The Joiephine mine: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 1&5-166. 

lindgren, Woldemar and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Geol. Alias of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevodo: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 168-169. 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, El Dorodo County, placer mines: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 300-303. 

Washington 

Location. This district is in east-central Nevada 
County in the vicinity of the old mining town of 
Washington, 18 miles northeast of Nevada City. It is 
in the south end of the Goodyear's Bar-Alleghany belt 
and includes the "diggings" at Alpha and Omega. 

History. The Washington district was first mined 
during the gold rush, and the placers of the Middle 
Yuba River were highly productive. The Omega and 
Alpha hydraulic mines were opened in the middle 
1850s and worked on a major scale through the 1880s. 
Later, Chinese miners reworked the tailings. Lode min- 
ing also began in the 1850s and continued steadily 
until about 1915. There was activity in the district 
again during the 1930s, and the Red Ledge mine has 
been worked in recent years. Barite, chromite, and 
asbestos also have been mined here. 

Geology. The district is underlain chiefly by slate, 
schist and quartzite of the Blue Canyon JFormation 
(Carboniferous). A serpentine body one to two miles 
wide crops out in the central portion. The Relief 
Quartzite (Carboniferous) and amphibolite lie to the 
west and granodiorite to the east. The serpentine is a 
south extension of a belt that passes north-northwest 



through Alleghany and Goodyear's Bar in Sierra 
County. Tertiary andesite overlies the main ridges to 
the north and south. 

Ore Deposits. The auriferous Tertiary channel 
gravels at Alpha and Omega are part of the main 
channel that extends west and north to Relief and 
North Bloomfield. Jarmin (1927) estimated that, at 
Omega, 1 3 million yards were mined and yielded 1 3 Yi 
cents in gold per yard. Lindgren (1911) estimated that 
40 million yards remained. The quartz veins contain 
small but rich ore bodies, similar to those of the Alle- 
ghany district to the north, but are not as plentiful. 
Except for arsenopyrite, sulfides are not usually 
abundant. A number of beautiful specimens of crys- 
tallized gold have been found in the Red Ledge mine. 
The Spanish mine also has yielded large amounts of 
barite. 

Mines. Lode: Giant King, Mexican Cons., Mount 
Hope, Red Ledge, Red Paint, St. Patrick, Spanish, 
Treasure Box. Placer: Alpha $2 million-|-. Centennial, 
Omega, Phelps, Yuba River. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1946, Placer mining for gold in California, Omega 
mine: Colifornio Div. Mines Bull. 136, pp. 265-266. 

Hobson, J. B., 1890, Washington mining district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 10, pp. 389-392. 

Irelon, William, Jr., 1888, Washington mining district: Colifornio 
Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 435-444. 

Jarmon, Arthur, 1927, Washington and Omega hydraulic mines: 
Colifornia Min. Bur. Rept. 23, pp. 112-115. 

Lindgren, Woldemar, 1900, Colfax folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, pp. 139-141. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevada County, Washington mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 59-63. 




Photo 65. Belden Mine, West Point District. This 1952 vievr of the mine, in Amador County, looks norttieast. The mine was 

active in the 1930s. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



129 




A Lode gold mine 



Figure 25. Geologic Mop of West Point and Railroad Flat Districts, Calaveras County. The lode-gold 
mines ore marked. After Cor/son ond Clark, 1954, and Clark and iydon, 1962. 



West Point 

Location. This extensive Sierra Nevada east gold 
belt district is in eastern Amador and Calaveras Coun- 
ties in the general area of the town of West Point. 
It includes the Skull Flat, Glencoe, Bummerville, Pio- 
neer Station, and Buckhorn areas. 

History. The town was first known as Indian 
Gulch but was renamed West Point after a geographic 
feature discovered by Kit Carson while he was en- 
route to Sutter's Fort in 1844. The streams and surface 
ores were mined extensively during the 1850s, when 
large amounts of gold were recovered. During the 
1860s and 1870s many lode mines and 10 or more 



custom mills were active, but there was much diffi- 
culty Avith sulfides. Some activity was noted from the 
1880s until 1914 and again during the 1920s and 1930s. 
Several mines have been intermittently worked since 
World War II, the chief operations having been at the 
Belden, Blackstone, and Centennial mines. This is one 
of the more productive districts of the east gold belt, 
and an extremely large number of mines exist. 

Geology. The gold deposits are associated with a 
west-elongated body of granodiorite five miles wide 
and 15 miles long (see figs. 4 and 25) that has intruded 
graphitic slates, quartzites, and schists of the Calaveras 
Formation (Carboniferous to Permian). 



130 



California Division of Mines and Gf.ology 



Bull. 193 



Ore Deposits. Numerous north-trending and west- 
dipping (a few dip east) quartz veins arc found in the 
granodioritc or in the adjacent mctamorphic rocl<s. 
The veins usuall>- are one to five feet thick, have per- 
sistent strikes, and belong to one of three main vein 
systems that have not been mapped. Narrow diorite, 
quartz-diorite, and apiilite dikes commonly are associ- 
ated with the veins. The ore bodies contain free gold 
and abundant sulfides, especially galena, which is 
nearly always associated with high-^rade ore. The ore 
shoots usually have horizontal stoping lengths of 150 
feet or less, but several were 300 to 400 feet long. Mill- 
ing-grade ore commonly averages one ounce or more 
in gold per ton, and much high-grade ore has been 
recovered. Few of the mines have been developed to 
depths of more than a few hundred feet. It has been 
estimated that there are more than 500 mine shafts in 
the district. 

Mines. Amador County: Amador-Columbus, Bel- 
den $400,000-f. Black Prince $100,000+, Defender 
$100,000-}-, Elkhorn, Hageman, Jumbo, Lone Willow 
$100,000-1-, Newman $160,000-f , Pine Grove, Pioneer- 
Luckv Strike $300,000+, T.N.T. Calaveras Countv: 
Austrian, Billy Williams, Backstone $200,000, Blazing 
Star, Buena Vista, Carlton, Centennial, Champion 
$500,000, Chino, Continental $100,000+, Corn Meal, 
Cross, Etna, Ever Ready, Fidelity, Garibaldi, Gilded 
Age, Glencoe, Golden Rule, Gold Star, Good Hope, 
Keltz $300,000+, Lockwood $400,000+, Lone Star, 
Marquis, Mina Rica, Monte Cristo, North Star, Old 
Henry, Rindge No. 1, 2, and 3, Riverside, San Bruno, 
San Pedro, Scorpian, Soap Root, Star of the West, 
Swallow, Water Lily, Wide West, Woodhouse $100,- 
000+, Yellow Aster $100,000+. 

Bibliography 

Browne, J. Ross, 1868, Reports upon the minerol resources of the 
United Slotes: Government Printing Office, Washington (D.C.) (West 
Point mines), pp. 6S~67. 

Carlson, D. W., ond Clark, W. B., 1954, Amador County, Belden 
and Black Prince mines: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 50, 
pp. 170-172. 

Clark, W. B., and Lydon, P. A., 1962, Calaveras County, gold: 
California Div. Mines and Geology County Rept. 2, pp. 32-93. 

Logan, C. A., 1923, Notes on the West Point district: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 18, pp. 15-21. 

Raymond, Rossiter W., 1875, Statistics on mines and mining in the 
slotes and territories west of the Rocky Mountains: Government Printing 
Office, Woshlngton (D.C.) (West Point mines), pp. 63-66. 

Tucker, W. B., 1916, Caloveros County, lockwood. Lone Stor, and 
Stor of the West mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 90-92 and 
107. 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio, California: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 

Turner, H. W., and Ransome, F. L., 1898, Big Trees folio, California: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 51, 8 pp. 

Westville 

Location. This placer-mining district is in eastern 
Placer County about 17 miles northeast of Forest Hill 
and 10 miles due south of Emigrant Gap. It adjoins the 
Damascus district on the west and the Canada Hill 
district on the east. The district includes the Macedon 
Ridge, Whiskey Hill, and Secret Canyon areas. 

Geology. The placer deposits lie along a Tertiary 
intervolcanic channel of the American River, known 



as the Red Point channel, which extends southwest 
into the Damascus district. A tributary known as the 
Whiskey Hill or Black Canyon channel joins the Red 
Point channel at Westville. This tributary is narrow, 
steep, and contains coarse gold. The gravels are capped 
by andesite, and bedrock is quartz-bearing schist and 
slate. Much of the development in this district has been 
drift mining. 

.Mines. Golden Fleece, Greek, Green, Hogsback, 
Herman, Hungry Hollow, Macedon, Osborne, Union. 

Bibliography 

lindgren, Waldemor, 1900, Colfox folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Waldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevoda: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, pp. 156-157. 

Logon, C. A., 1936, Gold mines of Placer County, placer mines: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 49-96. 

West Walker 

This is a small district on the east flank of the 
Sierra Nevada in northern Mono County a few miles 
southwest of Coleville. The principal sources of gold 
have been the Al Mono and Golden Gate mines, 
which were active in the late 1890s and early 1900s. 
The deposits consist of quartz stringers containing na- 
tive gold and sulfides or massive sulfide bodies contain- 
ing disseminated gold. Some narrow kaolinized gold- 
bearing seams are found. Country rock consists of 
schist, slate, greenstone, and quartzite. Copper, lead, 
zinc, and cadmium also occur here. 

Bibliography 

Eakle, A. S., and McLaughlin, R. P., 1919, Mono County, gold: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 139-142 and 165. 

Wheatland 

This is a small placer-mining district in the vicinity 
of the town of Wheatland on the lower Bear River in 
western Placer and southern Yuba Counties. During 
the gold rush placer gold was recovered from the 
creeks and streams. During the 1930s gold was recov- 
ered from the gossan by cyanidation at the Dairy Farm 
copper mine a few miles to the east and by dragline 
dredging in some of the ravines. 

Bibliography 

Lindgren, Waldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1895, Smartsville folio: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

White Oak Flat 
White Oak Flat is in north-central Amador Count>- 
about 10 miles northeast of Volcano. Several moder- 
ate-sized deposits of Tertiary channel gravels were 
mined \ears ago. There are several gold-quartz de- 
posits including the .Marklee mine, which was pros- 
pected recently. Bedrock consists of slate, chert, and 
quartzite. In places the gravels are overlain by ande- 
site and rhyolite. 

Bibliography 

Turner, H. W., 1894, Jackson folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of 
the U. S., folio 11, 6 pp. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Sierra Nevada 



131 



White River 

Locatio?! and History. White River is in southern 
Tulare County and northern Kern County approxi- 
mately 25 miles southeast of Porterville. Gold was 
discovered here in 1853. The town was originally 
known as Tailholt, but the name was changed to 
White River in 1870. Mining continued until around 
1906, and there has been minor activity since. The 
district was estimated to have yielded a total of 
$750,000 worth of gold by 1914. 

Geology. The area is underlain by granodiorite 
and smaller outcrops of more basic intrusives. Small 
amounts of schist and slate and a few limestone lenses 
lie to the west. A series of west-northwest-trending 
parallel quartz veins occur in shear zones in the grano- 
diorite. The ore contains free gold and small amounts 
of pyrite. 

Mines. Bald Mountain (several hundred thousand 
dollars). Eclipse No. 2, Josephine, Last Chance, Stencil. 



Bibliography 



ng district: 



Laizure, C. McK., 1923, Tulore County, White River 
Californio Min. Bur. Rept. 18, pp. 524-527. 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, Tulare County, White River mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 912-915. 

Whitlock 

Location. The Whitlock district is in west-central 
Mariposa County five miles north of the town of 
Mariposa. The district is east of the Mother Lode gold 
belt and includes the Colorado, Sherlock Creek, and 
Whiskey Flat areas. The area was placer-mined soon 
after the beginning of the gold rush, and lode mining 
began shortly afterward. A number of mines were 
active here during the 1930s, and a few, such as the 
Diltz and Schroeder mines, have been intermittently 
prospected in recent years. 

Geology. Greenstone and green schist underlie 
much of the district, with some slate, phyllite, and 
mica schist in the north portion. Granitic intrusives 
and serpentine are to the south. There is an appreci- 
able number of diorite, quartz-diorite, and aplite dikes 
that commonly are associated with the gold-quartz 
veins. A northwest-trending fault extends along the 
west side of the district (see fig. 18). 

Ore Deposits. Numerous north- and northwest- 
striking quartz veins contain small but rich ore shoots. 
The veins usually are one to five feet thick, and a 
number dip at low angles. The veins have a tendency 
to roll or bend, and it is in these bends or rolls that 
the high-grade pockets often occur. Much specimen 
ore has been produced in the district; in 1932 the Diltz 
mine yielded 52- and 40-pound masses of gold and 
quartz. The greatest depth of development is about 
900 feet. 

Mines. Buffalo, Champion, Colorado $50,000, Diltz 
$750,000 to $1 million, Geary, Golden Key $154,000-|-, 
King Solomon, Landrum, Nutmeg $180,000+, Our 
Chance, Permit, Schroeder $200,000 to $300,000, 
Spread Eagle $425,000, Whitlock $500,000. 



Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1957, Mariposa County, lode mines: California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 53, pp. 69-187. 

Casteilo, W. O., 1921, Colorado district — Colorodo, Dilti, Schroeder, 
and Whitlocli mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 17, pp. 93, 111, 113, 
137 and 142. 

lowell, F. I., 1916, Mariposa County, Colorado, Diltz, and Whitlock 
mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 579, 581, and 599-600. 

Ronsome, G. L, 1900, Mother Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Yankee Hill 

Location. This district is in east-central Butte 
County about 15 miles northeast of Oroville. It is fairly 
extensive and includes the Concow and Big Bend areas. 

History. The streams and surface placers were first 
worked during the gold rush. For a time the locality 
was known as Rich Gulch and Spanishtown. In those 
days much gold was recovered from the North Fork 
of the Feather River, and a diversion tunnel was driven 
through Big Bend. Numerous Chinese miners re- 
worked the old placer tailings later on. Lode mining 
began in the 1850s, and there was much activity' dur- 
ing the 1890s and early 1900s. The Surcease mine was 
worked on a major scale from 1933 to 1942, and cop- 
per was mined at the nearby Big Bend mine during 
World War II. The estimated output of the district 
is slightly more than 100,000 ounces of gold. 

Geology. A northwest-trending belt of slate and 
quartzite four to five miles wide, with some limestone 
that is part of the Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous 
to Permian), crops out in the central part of the 
district. Interbeds of amphibolite and serpentine lie to 
the north. Granodiorite stocks are to the east and 
southeast. 

Ore Deposits. A number of quartz veins contain 
some free gold and often abundant sulfides, especially 
chalcopyrite. The veins are in the metamorphic rocks. 
Milling ore commonly averages Vi ounce of gold per 
ton, much of the values being in the sulfides. The 
Surcease vein has been mined to a depth of more than 
1000 feet. A gold-bearing barite vein occurs at the 
Pinkston mine. 

Mines. Berry Creek, Bunker Hill, Evening Star, 
Hearst, Madre de Oro, Pinkston, Porter, Rainbow, 
Sunbeam, Surcease $1 million+. Treasure Hill. 

Bibliography 

Logon, C. A., 1930, Butte County, gold quartz mines: California 
Div. Mines Rept. 26, pp. 369-383. 

Miner, J. A., 1890, Butte County, quartz mines and mills: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 125-133. 

O'Brien, J. C, 1949, Butte County, gold: California Jour. Mines 
and Geology, vol. 45, pp. 426-433. 

Turner, H. W., 1898, BIdwell Bar folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. 
Atlas of the U. S., folio 43, 6 pp. 

You Bet 

Location and History. You Bet and Red Dog are 
in south-central Nevada Count>', eight miles southeast 
of Nevada City. This district also includes the "dig- 
gings" at Little York. You Bet sometimes is known as 
Chalk Bluffs. The region was first placer-mined in 
1848 or 1849. The name "You Bet" is supposed to have 



132 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



originated in 1857 from saloon keeper Lazarus Beard's 
favorite expression. Red Dog was named by Charley 
Wilson after his former home, Red Dog Hill, Illinois. 
The district was h\draulickcd on a large scale from 
1S55 until the 1880s. There was some drift mining. 
Later, the area was mined on a moderate scale, chiefly 
by Chinese. It was intcrmittentl\' active until about 
1935. The total ouput is valued at more than $3 mil- 
lion. Lindgren (1911) estimated 47 million \ards were 
removed and 100 million remained. Jarman (1927) 
estimated 20 million yards of 10- to 15-cent gravel 
remained at Red Dog. 

Geology. The gravels were deposited by a Tcrti- 
ar\- channel of the Yuba River that extended north 
and northwest to Hunts Hill and Scotts Flat. The 
lower gravels are 30 to 40 feet thick, well-ccmcnted. 



and contain a high percentage of quartz including a 
number of large boulders. It is capped by as much as 
350 feet of fine gravel with some interstratified clay 
and sand. Bedrock consists of slate and some chert. 

Rihliography 

Averill, C. A., 1946, Placer mining for gold in Californio, You Bel 
mines: Colifornio Div. Mines Bull. 135, pp. 269-270. 

Hobson, J. B., and Wiltsee, E. A., 1892, You Bet mining district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 11, pp. 317-318. 

Jarman, Arthur, 1927, You Bet district: Colifornio Min. Bur. Rept. 
23, pp. 99-100. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1900, CoKox folio, California: U. S. Geol. Sur- 
vey Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, Tertiary gravels of the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 73, p. 144. 

MocBoyle, Errol, 1919, Nevado County, You Bet mining district: Coli- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 16, pp. 63-66. 



KLAMATH MOUNTAINS PROVINCE 



The Klamath Mountains region in northwestern 
California is the second-most gold-productive province 
in California. The principal gold districts are in Shasta, 
Siski\ou, and Trinity Counties. Although there are 
several important lode-gold districts, the placer de- 
posits have been the largest sources of gold. The Klam- 
ath Mountains consist of a number of complex and 
rugged ranges that continue north into Oregon. The 
entire mountain mass is essentially an irregular and 
deeply dissected uplifted plateau. It is underlain by a 
series of complexly folded and faulted metamorphic 
rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age that have been 
invaded by batholiths of Late Jurassic and possibly 
Early Cretaceous age. In some respects the Klamath 
Mountains resemble the Sierra Nevada, and sometimes 
the two mountain ranges are classified as a single 
mctallogenetic province. 

The major rock units of the Klamath Mountains in- 
clude the Abrams Schist and Salmon Schist (pre-Si- 
lurian?); the Copley Greenstone, Balaklala Rhyolite 
and Kennett Shale (Devonian); slate of the Bragdon 
Formation (Mississippian), and the younger granitic 
rocks of the Shasta Bally batholith. On the west side 
of the province are extensive beds of sandstone, shale, 
and conglomerate of Jurassic age, and ultramafic rocks 
that are in part .serpentinized. Between these two rock 
sequences lie beds of phyllitc, chert, limestone and 
metavolcanic rocks of Paleozoic and Triassic age. The 
batholiths arc composed chiefly of granodiorite or 
quartz diorite and are either round or elongated in a 
northerly direction. The largest ones are the Wooley 
Creek, Ironside Mountain, and Sha.sta Bally batholiths. 

The most productive placer deposits in the Klamath 
Mountains have been those associated with the Klam- 
ath and Trinity Rivers and their tributaries. Gold is 
found not only in the gravels in the present stream 
channels, but also in older terrace and bench deposits 
adjacent to the channels. The terrace and bench de- 
posits often were mined by hydraulicking. 



Rising in southern Oregon, the Klamath River flows 
west acro.ss the Klamath Mountains and empties into 
the Pacific Ocean. The most important tributary' 
streams of the Klamath River are the Shasta, Scott, 
and Salmon Rivers, and Cottonwood, Horse, Seiad, 
Thompson, Indian, Clear, Dillon, and Camp Creeks. 
Important centers of placer mining in the Klamath 
River system have been at Hornbrook, Yreka, Scott 
Bar, Hamburg, Somesbar, Orleans, Sawyers, Forks of 
Salmon, Callahan, and Cecilville. 

The Trinity River, which flows into the Klamath 
River at Weitchpec, drains the southern portion of the 
Klamath Mountains. The most productive placer de- 
posits of the Trinity River are those located along its 
main channel. These include the deposits at Carrville, 
Trinity Center, Minersville, Lewiston, Weaverville, 
Junction City, and Salyer. The principal tributaries of 
the Trinity River are Coffee Creek, Stewart's Fork, 
East Fork, New River, Indian Creek and Hayfork 
Creek. The La Grange mine, a few miles west of 
Weaverville, was one of the largest hydraulic mines 
in California. Other sources of placer gold in the Klam- 
ath Mountains have been the Smith River region in 
Del Norte County- and the upper Sacramento River 
and its tributaries, w hich include Backbone, Clear, Cot- 
tonwood, and Beegum Creeks. 

Lode-gold deposits are found throughout the Klam- 
ath Mountains. The most productive district has been 
the French Gulch-Deadw ood district of Shasta and 
Trinity Counties, in the southern portion of the prov- 
ince. Other important sources of lode gold have been 
the Deadwood district of Siskiyou Count\' (there are 
several Deadwood districts in California), Dillon 
Creek, Callahan, Oro Fino, Liberty , Saw \ers Bar, Har- 
rison Gulch, Whiskeytown, and Buckeye-Old Dig- 
gings districts. Considerable amounts of gold have been 
produced in the Shasta copper-zinc belt and lesser 
amounts in other copper deposits, such as the Copper 
Bluff mine at Hoopa. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Klamath Mountains 



133 




Photo 66. Bully Choop Mine, Bully Choop District. This 
about 1900, shows the SO-stamp mill and tramway at the 



Trinity County. The stacked cordwood (foreground and right) fueled 
the steam-driven machinery. Photo courtesy of Adele Kiess/ing. 



The gold nearly always occurs in native form in 
quartz veins, usually associated with pyrite and smaller 
amounts of other sulfides. The veins occur in all meta- 
morphic rocks of Jurassic and older ages, the Brag- 
don Formation (Mississippian) containing the most 
numerous and productive veins. A few lode-gold de- 
posits are found in granitic rocks. Undoubtedly the 
introduction of the veins is related to the granitic in- 
trusions. Often the gold-quartz veins and the ore shoots 
in the veins are associated with fine- to medium- 
grained diorite, quartz diorite, and aplite dikes. In sev- 
eral districts these dikes are known locally as "birdseye 
porphry" dikes. 

Backbone 
This district is about 10 miles north-northwest of 
Redding. The French Gulch district adjoins on the 
west. The Backbone district includes the Squaw Creek 
area. Although this district is in the Shasta copper-zinc 
belt, it has been mainly a source of gold. The principal 
gold mine has been the Uncle Sam, which was worked 
from 1886 to 1913 and later prospected. It has yielded 
more than $1 million. Several gold-quartz veins contain 
free gold and often abundant sulfides. Country rock 
is greenstone. 



Bibliography 



Averill, C. V., 1933, Shasta County, Uncle Sam mi 
Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 54-55. 

McGregor, Alex, 1890, Squaw Creek mines— Backbone 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 639-641. 



lining district; 



Bully Choop 
The Bully Choop district is in the vicinity of Bully 
Choop Mountain in southeastern Trinity County about 
15 miles southeast of Weaverville. The Bully Choop 
and Cleveland mines, the principal gold sources, were 
active from the late 1880s through the early 1900s. 
There was some prospecting here again in the 1930s. 
The deposits consist of zones of quartz stringers con- 
taining free gold and often abundant sulfides, which 
include chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite. The ore shoots 
had stoping lengths of more than 200 feet. Country 
rock consists of gneiss, hornblende schist, mica schist 
and some limestone. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1933, Trinity County, Bully Choop and Cleveland 
mines: California Div, Mines Rept. 29, pp. 15-19. 



134 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



.r-€ 




Princess Hydraulic Mine, Shasta County. The monitors ore undercutting o bank of auriferous gravel. The photo 
1900. Phofo courtesy of Adele Kieisting. 



Callahan 

Callahan is in south-central Siskiyou County in the 
upper Scott River region. During the early days there 
was considerable gold production from old bench 
gravels and gulches tributary to the river in the south 
portion of the district. The town was named for M. 
B. Callahan, who established a store here in 1851. In 
the early 1900s and again in the 1930s, substantial 
amounts of gold were recovered by bucket-line 
dredges that worked the Scott River north of the 
town of Callahan for a distance of five miles. There 
are a number of gold-quartz deposits in the district, 
the most productive having been the Cummings or 
McKeen mine, which had a total output valued at 
1500,000. The veins usually are in or near a granitic 
body and the ore bodies are small but often are rich. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Siskiyou County, Callahan district: Colifornia 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 825. 

Dunn, R. L, 1893, Callahan's Ranch: Colifornia Min. Bur. Rept. 11, 
pp. 433-434. 

Cecilville 

Cecilville is in southwestern Siskiyou County near 
the junction of the East and South forks of the Salmon 



River. Gold was discovered here in 1849 by James 
Abrams, and the district soon became an important 
mining center with a population of several thousand 
persons. Later, from 3000 to 5000 Chinese were re- 
ported to have worked the Salmon River by means 
of flumes and wing dams. Substantial amounts of lode 
gold have been recovered in the district, the most not- 
able source having been the King Solomon mine, 
which was active in the 1930s. The region is under- 
lain by slate, greenstone, limestone, and serpentine, 
with schist to the east. The lode deposits consist of 
either massive gold-quartz veins or zones of quartz 
seams and stringers that in places contain high-grade 
pockets. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Siskiyou County, King Solomon mine: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 836. 

Irwin, W. P., 1960, Geologic reconnaissonce of the northern Coast 
Ranges and Klamath Mountains: California Div. Mines Bull. 179, 80 pp. 

Siskiyou County Historical Society, 1957, Guidebook to Siskiyou's 
gold fields: Siskiyou Pioneer, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 14-17. 

Cottonwood 
Cottonwood Creek, which forms the southwest 
border of Shasta County and is a tributary to the 



1970 



Gold Districts — Klamath Mountains 



135 



upper Sacramento River, has yielded substantial 
amounts of gold. Its principal tributaries, Crow, Ante- 
lope, Dry, and Roaring River Creeks, also have been 
productive. During the 1930s, the area was worked 
by both dragline and bucket-line dredges. Digging 
depths were mostly 10 feet or less. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1938 Gold dredging in Shasta, Siskiyou and Trinity 
Counties: California Div. Mines Rept. 34, pp. 96-126. 

Deadwood 

Deadwood is in central Siskiyou County about 10 
miles north of Fort Jones. It was an important town 
from 1851 to 1861 and a stop on the California-Oregon 
stage line from 1851 until 1886. Hooperville, a few 
miles to the west, also was an important early-day 
settlement. Deadwood, Cherry, Indian, French, and 
McAdam Creeks all yielded large amounts of placer 
gold during the gold rush and were later dredged. 
Cherry Creek is believed to have been worked six 
different times. Snipers and part-time prospectors are 
still active in the district. 

The principal lode-gold mines here are the Frank- 
lin, Cherry Hill, Golden Eagle, New York, Mt. Ver- 
non, and Schroeder mines. The Golden Eagle has a 
total production of about $1 million. Some of these 
mines have been intermittently worked in recent years. 
The veins occur in greenstone with some slate and 
contain free gold and varying amounts of sulfides. 



Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Siskiyou County, gold mines: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 825-865. 

O'Brien, J. C, 1947, Siskiyou County, gold: California Jour. Mines 
and Geol., vol. 43, pp. 428-453. 

Siskiyou County Historical Society, 1957, Guidebook to Siskiyou's 
gold fields: Siskiyou Pioneer, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 80-82. 

Dedrick-Canyon Creek 

These districts are in north-central Trinity County 
about 15 miles northwest of Weaverville. The bench 
gravels at Canyon Creek are very extensive and appar- 
ently were quite rich; hydraulic mines are almost con- 
tinuous throughout its length of more than 12 miles. 
A few of the hydraulic mines have been worked in 
recent years. 

Dedrick is a lode-gold district near the head of 
Canyon Creek. The mines were developed during the 
1880s and 1890s and were active until the 1930s. The 
Alaska, with an output of $600,000, and the Globe 
Consolidated, with a total output of more than $700,- 
000, have been the principal lode mines. Others in- 
clude the Ralston, Maple, Silver Gray, and Mason and 
Thayer mines. The lode deposits consist of parallel 
quartz veins containing fine free gold with some sul- 
fides. Country rock consists of hornblende schist with 
granitic stocks lying just to the north and east. 

Bibliography 

Dunn, R. L., 1893, Canon Creek district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
11, pp. 482-483. 




'. <-^ y 






Photo 68. 
nese on the 






-_S 



-:> 



Placer Mine, Siskiyou County. Water wheel and flume appear in this view of a mine operated by Chi- 
KIcmath River in 1933. At one time these Chinese water wheels were widely used in river mining. Photo 
by O/of P. ienkim. 



136 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Ftrguson, H. G., 1914, Gold lodes of the Weaverville quadrangle: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 540, pp. 22-79. 

logon, C. A., 1926, Trinity County, Globe Consolidoted mine: Cali- 
fornio Min. Bur. Rept. 22, pp. 20-21. 

Dillon Creek 

Dillon Creek, a tributary of the lower Klamath 
River, is in western Siskiyou County. It was originally 
placer-mined during the gold rush, and the general 
area was prospected again in the 1930s. The Siskon 
mine was discovered in 1951 and operated on a large 
scale from 1953 until 1960, one of the last significant 
gold discoveries and operations in the state. Although 
the value of its production is unrecorded, it has been 
estimated at several million dollars. The deposit con- 
sisted of an extensive mass of gold-bearing gossan that 
overlay a body of pyritc-bearing schist and quartz 
stringers. It was worked chiefly in benched cuts, al- 
though some of the stringers were mined underground. 
The ore was concentrated and the concentrates treated 
in a cyanidarion plant. 

Bibliography 

Symons, H. H., and Davis, F. F., 1958, Gold: California Jour. Mines 
ond Geology, vol. 54, p. 102. 

Dog Creek 

The Dog Creek or Delta district is in northwestern 
Shasta County, about 25 miles north of Redding and 
just west of the town of Delta. Some placer gold was 
recovered from Dog Creek and other nearby streams 
during the gold rush. The Delta mine, the principal 
source of lode gold, was active in the 1890s and early 
1900s. During this period it was connected to the 
Southern Pacific Railroad by a 6 /z -mile-long narrow- 
gauge railroad. A number of narrow quartz veins in 
greenstone contain free gold and small amounts of 
sulfides. The ore bodies usually are low in grade, but 
were reported to have had stoping lengths of as much 
as 800 feet. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Shasta County, Delta Consolidated mine: Coli- 
fornio Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 784. 

Dorleska 

This district is in the Salmon Mountains on both 
sides of the Trinity-Siskiyou County line and on the 
divide between the Salmon and Trinity Rivers. It is 
near the headwaters of Coffee Creek about 12 miles 
southwest of Coffee Creek Ranch. The name derives 
from the Dorleska mine, discovered in 1897. The Dor- 
leska, with a total output of $200,000, and the Yellow 
Rose mine, which has yielded more than 5100,000, 
have been the chief sources of gold. Other properties 
include the Upper Nash, LeRoy, and Keating mines. 

The ore deposits occur in a north-northwest-trend- 
ing zone of mineralization that is at least five miles 
long. The deposits consist of narrow gold-quartz veins 
and mineralized shear zones in and along the contacts 
of lamprophyre dikes, especially where these dikes cut 
serpentine. Serpentine lies to the west and schist to the 



east. The ore contains free gold, pyrite, and smaller 
amounts of tellurides and galena. A number of high- 
grade pockets have been found here. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. v., 1931, Trinity County, Yellow Rose mine: Colifornia 
Div. Mines Rept. 27, p. 55. 

Averill, C. v., 1941, Trinity County, Dorlesko mine; California Div. 
Mines Rept. 37, p. 33. 

MocDonold, D. F., 1913, Gold lodes of the Carrvllle district — Dorlesko 
and Yellow Rose mines: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 530, port I, pp. 38-39. 

French Gulch 

Location. This district lies astride the Shasta-Trin- 
ity County line in the general vicinity' of the town of 
French Gulch and includes the Deadwood area to the 
west. It is the most important lode-gold district in the 
Klamath Mountains. 

History. French Gulch was originally prospected 
in 1849 by French miners, from whom the town re- 
ceived its name in 1856. Clear Creek, which drains the 
area, yielded large amounts of placer gold at this time. 
The Washington mine, discovered in 1852, was the 
first quartz mine worked in Shasta County. From 
around 1900 to about 1914 the output for the district 
averaged between $300,000 and $500,000 worth of 
gold per year. There was some activitv' during the 
1920s and 1930s, and there has been minor prospecting 
and development work since. The value of the total 
output of the district is estimated at more than $30 
million. 

Geology. The district is underlain predominantly 
by slate, shale, and siltstone of the Bragdon Formation 
(Mississippian). Copley Greenstone (Devonian) lies to 
the northeast and south, and, to the southwest, there 
is quartz diorite of the Shasta Bally batholith. In addi- 
tion, numerous porphyridc quartz diorite and diorite 
dikes, locally known as "birdseye porphyr\", occur. 

Ore Deposits. The quartz veins usually strike west, 
with a few northwest exceptions, and range from a few 
inches to several feet thick. They are predominantly in 
the rocks of the Bragdon Formation and often occur 
near or adjacent to the dikes, which apparently have 
had some effect on the localization of the ore bodies. 
The latter consist of numerous parallel stringers rather 
than a single massive vein. Calcite is commonly present 
in the veins. The ore contains coarse, free gold usually 
associated with considerable pyrite and smaller 
amounts of galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, chalcopy- 
rite, and occasionally scheelite. Numerous high-grade 
pockets have been recovered here. A number of large 
ore bodies occur in the district, several of which were 
more than 1000 feet long. 

Mines. Accident, American $300,000, Army Batch, 
Blue Jay, Bright Star, Brown Bear $15 million, Bruns- 
wick si 00,000, Calmich, Centennial, El Dorado, Fair- 
view 1200,000, Gambrinus $125,000, Gladstone $6.9 
million, Henry Clay $100,000 to $300,000, Highland 
$300,000, Honeycomb, Jacoby, J.I.C, Larrv-, Mad 
Mule $1 million. Mad Ox $500,000, Milkmaid and 
Franklin $2.5 million, Montezuma 7,150-|- ounces, Mr. 
Shasta 8,500 ounces, Niagara $1 million, Niagara Sum- 



1970 



Gold Districts — Klamath Mountains 



1J7 




/ ^5 

^ calmicm\, ) >V V S'STI 




%v L r^^llfW 






EXPLANATION 



Quartz diorite 



Bragdon Formation 
(Siltslona, shale, 
and siltstona) 



W^ 



Copley and Balaklalo 
Formotions. (Green- 
stone and rhyolifej 



Gold-quortz vein 



SCALE IN MILES 



Figure 26. Geologic Mop of French Gulch District, Shasta County. The principal gold-quartz veins ore shown. Modifieti from Albers, 1961, p. C-2. 



mit, Philadelphia, St. Jude $280,000+, Scorpion 7,140 
ounces, Summit 1 200,000, Sybel $600,000, Three Sis- 
ters $100,000, Tom Green, Truscott, Venecia $500,000, 
Vermont and Montezuma, Washington $2.5 million. 

Bibliography 

Albers, J. P., 1961, Gold deposits in the French Gulch-Deadwood 
district, Shasta and Trinity Counties, California: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Prof. Paper 424-C pp. 1-4. 

Albers, J. P., 1964, Geology of the French Gulch quadrangle, Shasta 
and Trinity Counties: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 11410, 70 pp. 

Albers, J. P., 1965, Economic geology of the French Gulch quadran- 
gle: California Div. Mines and Geology Spec. Rept. 85, 41 pp. 

Averill, C. V., 1933, Gold deposits of the Redding and Weoverville 
quadrangles: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 2-72. 

Brown, G. Chester, 1916, Shasta County, French Gulch district: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 775. 

Crawford, J. J., 1894, Gladstone and Green mines: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 12, pp. 248-249. 

Ferguson, H. G., 1913, Gold lodes of the Weoverville quadrangle: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 540-A, pp. 16-73. 

Logan, C. A., 1926, Shasta County, French Gulch district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 22, pp. 167-168. 

MacGregor, Alex., 1890, French Gulch mining district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 635-638. 

Gazelle 



This district is in south-central Siskiyou County 
west of the town of Gazelle. The Dewey mine, which 
was worked from the 1880s until about 1907, has been 
the chief source of gold, its total output valued at 
about $900,000. The region is underlain by metasedi- 
mentary rocks, which are of Silurian age, and small 
stocks of granodiorite. The gold-quartz veins occur 
in granodiorite and contain abundant sulfides. 



Bibliography 

Logan, C. A., 1925, Siskiyou County, Dewey mine: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 21, p. 438. 

Gilta 

Gilta is in the southwestern comer of Siskiyou 
County near the head of Knownothing Creek and 
about five miles south of Forks of Salmon. Most of the 
gold output here has come from the Gilta or Gold 
Hill mine, which has a reported production of $1 mil- 
lion, and from the e.xtremely rich placers of nearby 
Knownothing Creek. The Gilta mine was worked on 
a large scale, mostly prior to 1900. The gold-quartz 
veins occur in slate and schist and are associated with 
diorite dikes. One ore shoot at this mine was 250 feet 
long. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Siskiyou County, Gold Hill mine: Californio 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 833. 

Harrison Gulch 

Harrison Gulch is in the extreme southwest comer 
of Shasta County about six miles west of Platina and 
40 miles southwest of Redding. It was named for 
Judge W. H. Harrison, who settled here in 1852. The 
Midas mine, the principal source of gold in the district 
and one of the major lode mines in the Klamath Moun- 
tains, has a total output of nearly $4 million. It was 
discovered in 1894 and was worked on a major scale 
from 1896 to 1914. Placer gold was recovered here 
and in the Platina and Beegum areas to the east. 



138 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



The lode deposits consist of lenticular ore bodies 
in quarre veins that range from one to three feet in 
thickness. They contain free gold and some sulfides. 
Much of the ore produced at the Midas mine yielded 
more than one ounce of gold per ton. The vein was 
mined to a depth of 1500 feet. Countr\- rock consists 
of greenstone and schist. Granite lies to the west, and 
sandstone and shale are to the east. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Shojto County, Midoi mine; California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 792-793. 

Logon, C. A., 1926, Shosto County, Harrison Gulch mines: Californio 
Min. Bur. Rept. 22, pp. 173-174. 

Helena-East Fork 

The Helena and East Fork districts arc in north- 
central Trinity County about 20 miles west of Wea- 
verville and adjoin the Dedrick and Canyon Creek 
districts on the west. The old town of Helena, which 
is quite well-preserved, was an important mining cen- 
ter in the early days. The once-important nearby 
towns of Bagdad and Coleridge have long since disap- 
peared. The bench gravels along the East Fork were 
quite productive during the earlj' days but are not as 
extensive as those at Canyon Creek to the east. There 
are several lode-gold mines, the most productive hav- 
ing been the Enterprise mine, which has been in- 
termittently worked since 1884. Its estimated total 
production is valued at $.')00,000. Others include the 
Yellowstone, Lone Jack, and Ozark mines. The de- 
posits consist of parallel quartz veins containing free 
gold and varying amounts of sulfides. Some of the 
veins are fairly flat, and in places these contain high- 
grade pockets. Tellurides have been found. Country 
rock is hornblende schist and granitic rock. 

Bibliography 

Ferguson, H. G., 1914, Gold lodes of the Weaverville quadrangle: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 540, pp. 22-79. 

Logon, C. A., 1926, Trinity County, Enterprise mine: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 22, pp. 18-19. 

Hoopa 

This is a copper-gold district in the Hoopa Indian 
Reser\'ation in northeastern Humboldt Count>'. Placer 
gold has been recovered from the Trinity River and 
by-product gold from the Copper Bluff copper mine, 
active in 1965. The placer deposits occur both in the 
present river channel and in older terrace deposits 
along the bank. The ore deposits at the Copper BlufT 
mine consist of mineralized schist and quartz veins 
containing gold associated with chalcopyrite, sphal- 
erite, galena, and pyrite. 

Bibliography 

Symons, H. H., and Dovis, F. F., 1959, Copper: 55lh Report of the 
State Mineralogist, p. 122. 

Humbug 

Humbug is in north-central Siskiyou County about 
10 miles northwest of Yreka. Humbug Creek, which 
flows into the upper Klamath River, was extremely 
rich during the early days; it is credited with an out- 
put of nearly $15 million. The town of Humbug City, 



which was founded in 1851, has largely disappeared. 
Some dragline dredging has continued until the pres- 
ent time. The gold-quartz veins were fairly produc- 
tive, the Eliza, Spencer, Hegler, McKinley, and Mono 
mines all having yielded substantial amounts of gold. 
The veins range from one to five feet in thickness and 
contain free gold, pyrite, galena, and smaller amounts 
of other sulfides. Several high-grade pockets have been 
mined. Country rock consists of greenstone and gran- 
ite with smaller amounts of schist and slate. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Siskiyou County, Humbug Creek district: Call- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 824. 

Irwin, W. P., 1960, Geologic reconnaissonce of the northern Coast 
Ranges and Klamath Mountains: California Div. Mines Bull. 179, 80 pp. 

Igo— One 

Locatio7i and History. These two adjacent placer- 
mining districts are in southwestern Shasta County 
about 1 5 miles southwest of Redding. The South Fork 
silver-mining district lies just to the north. The region 
was first mined soon after the beginning of the gold 
rush. From the 1860s through the 1880s the hydraulic 
and drift mines were highl\' productive, especially the 
Hardscrabble and Russell mines near Igo. Man)- Chi- 
nese placer miners were here during this period. The 
origin of the two names is reputed to have been from 
the expressions "I go?" and "Oh no!", derived either 
from the pidgin English spoken by the Chinese miners 
when they were told to move on or from statements 
made by a young son of the superintendent of the 
Hardscrabble mine. There was appreciable activity in 
these districts in the 1930s, much of the gold output 
having come from the use of power shovels and drag- 
line dredges. From 1933 to 1959 the districts were 
credited with an output of 1 1 5,000 ounces of gold. 

Geology. The gold production has come from 
Recent stream gravels in South Fork, Eagle, Dry, 
North Cottonwood, and Clear Creeks, and older ter- 
race deposits. Some of the older terrace deposits are 
quite extensive, the gravels at the Hardscrabble mine 
being as deep as 50 feet. Bedrock consists of slate, 
schist, greenstone and granite. There are some small 
gold-quartz veins that have yielded high-grade pockets. 



Bibliography 



Mines 



Averill, C. V., 1939, Shasto County, gold: Californi( 
Rept. 35, pp. 129-159. 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Shasta County, Igo district: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 14, p. 775. 

Jelly Ferry 

Jelly or Jelly Ferry is on the upper Sacramento 
River about 10 miles north of Red Bluff in Tehama 
County. At one time Andrew Jelly operated a ferry 
across the river. Later the state operated the ferr>'; it 
was finally replaced by a bridge in 1950. During the 
early days, Chinese mined gold-bearing gravels in the 
area by ground sluicing, which was followed by an 
unsuccessful early dredge. There was some dragline 
dredging here in the 1930s. The gold occurs in both 
the river gravels and terraces adjacent to the river. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Klamath Mountains 



139 



Bibliography 

O'Brien, J. C, 1944, Tehama County, gold: California Jour. Mines 
and Geol., vol. 42, p. 190. 



Klamath River 

The Klamath River flows across the northern por- 
tion of the Klamath Mountain province. It enters the 
Klamath Mountains in the vicinity of Hombrook, 
flowing southwest and then generally west for more 
than 50 miles, crossing a number of well-known min- 
ing districts. The placer-gold production has come 
from the present channel and a succession of terraces 
and benches ranging from less than 50 to more than 
200 feet above the present channel and its tributaries. 
These older benches often are miles in extent and in 
places are cut by younger and deeper channels. The 
present streams were mined by hand methods during 
the early days, later, by wingdams, flumes, and tun- 
nels, and, more recently, by bucket-line or dragline 
dredges. The benches were worked by hydraulicking, 
ground sluicing and some by drift mining. 

At Hombrook the river is joined by Cottonwood 
Creek, which was noted for extremely rich but shal- 
low deposits. A number of lode mines are found here 
and in the Paradise or Fool's Paradise district, which 
lies to the southeast. The Shasta River enters the 
Klamath about five miles south of Hombrook and 
both the river and two of its tributaries, Yreka and 
Greenhorn Creeks, were extremely rich. Between 1850 
and 1900 Greenhorn Creek was reported to have 
yielded $11 million. The Yreka or Hawkinsville dis- 
trict also was nearly as productive. Farther west, the 
Klamath River was extensively placer-mined between 
Humbug Creek and the Scott River, especially at Ma- 
sonic, Skeahan, and Kanaka Bars and at Gottville. 
Humbug Creek also was very rich (see separate sec- 
tion on the Humbug district). Lumgrey, Empire, and 
Dutch Creeks, all of which have been mined, enter the 
river here. The Hazel lode mine, which has yielded 
more than $800,000, is a few miles north of Gottville. 
The gold-quartz veins in this mine occur in slate. 

Farther downstream are Oak Bar, Beaver and Horse 
Creeks and Hamburg, where the Scott River flows into 
the Klamath (see separate sections on the Scott Bar 
and Callahan districts). At Seiad Valley some 10 miles 
to the west, substantial mining was done by both 
dredging and hydraulicking. In the Happy Camp dis- 
trict the river flows around several sharp bends and 
then turns south. Here the China Creek, Davis, Reeves, 
Woods Bar, Richardson Bedrock and Muck-a-Muck 
hydraulic mines were important, as was Indian Creek, 
which flows into the river from the northwest. 

From Happy Camp the river flows in a general 
south-southwest direction for approximately 50 miles. 
It runs through the Clear Creek area, where the Sis- 
kiyou and Bunker Hill mines are located. Cottage 
Grove, the Dillon Creek areas (see section on the 
Dillon Creek district). Rattlesnake Bar, Ti Bar, and 
Somesbar, where the Salmon River flows into the 
Klamath (see section on Salmon River). The Klamath 
River then flows through the highly productive Or- 
leans district in Humboldt County and on to Weitch- 



pec, where it is joined by the Trinity River from the 
south. At Weitchpec the Klamath River turns west 
and then northwest for about 45 miles and empties 
into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Requa in Del 
Norte County. 

Liberty 

Location and History. The Liberty or Black Bear 
district is in the Salmon Mountains in southwestern 
Siskiyou County. The Sawyer's Bar district lies im- 
mediately to the north and the Cecilville district is to 
the south. The area was placer-mined in the 1850s. 
Lode gold was discovered in 1860, both at White's 
Gulch, a few miles to the northeast, and at the Black 
Bear mine. From 1865 until about 1910, the lode mines 
were highly productive, especially the Black Bear, 
Klamath, and California Consolidated mines. There 
was some activity in the district again in the 1930s, 
and there has been some prospecting since. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The district is under- 
lain by slate, phyllite, greenstone, and chert of Paleo- 
zoic and Mesozoic age, with a few lenses of serpen- 
tine and small granitic bodies. Diorite dikes are often 
associated with the veins. The ore deposits consist of 
lenticular gold-quartz veins, usually five feet or less 
in thickness. Milling-grade ore usually averages ordy a 
few dollars per ton, but a considerable number of high- 
grade pockets have been found in the district. 

Mines. Advance $250,000-|-, Ball, Black Bear $3.1 
miUion, California Cons. $473,000-|-, Cleaver, Hanson, 
Hickey, Jumbo, Klamath $600,000, Lanky Bob, Moun- 
tain Laurel $600,000, White Bear. 



Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Siskiyou County, gold mines — quartz: California 
Min. Bur. Repf. 14, pp. 825-842. 

Irwin, W. P., 1960, Geologic reconnaissance of the northern Coast 
Ranges and the Klamath Mountains: California Div. Mines, Bull. 179, 
80 pp. 

Logan, C. A., 1925, Siskiyou County, Salmon River district: Califor- 
nia Min. Bur. Rept. 21, pp. 419-420. 

Monumental 

This small lode-gold district is in northern Del Norte 
County about 45 miles northeast of Crescent City. 
Most of the work here has been done at the Monu- 
mental Consolidated mine, which has been intermit- 
tently developed since about 1900. Several quartz 
veins in greenstone and slate contain some gold, py- 
rite, chalcopyrite, and hematite. The greatest depth at- 
tained here is about 250 feet. 

Bibliography 

Lowell, F. L., 1916, Del Norte County, Monumental Consolidated 
quortz mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 389-390. 

Moxon, J. H., 1933, Economic geology of portions of Del Norte and 
Siskiyou Counties, northeastern California: Colifornro Div. Mines Repf. 
29, pp. 123-160. 

New River-Denny 

New River is an important tributary of the Trin- 
ity River. It rises in the Salmon Mountains in north- 
western Trinit>'^ County and flows in a southwesterly 
direction through the Denny area and eventually joins 
the Trinity River at Burnt Ranch. Gold was discov- 



140 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



ercd here in 1849, and placer mining followed for 
some years. Lode mining began later, the chief pro- 
ducer having been the Mountain Boomer mine, which 
has a total output of more than $350,000. The area 
was prospected again in the 1930s. A number of gold- 
quartz veins occur in slate and greenstone. Other mines 
in the district include the Uncle Sam, Modoc, Sher- 
wood, Mary Blaine, Hunter, Live Oak, and Gun Bar- 
rel mines. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Trinity County, Modoc and Mountain Boomer 
mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 895. 

Min. and Sci. Presj, Jan. 24, 1885, New River district, p. 53. 

Old Diggings 

The Old Diggings or Buckeye district is about five 
miles due north of Redding in the vicinity of the 
towns of Buckeye and Summit Cit\ . The area was set- 
tled by miners from Ohio, the "Buckeye State". It was 
extremely productive during the gold rush, when large 
amounts of placer gold were recovered by hydrau- 
licking. Later, considerable amounts of lode gold were 
produced, particularly from 1904 until 1919, when 
large tonnages of siliceous gold-bearing copper ore 
were recovered from the Reid mine and used as flux 
in the Mammoth smelter at Kennett. The area was 
prospected again in the 1930s. 

The district is underlain largely by greenstone of 
Devonian age. The veins consist of white sugary quartz 
that contain free gold, pyrite, and small amounts of 
chalcopyrite. Tellurides have been reported to occur 
in the deposits. The veins range from a few feet to as 
much as 25 feet in thickness and were mined to depths 
up to 1000 feet. Milling ore contained from less than 
1/6 to one or more ounces of gold per ton. Some high- 
grade pockets were found. Most of tlie placer gold 
was recovered from older bench gravels. 

Mines. Calumet, Central $500,000, Evening Star, 
Mammoth, National $200,000, Texas $750,000, Reid 
$2.5 million-}-. Walker. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1933, Gold deposits of the Redding-Weaverville dis- 
tricts: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 2-73. 

Logan, C. A., 1926, Shasta County, gold: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
22, pp. 167-186. 

McGregor, Alex, 1890, Old Diggings district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 10, pp. 629-632. 

Orleans 

Location. This district is on the Klamath River in 
the extreme northeast corner of Humboldt County in 
the vicinity of the town of Orleans. It is mainly a 
placer-mining district. There was mining here during 
and after the gold rush that continued through the 
earl\- 1900s. The Pcarch hydraulic mine was active 
during the 1930s. 

Geology. The gold-hearing deposits are stream 
gravels in the Klamath River and extensive older 
bench gravels about 50 to 80 feet above the level of 
rlic present river. Bedrock is slate and schist. The bench 
gravels were mined b\' h>draulicking. The gold is fine 
to medium, and some platinum is present. 



Mines. Allen, Bondo, Orcutt, Orleans Bar, Pearch, 
Rocky Point, Rough and Ready, Salstrom. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. v., 1941, Humboldt County, Pearch mine: California Div. 
Mines Rept. 37, pp. 512-513. 

Irelan, William, 1888, Orleans Bar, Orleans, and Pearch mines: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 219-221. 

Lowell, F. L., 1916, Humboldt Co., placer gold, Colifornio Min. Bur. 
Rept. 14, pp. 401-407. 

Ore Fine 

Location. Tlie Oro Fino district, in central Siski- 
you County about five miles west of Fort Jones, in- 
cludes the Quartz Valley and Mugginsville areas. The 
placer deposits were first worked during the gold rush 
and the lode mines began operating soon afterward. 
There was appreciable activity here again in the 1930s 
and 1940s, when the lode mines were active. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. Many of the lode de- 
posits are in Quartz Hill, a steep resistant peak in the 
central portion of the district. It consists largely of 
hard dark massive pyrtic greenstone. Schist, limestone, 
small amounts of serpentine, and valley alluvium are 
present. Diorite dikes often are associated with the 
veins. Numerous quartz-calcite veins contain free gold 
and often abundant pyrite. The quartz is white to 
smoky in color. The placer deposits occur in the vari- 
ous creeks, and the gold generally is fine but rough 
and angular. Some of the placers were extremely rich. 

Mines. Fino, Gibralter, Gold Reef, Golden Eagle, 
Morrison and Carlock f 500,000-|-, Providence, Quartz 
Hill, Star, Umpah. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Siskiyou County, gold: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 14, pp. 825-865. 

Irwin, W. P., 1960, Geologic reconnoissonce of the northern Coast 
Ronges and Klamath Mountains: California Div. Mines Bull. 179, 80 pp. 

Siskiyou County historical Society, 1957, Guidebook to Siskiyou's 
gold fields: Siskiyou Pioneer, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 83-88. 

Redding 

Location and History. Redding is in south-central 
Shasta County. Originalh' named Reading for Major 
Pierson B. Reading, who discovered gold in the Trin- 
it>' River, the district was renamed for Benjamin Red- 
ding, land agent for the Central Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany. During the gold rush appreciable amounts of 
placer gold were recovered in the area, from the upper 
Sacramento River and from Oregon, Flat, and Clear 
Creeks, which are to the southwest. Also, high-grade 
surface pockets were mined. During the 1930s a num- 
ber of dragline and bucket-line dredges were active 
in the area. The Yankee John lode mine has been inter- 
mittently worked in recent years. 

Ore Deposits. The lode deposits consist of narrow 
quartz veins and seams containing native gold, small 
amounts of sulfides and some silver. The deposits 
occur in a belt that extends southwest to Centcrville. 
Much of the output has been from small but rich 
pockets. The Yankee John, the chief lode mine in the 
district, has a total output of slightly more than $200,- 
000. Country rock consists of greenstone, slate, and 
granitic rocks. There are numerous dioriric dikes. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Klamath Mountains 



141 



^ SUTRO^ 

MAMMOTH 5? 

^ ..SHASTA 

:;f ^f KING 

'O X'BALAKLAL/ 

5fKEYST0NE 

Co 

C" V IRON 

S MOUNTAIN 



SHASTA LAKE 





5f AFTERTHOUGHT 



SHASTA DAM 

o CENTRAL VALLEY 

o PROJECT CITY 



Figure 27. Sketch Map of Shasta Copper-Zinc Belt. The major mines are shown. 



Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1933. Gold deposits of the Redding and Weoverville 
quadrangles: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 3—73. 



Salmon River 

The Salmon River drains the Salmon Mountains, 
which are in the central portion of the Klamath Moun- 
tains province in Siskiyou County. This river is not 
as long as the Klamath or Trinity Rivers, but it flows 
through several rich and famous placer-mining dis- 
tricts. The most productive districts have been at 
Snowden and Sawyer's Bar on the North Fork, Cecil- 
ville and Knownothing on the South Fork, and Forks 
of Salmon at the junction of the North and South 
Forks. Probably the richest portion of the river was 
the 17-mile stretch of the North Fork between Saw- 
yer's Bar and Forks of Salmon, a segment that had an 
estimated gold production of |25 million. Eddy's 
Gulch, just south of Sawyer's Bar, yielded $4 million. 
As in the other streams in this province, the river bars 
were first worked by hand methods and later by wing- 
dams and flumes. The bench gravels were hydraulicked 
or worked by drift mining. Placer gold was discovered 
on the Salmon River in 1849 at Cecilville and in 1850 
near Sawyer's Bar. Most of the other important placer 
"diggings" were developed soon afterward. Among 
the important lode-gold mines are those in the Liberty 
and Gilta districts (see separate sections on these two 
districts). 



Scott Bar 

Scott Bar is on the lower Scott River in Siskiyou 
County a few miles south of Hamburg, where the 
Scott joints the Klamath River. John Scott discovered 
gold here in 1850. The district was an important cen- 
ter during the early days when the river and older 
bench gravels were extensively mined. The Quartz 
Valley mine just east of town has been worked on a 
large scale both by hydraulicking and as a lode mine. 
At this property the gold occurs in thin stringers or 
lenses of quartz and calcite in micaceous schist. A 
number of rich pockets have been found in this dis- 
trict. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Siskiyou County, Scott Bar district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 823-824. 

O'Brien, J. C, 1947, Siskiyou County, Quartz Hill mine: California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 43, p. 447. 

Shasta Copper-Zinc Belt 

The Shasta copper-zinc belt is in west-central Shasta 
County in the foothills of the Klamath Mountains and 
a few miles north of Redding. The two main areas of 
mineralization are known as the West and East Shasta 
districts (fig. 27). Part of the East Shasta district has 
been inundated by Shasta Lake. 

Gold- and silver-bearing gossans were originally 
mined in these districts during the 1860s. Later, from 
the 1890s to about 1920, copper and zinc ores were 



142 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull 193 



mined in large quantities and treated in several nearby 
smelters. Substantial amounts of by-product gold were 
recovered in these operations, especially in the West 
Shasta district. For example, the Mammoth mine, dur- 
ing the period of 1905 to 1925, yielded 132,510 ounces 
of gold from copper-zinc ore at an average of .039 
ounces of gold per ton. During the 1930s substantial 
amounts of gossan were mined for gold near the Iron 
Mountain mine. The total gold output of the West 
Shasta district is estimated at 520,000 ounces. The total 
production of the East Shasta district is unknown, but 
during the period 1900-52, the district was credited 
w ith an output of 44,000 ounces of gold. 

The ore deposits consist of either bodies of massive 
pyrite with var_\ ing amounts of chalcopyrite and 
sphalerite in rhyolite or sulfide minerals disseminated 
in schist. Veins or replacement deposits exist in schist 
and limestone. Most of the massive sulfide bodies are 
lenticular and range from a few tens of feet long to 
one at the Iron Mountain mine that is 4500 feet long. 
The gold content of these deposits usually ranges from 
.01 to .1 ounce per ton. 

Shasta-Whiskeytown 

Location and History. Shasta and Whiskeytown 
are in western Shasta County about 10 miles west- 
northwest of Redding. The Iron Mountain copper- 
zinc district is to the north, and the French Gulch gold 
district is to the northwest. Gold was discovered in 
Clear Creek, which flows through the area in 1849, 
and many mining camps were soon established. The 
largest and best known were Horsetown and Whis- 
keytown, which no longer exist, and Shasta, which 
was the first seat of government of Shasta County. 



The Shasta camp is now a state historical monument, 
and many of the old buildings have been restored. 
There was some dragline dredging in the district in 
the 1930s. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. Much of the gold pro- 
duction was from placer deposits in Clear Creek and 
its tributaries. Lode gold was recovered from pocket 
mines. Narrow and shallow quartz veins contain free 
gold and abundant sulfides in places. The largest 
source of lode gold apparently was the Mt. Shasta 
mine, which has yielded about $180,000. The gold- 
bearing veins occur either in granite or in greenstone 
and schist near granitic contacts. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1933, Gold depoiifs of ths Redding and Weovsrvill* 
quadrangles: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 2-73. 

Logan, C. A., 1926, Shosta County, Whiskeytown and Shasta dis- 
tricts: Californio Min. Bur. Rept. 22, pp. 168-169. 

Smith River 

Most of the gold produced in Del Norte County 
has come from placer-mining operations along the 
Smith River and its tributaries. These operations in- 
clude the placer mines of Hurdy Guray, Monkey, 
Myrtle, and Craigs Creeks and the French Hill area. 
Gold has been obtained by mining the present stream 
gravels, terrace gravels adjacent to the present streams, 
and patches of the so-called Klamath "oldland cycle" 
gravels at such places as French Hill and Haines Flat. 
The terrace and "oldland" gravels were mined by 
hydraulicking. The principal period of mining was 
from the 1850s through the 1870s, but there has been 
small-scale intermittent work ever since. The estimated 




Photo 69. Carrville Gold Company Dredge, Trinity River District. This photo wos token on the upper Trinity River in Trinity County in 1940. 

Photo courtesy oi Yuba Consolidated Industries. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Klamath Mountains 



143 




Steam Dragline Operation, Trinity River District. The photo was token ot CofFee Creel<, Trinity County, 

Averill. 



the 1920s. Pholo by C. V. 



total production is 40,000 ounces of gold. Chrome ore 
also was mined at French Hill during World Wars I 
and II. 

Bibliography 

Lowell, F. L, 1916, Del Norte County, placer gold: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 386-389. 

Moxon, J. H., 1933, Economic geology of portions of Del Norte and 
Siskiyou Counties: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 1^3—160. 

O'Brien, J. C, 1952, Del Norte County, gold: California Jour. Mines 
and Geology, vol. 48, pp. 277-279. 

Trinity River 

The Trinity River, the southern part of the Klam- 
ath-Trinity River system, drains the southern part of 
the Klamath Mountain province. As this stream and its 
tributaries flow across auriferous rocks for much of 
their total lengths, they have been the sources of vast 
amounts of placer gold. The estimated output of the 
Trinity River placers is $35 million worth of gold. 
The Trinity River rises in the northeast corner of 
Trinity County in an area known as the Dodge district 
and flows in a general south-southwesterly direction 
for about 60 miles. 

In the upper Trinity River area, the principal 
sources of gold have been the Carrville and Trinity 
Center districts. At Carrville the river was dredged 
until comparatively recently. Among several impor- 



tant lode-gold mines here, the most productive have 
been the Trinity Bonanza King with a total output 
valued at $1.25 million and the Headlight, which has 
yielded $500,000. The gold-quartz veins occur in slate 
and greenstone, but granitic bodies are nearby. CofFee 
Creek, an important tributary, enters the area from 
the west. This creek was placer-mined for many years, 
and several high-grade quartz mines near its head- 
waters produced gold. 

Trinity Center was settled in 1851. Several older 
bench gravel deposits were extremely rich in the early 
days and bucket-line dredges were active recently. 
From Trinity Center south through the Minersville 
district, including part of the Stuart Fork, the region 
is covered by the Trinity Reservoir. The well-known 
Fairview lode mine was in the Minersville district. 

The Trinity River and adjoining terraces were ex- 
tensively mined in the Eastman Gulch and Lewiston 
districts. One of the better-known lode mines was the 
Venecia mine. The gold-quartz veins at this mine have 
yielded more than $500,000. In the Lewiston and 
Douglas City districts, the river makes a number of 
extremely sharp bends that have formed several wide 
river bars, particularly at Starvation Flat near the 
town of Lewiston and at Gold Bar. The Douglas City 
area was extremely rich in the early days where the 



144 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 71. H/draulic Mining of Bench Grovels, Trinity County. This is a 1933 scene at the Solyer mine. Photo by O/of P. Jenltini. 



highly productive Weaver, Indian, and Reading 
Creeks empty into the Trinity River. 

Downstream, in the Junction City district, the river 
swings to the north and then west. The river has been 
dredged for a distance of at least eight miles here. 
The bench gravels are extensive and thick, and some 
of the hydraulicked banks are several hundred feet 
high. The largest bench deposits are at Coopers Bar, 
Hocker Flat, Benjamin Flat, and Chapman Ranch. 
Canyon Creek and Oregon Gulch flow into the river 
at Junction Qty, and the North and East Forks, at 
Helena. Moderate amounts of older gravels exist at 
Big Bar to the northwest. 

Hayfork, which is about 15 miles southwest of 
Junction City, is a branch of the South Fork of the 
Trinity' River. Most of the gold recovered in Hayfork 
Valley has been by dragline dredging, upstream in 
Hayfork Gulch, by hydraulicking. A number of nar- 
row but often rich gold-quartz veins are found in slate 
and related rocks in the mountains just south of Hay- 
fork. These include the recently active Kelly mine. 

From Big Bar the main channel of the Trinity River 
flows in a nonhwesterly direction through the Burnt 
Ranch and Salyer districts. The highly productive 
New River, which drains the Denny district to the 
northeast, enters the Trinity River here (see section 
on New River-Denny district). At both Hawkins Bar 
and Salyer are bench gravels high above the present 
streams. Beyond Salyer the Trinity River is joined by 
the South Fork, and from this junction the river flows 
northerly through Willow Creek and Hoopa, site of 



the recently active Copper Bluff copper-gold mine. 
The Trinity River then continues on to Weitchpec, 
where it empties into the Klamath River. 

Weaverville 

Location and History. Weaverville, the seat of 
government of Trinity County, is about 50 miles west- 
northwest of Redding. For years it was one of the 
major centers of gold mining in the Klamath Moun- 
tains. The area was settled son after Major Pearson B. 
Reading's gold discovery on the Trinity River in 
1848. The stream and bench gravels were highly pro- 
ductive during the gold rush. The town was named 
for John Weaver, a prosperous Forty-Niner. By the 
middle 1850s many persons lived here, including sev- 
eral thousand Chinese, some of whom became involved 
in a tong war in 1854. The old Chinese joss house still 
stands and is now a state historical monument. 

The La Grange mine, a few miles west of town and 
one of the major hydraulic mines in California, was 
opened in 1851. Large-scale hydraulicking began in 
1862 and continued until 1918. From 1932 until 1942, 
further excavation at the mine, for the state highway, 
brought some gold production. The total output of the 
mine has been estimated by the author to be at least 
$8 million, although the commemorative plaque states 
that it is $3.5 million. More than 100 million cubic 
yards of material were excavated. Water was delivered 
from Stuart's Fork of the Trinity River via a 29-mile 
system of canals, flumes, and tunnels. During the 1930s 



1970 



Gold Districts — Klamath Mountains 



145 




Photo 72. La Grange Hydraulic Mine, Weaverville District. This northward view of the mine, in Trinity County, was taken 
in about 1914. la Grange was one of the largest hydraulic mines in the state. 



146 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



several other hydraulic mines and a considerable num- 
ber of dragline dredges were active in the district. 

Geology. The central portion of the district is un- 
derlain by an extensive series of continental sedimen- 
tary rocks known as the VVeaverville Formation. This 
formation includes the auriferous channel gravels, as 
well as shale, sandstone, and tuff. In places the gravels 
are partly cemented and as much as 400 feet thick. The 
Weavcrville Formation is underlain by schist, lime- 
stone, slate, and shale and to the east by granite of the 
Shasta Bally batholith. The gravel deposits at the La 
Grange mine lie in a trough bounded by a fault. Schist 
lies on the northwest and slate and limestone on the 
southeast. The base of the fault plane is a soft gouge. 
The richest zone in this mine was a 15-foot layer of 
blue gravel that yielded up to J2 in gold per yard. 
Some gold-quartz veins in the district contain free 
gold and varying amounts of sulfides. The ore bodies 



commonly are associated with diorite or "birdseye 
porphyry" dikes. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1933, Gold dsposih o< the Redding and WeavervilU 
quadrangles: California Div. Mines Repl. 29, pp. 2-73. 

Averill, C. v., 1941, Trinity County, La Grange placer mines, Ltd.: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 37, pp. 43-44. 

Diller, J. S., 1914, Auriferous gravels in the Weaverville quadrangle: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 540, pp. 11-21. 

Oilier, J. S., 1911, The ouriferous gravels of the Trinity River basin: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 470, pp. 11-29. 

Ferguson, H. G., 1914, Gold lode« of the Weaverville quadrangle: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 540, pp. 22-79. 

Hinds, N. E. A., 1933, Geologic formations of the Redding-WeovervilU 
districts: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 77-122. 

Irwin, W. P., 1963, Preliminary geologic mop of the Weoverville 
quadrangle: U. S. Geol. Survey Mineral Investigations Field Studie* 
Mop MF-275. 

Logan, C. A., 1926, Trinity County, la Grange and Lorenz hydraulic 
mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 22, pp. 39-43. 

MocDonold, D. F., 1910, The Weaverville-Trinity Center gold groveb: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 430, pp. 48-58. 



BASIN RANGES PROVINCE 



The Basin Ranges occupy most of Mono and Inyo 
Counties and small portions of several other counties, 
including Modoc County in the northeast corner of 
the state (see fig. 3). These mountain ranges lie east 
of the Sierra Nevada and north of the Garlock fault, 
which separates them from the Mojave Desert. The 
Basin Ranges province is a region of roughly parallel 
mountain ranges alternating with basins or troughs 
and controlled by fault block structure. The region is 
underlain by granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic 
rocks of Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages, 
which in places are overlain by Cenozoic sedimentary 
and volcanic rocks. As in the Mojave Desert province, 
the gold occurs either as epithermal deposits in silici- 
fied and brecciated zones in volcanic rocks or as meso- 
thermal gold-quartz veins in older metamorphic or 
granitic rocks. The largest source of gold in the Basin 
Ranges province has been the Bodie district in Mono 
County. Appreciable amounts of gold also have been 
mined in the Argus, Chloride Cliff, Russ, Skiddoo, and 
Ballarat districts. 

Argus 

Location and History. This district, in southern 
Inyo County in the Argus Range about 10 miles north 
of Trona, has also been known as the Kellcy or Sher- 
man mining district. The mines here apparently were 
first worked in the 1890s, although gold may have 
been discovered earlier. Considerable mining activity 
during the early 1900s and again in the 1930s was 
followed by intermittent prospecting and development 
work until the present time. 

Geology. The rocks that underlie the district range 
from quartz monzonite to gabbro in composition, but 
the acidic intrusives predominate. The ore deposits 
occur either in quartz veins or in zones consisting of 
cemeited, silicified breccia containing jasper, quartz 



veinlets, calcite, and abundant iron oxide. The gold 
is usually in a very fine state; sulfides are present only 
in some of the deposits. 

Mines. Arondo $200,000, Davenport, Mohawk, 
Ruth $700,000+, Star of the West, Stockwell. 

Bibliography 

Norman, L. A., Jr., and Stewart, R. M., 1951, Inyo County, Arondo, 
Mohawk, ond Ruth mines: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 47, 
pp. 38-39, 46, and 49-50. 

Tucker, W. B., 1938, Inyo County, gold: Colifornia Div. Mines Rept. 
34, pp. 379-424. 

Ballarat 

Location and History. Ballarat is in south-central 
Inyo County on the west flank of the Panamint Range 
and just west of Death Valley National Monument. It 
was named for the Ballarat mining district in Australia. 
It includes the South Park area to the south. The old 
silver-mining camp of Panamint City is just to the 
north. The Ratcliff mine, the largest gold source in the 
district, was discovered in 1897, and considerable min- 
ing activit)' lasted until about 1915. The mines were 
active again from 1927 until 1942, and there has been 
intermittent prospecting and development work since. 

Geology. The district is underlain by schist, dolo- 
mitic limestone, and gneiss of Precambrian age, which 
in places have been cut by granitic dikes. The ore 
deposits consist of quartz veins containing free gold 
and occasionally abundant sulfides. 

Mines. Cecil R., Knob, Lestro Mountain, Lotus, 
Porter, Ratcliff $1.3 million-1-, Thorndyke, World 
Beater. 

Bibliography 

Jennings, C. W., 1958, Death Valley sheet: California Div. Mines 
geologic mop of California, Olaf P. Jenkins edition. 

Normon, L. A., Jr., ond Stewart, R. M., 1951, Inyo County, Lotus and 
Ratcliff mines: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 47 pp. 45-48. 



147 




Beveridge 

Location and History. The Beveridge district is in 
west-central Inyo County in the Inyo Mountains. The 
area was first worked in the late 1870s, when the Big 
Horn and Keynote mines were discovered. Mining 
operations continued fairly steadily until the early 
1900s. There was activity in the district again in the 
1930s, and there has been intermittent prospecting 
since. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The region is under- 
lain by a series of northwest-trending beds of lime- 
stone, quartzite, and schist that have been intruded by 
quartz monzonite and other granitic rocks. Quartz 
veins occur both in the granitic and metamorphic 
rocks. The veins strike north and usually range from 
two to eight feet in thickness. The ore contains some 
free gold, but much of the value is in sulfides, which 
are abundant in places. Some copper, lead, silver, and 
zinc have been produced in the district. The greatest 
depth of development is about 500 feet. 

Mines. Big Horn, Burgess, Cinnamon, Golden 
Eagle, Gold Standard, Keynote |500,000, Mountain 
View, Tom Casey. 



Bibliography 



Mines 



Jennings, C. W., 1958, Deoth Valley sheet: Colifornia Di' 
geologic map of California, Olof P. Jenkins edition. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1938, Inyo County — gold mines: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 34, pp. 379-424. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Inyo County, gold mines: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 15, pp. 75-85. 

Big Pine 

Several gold mines and prospects exist on the west 
slope of the White Mountains in northern Inyo 
County a few miles northeast of Big Pine and south- 
east of Bishop. The deposits consist of narrow quartz 
veins in Paleozoic metasediments cut by granitic dikes. 
The ore contains free gold, pyrite, and varying 
amounts of other sulfides. 



Bodie 

Location. The Bodie district is in eastern Mono 
County about 18 miles southeast of Bridgeport. 

History. Gold was discovered here in 1859 by Wil- 
liam S. Bodey, and the district was organized in 1860, 
but activity was minor until 1872, when rich ore was 
discovered. From 1876 to about 1884, a rush was on 
with much production from rich but shallow deposits. 
By 1888, the district had yielded more than $18 mil- 
lion, but, thereafter until World War II, mining was 
confined to lower-grade deposits and reworking of old 
tailings. 

From 1881 until 1914 timber was delivered to the 
mines by a narrow-gauge railroad from the east side 
of Mono Lake. Bodie was one of the first mining 
camps to use electricity (1893). Most of the impor- 
tant mines came under the control of J. S. Cain in 
1915. The town became a noted tourist attraction in 
the 1940s, although many of the buildings had been 
destroyed by fire in 1932. The remaining portion be- 



148 



California Division of Minf^ and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Ph.:. ; 
of the mine. 



.- -:.-J Mine, Bodie District. This 1931 view 
Mono County, looks north. The Red Cloud 



Olat P. Jenkins. 



came a state park in 1961. Studies have been made to 
determine the feasibility of working the entire Stand- 
ard Hill area as a large open-pit operation. Bodie is 
the most productive district in the Basin Ranges, with 
a total production estimated to be valued at slightly 
more than $30 million. The district also has yielded 
more than 1 million ounces of silver. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. A number of steep, 
north-trending silicified and brecciated zones and nar- 
row quartz veins occur in Tertiary andesite. They are 
especially common in the Standard mine area, where 
the mineralized zone is as much as 1000 feet wide. 
Most of these veins and brecciated zones pinch out at 
depths of around 1000 feet, but some in the central 
portion of the di.strict are reported to be deeper. The 
deepest shaft is 1 200 feet. Most of the values have been 
recovered from above 500 feet. The ore contains finely 
disseminated free gold in both the quartz and silicified 
breccia with little or no sulfides. In only one vein, 
the Addonda Oro of the Southern Consolidated 
group, is pyrite abundant. The high-grade ore recov- 
ered in the early days from shallow workings yielded 
from $100 to $300 of gold and silver per ton. 

Mines. Bechtel Cons. $200,000+, Bodie Tunnel 
$200,000-f, Bulvvar $428,000+, Mono $122,000+, 
Southern Cons. $1 million+. Standard Cons. $18 
million+, Syndicate |1 million+. 

Bibliography 

Brown, R. A., 1908, The vein system of the Standard mine, Bodie, 
California: Trons. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs., vol. 38, pp. 343-357. 

Coin, Ella M., 1956, The Story of Bodie, Fearon Publishers, San 
Francisco, 196 pp. 

Crov/ford, J. J., 1896, Standard mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 13, 
p. 231. 

Eokle, A. S., ond Mclaughlin, R. D., 1919, Mono County, Bodie 
district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 149-160. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sompson, R. J., 1940, Mono County, Southern 
Cons, ond Standard Cons, mines: Colifornio Division of Mines Rept. 36, 
pp. 136-138. 

Whiting, H. A., 1888, Bodie district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 8, 
pp. 382-401. 

Chloride ClifF 

Location and History. Chloride ClifF is in the Fu- 
neral Range in the eastern part of Death Valley Na- 



tional Monument, about 20 miles north of Furnace 
Creek. It is sometimes known as the South Bullfrog 
district. Gold was probably discovered here at an early 
date, but the chief period of activity was from around 
1900 to 1916 when the Keane Wonder and Chloride 
Cliff mines were active. There has been minor work 
since. The Keane Wonder mine is credited with a total 
output of more than $1 million. 

Geology. The district is underlain predominantly 
by Precambrian schist, quartzite and gneiss, which 
in places have been cut by dioritic dikes. The ore 
bodies occur in lenticular quartz veins as much as 30 
feet thick. The ore contains fine free gold, pyrite, and 
galena. Most of the ore contained Vi ounce of gold 
or less per ton, but the ore shoots were as long as 300 
feet. 

Bibliography 

Tucker, W. B., 1938, Inyo County, Keane Wonder mine: Colifornio 
Oiv. Mines Rept. 34, pp. 402-403. 

Waring, C. A., and Huguenin, Emile, 1919, Inyo County, Chloride 
Cliff and Keane Wonder mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 76-77 
and 79-81. 

Clover Patch 

Gold has been recovered from a number of mines 
in southern Mono County, in the Clover Patch min- 
ing district. It includes the areas known as the Chidago 
and Indian districts. The Blind Spring Hill silver min- 
ing district is a few miles to the northeast, and Casa 
Diablo is to the south. The area was first worked prior 
to 1900, and a number of mines were worked or 
prospected again in the 1930s. 

The quartz veins, which are as much as 10 feet thick 
and often brecciated, contain free gold, pyrite, and 
smaller amounts of other sulfides. In places the ore 
contained Vi to one ounce of gold per ton. Country 
rock consists of granite, rhyolite, quartzite and lime- 
stone. 

Mines. Casa Diablo, Clover Patch, El Dorado, 
Evening Star, Gold Crown, Last Chance, Mary B, Si- 
erra Vista, Sour Dough. 

Bibliography 

Sampson, R. J., and Tucker, W. B., 1940, Mono County, gold: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines Rept. 36, pp. 120-140. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Basin Ranges 



149 



El Paso Mountains 

Location. The El Paso Mountains are in north- 
eastern Kern County, some 10 miles northwest and 
north of Randsburg. A series of dry placer "diggings" 
lies between Redrock Canyon on the southwest and 
the Summit "diggings" to the northeast. The district 
includes the areas known as the Goler, Garlock and 
Searles districts. 

History. Gold was discovered in Goler Canyon in 
1893, and dry washing camps soon sprang up at Last 
Chance, Red Rock, Jawbone Canyon and Summit 
Diggings. Mining activity declined by 1900, but a num- 
ber of operations were reactivated during the 1930s, 
and since World War II, there has been minor pros- 
pecting. In these dry placer districts, the easily recov- 
erable gold was mined at one locality in a few months 
to a vear or two, and the miners moved on to other 



Ore Deposits. Auriferous sands and gravels occur 
in benches above the present canyons and on bedrock 
in the washes and canyons themselves. Much of the 
gold is believed by Hulin (1934) to have been derived 
from the erosion and reworking of the basal conglom- 
erate of the Ricardo Formation (lower Pliocene), 
which is e.xtensive in this region. The gold particles 
are round and show evidence of considerable abrasion. 
The gold is mostly fine, although nuggets of up to 
several ounces have been recovered. Some narrow 
gold-quartz veins occur in granite and schist. 

Bibliography 

Dibblee, T. W., Jr., and Gay, T. E., Jr., 1952, Mineral deposits of 
the Soltdale quodrangle: California Div. Mines Bull. 160, pp. 47-49. 

Hess, f. v.. 1909, Gold mining in the Randsburg quadrangle: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Bull. 430, pp. 23-47. 

Hulin, C. D., 1934, Geologic features of the dry placers of the 
northern Mojave Desert: California Div. Mines Rept. 30, pp. 417-426. 

Troxel, B. W., and Morton, P. K., 1962, Kern County, El Paso Moun- 
tains district: California Div. Mines and Geology, County Rept. 1, 
pp. 29-31. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1933, Goler Canyon placer 
district: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, p. 281. 

Tucker, W. B., Sampson, R. J., and Oakeshott, G. B., 1949, Kern 
County, Goler Canyon placer and Janney group of placers: California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 45, pp. 223 and 225. 

Fish Springs 

The Fish Springs or Tinemaha district, in north- 
western Inyo County about eight miles south of Big 
Pine, has several small mines and prospects. The New 
Era mine was active in the 1940s. The deposits consist 
of gold-quartz veins in granitic rocks that are com- 
monly associated with diorite dikes. The deposits 
usually consist of a series of narrow parallel veins. 

Bibliography 

Norman, L. A., Jr., and Stewort, R. M., 1951, Inyo County, New Era 
mine: California Jour. Mines ond Geology, vol. 47, p. 47. 

Grapevine 

Some gold was recovered at one time from Grape- 
vine Canyon, which is in the north end of the Grape- 
vine Mountains in eastern Inyo County and is part of 



Death Valley National Monument. Several gold-quartz 
veins occur in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of 
Paleozoic age. Scott>''s Castle, for many years the 
home of Death Valley Scotty and now a well-known 
tourist attraction, is located in Grapevine Canyon. 

Harrisburg 

Location and History. Harrisburg or Harrisburg 
Flat is in east-central Inyo Count)' in Dealth Valley 
National Monument. It is about five miles north of 
Wildrose Canyon and nine miles south of Skidoo. 
Gold was discovered here in 1905 by Shorty Harris, 
one of the most colorful and best-known "single- 
blanket jackass prospectors" of the Death Valley re- 
gion. He was also the first settler in Rhyolite, Nevada. 
Harrisburg, which was mainly a tent cit\', lasted for 
only a few years. The chief source of gold in the dis- 
trict was the Independent or Cashier mine, which had 
an output valued at about S3 00,000. 

Geology. There are several lenticular north- to 
northwest-striking gold-bearing quartz veins in dolo- 
mitic limestone. Granitic rocks also crop out in the 
area. The ore contained free gold and some sulfides. 
Much of the ore averaged about one ounce of gold 
per ton, but the values do not extend to depths of 
more than 150 feet. 

Bibliography 

Norman, L A., Jr., and Stewart, R. M., 1951, Inyo County, Inde- 
pendent mine: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 47, p. 44. 

Waring, C. A., 1919, Inyo County, Cashier mine: Californio Min. 
Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 75-76. 

High Grade 

Location. The High Grade district is in northeast- 
ern Modoc County near the California-Oregon border. 
The district is on the crest of the Warner Mountains 
about 10 miles northwest of Fort Bidwell and 50 miles 
northeast of Alturas. It was known as the Hoag dis- 
trict unril 1912. 

History. This region was first settled in the 1850s. 
Several Indian wars were fought in the area, and Fort 
Bidwell was a U.S. Cavalry post from 1865 to 1892. 
According to local legend a prospector named Hoag 
found gold in the Warner Mountains northwest of the 
fort. However, he was killed by Indians soon after 
his discovery. Modoc County has a recorded gold 
production from 1880 to 1885, which may have come 
from this district. 

Gold was rediscovered by a sheepherder in the 
Warner Mountains in 1905. A boom lasted for a few 
years, and as many as several hundred men were 
employed in the mines. Intermittent prospecting and 
development work continued through the 1920s and 
1930s, and there has been minor work since. It is 
doubtful if the district has yielded more than several 
hundred thousand dollars worth of gold. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The rocks in the main 
part of the district consist of white to yellow rhyolite 
of Tertiary age. To the west and south is andesite, 



150 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



and to the east is basalt, both of Miocene age. The 
ore deposits consist of narrow, north- and northwest- 
trending cpithermal veins and replacements in rhyolite. 
The vein material consists of quartz, silicified and 
brccciatcd country rock, and fault gouge. The ore 
contains free gold, finely divided pyrite, and man- 
ganese-stained material. A few veins in andesite con- 
tain minor amounts of copper. None of the deposits 
extends to a depth of more than a few hundred feet. 
Mines. Blue Bell, Fort Bidwell Cons., Klondike, 
Modoc, Nonhern Star, Sunset, Sunshine. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. V., 1929, Modoc Counfy, gold: Colifornio Div. Minei 
Rept. 25, pp. 10-19, 

Averill, C. v., 1936, Modoc County, High-Grode diitrict: California 
Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 448-451. 

Gay, T. E., Jr., and Aune, Q. A., 1958, Alturoj sheet: California 
Div. Mines, geologic mop of California. 

Hill, Jomes M., 1915, High.Grode district: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 
594. 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, Modoc County, High Grade mining district: 
Colifornio Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 241-250. 

Lees Camp-Echo Canyon 

These two small adjoining districts are in eastern 
Death Valley National Monument in the Funeral 
Mountains, near the Nevada-California border. Most 
of small mines and prospects here have been idle for 
many years. The deposits consist mainly of narrow 
gold-quartz veins in metamorphic rocks of Precam- 
brian age. 

Bibliography 

Jennings, C. W., 1958, Death Valley sheet: California Div. Mines 
geologic map of California, Olof P. Jenkins edition. 

Masonic 

Location and History. The Masonic district, in 
northeastern Mono County' near the Nevada line, ex- 
tends into Nevada. It is 12 miles northeast of Bridge- 
port and 16 miles northwest of Bodie. The region was 
prospected for some years during and after the Corn- 
stock rush of the early 1 860s, but valuable ore was not 
discovered until 1902. The chief period of production 
was 1907-10, although some activity continued 
through the 1930s, and the Chemung mine has been 
intermittently worked in recent years. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The district is under- 
lain by coarse-grained porphyritic granite and small 
amounts of schist. Tertiary basalt and andesite sur- 
round the area. The ore deposits are thick silicified 
zones or veins in the granite that strike north, north- 
west, or northeast. The ore consists of brecciated and 
recemented chert, quartz, and chalcedony that con- 
tains fine free gold. Pyrite and chalcopyrite are pres- 
ent in places. The ore has an open porous appearance 
and is often managancse-stained, and the values com- 
monly appear in thin seams near the openings. Milling 
ore usually contains less than one ounce of gold per 
ton, but appreciable high-grade has been recovered. 
None of the deposits has been developed to depths of 
more than a few hundred feet. 



Mines. Chemung $60,000, Home View, Lakeview, 
Mavbcll, Perini, Pittsburg-Liberrv $700,000, Rough- 
and-Rcad>-. Serita $500,000. 

Bibliography 

Boolich, E. S., 1923, Mono County, Masonic district: Colifornia Min. 
Bur. Rept. 18, pp. 415-416. 

Eakle, A. S., and McLoughlin, R. P., 1919, Mono County, Masonic 
district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 160-165. 

Modoc 

Gold has been produced in the Modoc lead-silver 
district, which is in southern Inyo County at the north 
end of the Argus Range and about 10 miles east of 
Darwin. The small mines and prospects here have 
been idle for some time. The deposits consist of nar- 
row quartz veins containing free gold, pyrite, galena, 
and chalcopyrite. They occur in granitic rocks and 
schist. 

Patterson 

Location and History. This is a gold-silver district 
in the SweetAvater Mountains, in northern Mono 
County about 15 miles north of Bridgeport. It in- 
cludes the Silverado and Fryingpan Canyon areas. The 
area was probably first prospected in the early 1860s, 
but the principal period of mining acUNnt)' was 1880 
to 1884, when more than $500,000 was produced. Set- 
tlements that once existed in the district were Belfort, 
Monte Cristo, and Star City. Some mining was done 
in the district again in the early 1900s and 1930s, and 
there has been some prospecting since. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The district is under- 
lain by various types of granitic rocks and andesite 
and rhyolite. The gold- and silver-bearing deposits oc- 
cur in north-trending veins of quartz and silicified 
breccia that are up to 10 feet thick. The ore contains 
pyrite, argentite, cerargyrite, and often abundant iron 
oxides. In places, the ore was high in grade. Ore shoots, 
with stoping lengths of up to several hundred feet, 
were mined. 

Mines. Anglo Mission, Frederick, Kentuck, Long- 
street, Montague, Silverado, Star and Great Western, 
Summers, Tiger. 

Bibliography 

Eokle, A. S., ond Mclaughlin, R. P., 1919, Mono County, Patterson 
district: Colifornia Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 165-166. 

Sampson, R. J., 1940, Mono County, Silverado and Kentuck mines: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 36, pp. 145-146. 

Rademacher 

Location. This district is in northeastern Kern 
County about 15 miles north of Randsburg and five 
miles south of Ridgecrest. It was organized in the 
1890s, and the most active period was in the early 
1900s. 

Geology. The area is underlain by Mesozoic gra- 
nitic rocks containing small pendants of metamorphic 
rocks and cut by many dikes. Acidic dikes are most 
common to the east but become more basic to the 
west. Numerous faults are present. A number of nar- 
row, north-trending quartz veins often cut the dikes. 
The ore contains free gold with varying amounts of 



1970 



Gold Districts — Basin Ranges 



151 




Photo 75. Town of Skidoo, Skidoo District. This 1907 view of the town, in Inyo County, looks east. Photo courtesy of Calif. Staie Library. 



sulfides and manganese oxide. Milling-ore usually av- 
erages Yz ounce or less of gold per ton, and the ore 
shoots usually are narrow with short stoping lengths. 
Mines. Apple Green, Bellflower, Broken Axle, 
Butte, Crown Cons., Gold Bug, Gold Pass, Hillside, 
Huntington, Indian Wells Valley, Jerry, Lehigh Val- 
ley, Lost Keys, Northern View, Prize, Rademacher, 
Red Wing, Stardust, Star Lode, Stellar Group, Town- 
send, Vera Queens, White Star, Wildcat, Yellow 
Treasure. 

Bibliography 

Troxel, B. W., and Morton, P. K., 1962, Kern County, Rademacher 
mining district: California Div. Mines and Geology, County Rept. 1, 
pp. 46-47. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1933, Kern County, Rademacher 
mining district: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 284-285. 

Russ 

This district is in west-central Inyo County on the 
west slope of the Inyo Alountains about nine miles 
southeast of Independence. The largest source of gold 
has been the Reward or Brown A'lonster group of 
mines. The veins were discovered in 1878 and worked 
steadily until 1914. The Reward mine was active again 
during the 1930s and 1940s, and there has been some 
work in the area since. The ore deposits are north- 
west-striking quartz veins up to 12 feet thick, and the 
ore contains free gold and often abundant sulfides. 
Moderate amounts of lead, silver, and copper also have 
been produced here. The district is underlain by 
schist, slate, and limestone with granitic rocks to the 
east. 



Bibliography 

Norman, L. A., Jr., and Stewart, R. M., 1951, Inyo County, Reward 
mine: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 47, pp. 4&-49. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1938, Inyo County, Reward- 
Brown Monster mines: California Div. Mines Rept. 34, pp. 386-388. 



Skidoo 

Location and History. Skidoo is in Death Valley 
National Monument in east-central Inyo County. The 
district is in the Panamint Mountains and includes the 
Tucki Mountain area to the north. The town of Skidoo 
was an important mining center from 1905 until 
around 1917, with water reaching the area through 
23 miles of pipe from Telescope Peak to the south. 
Mining was done in the district again during the 1930s, 
and there has been intermittent prospecting since. The 
total production of the district has been estimated 
at between $3 million and $6 million. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The area is underlain 
by quartz monzonite and other granitic rocks. Schist, 
dolomitic limestone, and gneiss of Precambrian age are 
just to the east. The ore deposits consist of a number 
of north- and northwest-striking quartz veins that con- 
tain free gold and small amounts of pyrite. The veins 
are chiefly in the quartz monzonite and most are only 
a few feet thick. A number of high-grade pockets 
have been found here. 

Mines. Del Norte, Emigrant Springs, McBride, 
Napoleon, Skidoo $1.5 million -f-. Sunset, Treasure 
Hill, Tucki. 



152 



California Division of Mines and Gfology 



Bull. 193 



Bibliography 

J^nnmgt, C. W., 19S8, Death Vallsy sheet: Colifornia Div. Mines 
geologic mop of California, Olol P. Jenkins edition. 

Norman, L. A., Jr., and Stewart, R. M., 1931, Inyo County, Skidoo 
mine: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 47, p. 51. 

Waring, C. A., 1 91 9, Inyo County. Skidoo mine: Californio Min. Bur. 
Rept. IS, pp. 83-84. 

Slate Range 

The Slate Range district, in northwestern San Ber- 
nardino and southen Inyo Counties, has sometimes 
been knoun as the Arondo district. Gold occurs in 
several places in the Slate Mountains, the principal 
source apparently having been the Hafford mine. The 
area is underlain by granite and schist. The deposits 
consist of narrow quartz veins that contain small but 
rich gold- and silver-bearing pockets. In places sulfides 
are quite abundant. 

Bibliography 

DeGroot, Henry, 1890, Slate Range district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 10, p. 333. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1943, San Bernardino County, 
Hafford mine: California Div. Mines Rept. 39, pp. 453-454. 

Spangler 

Spangler is in northw estern San Bernardino County 
about 10 miles northeast of Johannesburg. Most of 
the gold production has been from the Spangler mine, 
which has been intermittently prospected and devel- 
oped since the 1 890s. A number of narrow west-strik- 
ing gold-quartz veins traverse granitic rock. Some of 
the ore contained more than one ounce of gold per 
ton. 

Bibliography 

Wright, L A., et ol, 1953, San Bernardino County, Spangler mine: 
California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 49, p. 58. 

Tibbetts 



This district is in the Inyo Range in northern Inyo 
County about 10 miles northeast of Independence. A 
number of narrow quartz veins in Peleozoic metasedi- 
ments and granitic rocks bear free gold and often 
abundant sulfides. Placer deposits, including those of 
Mazourka Canyon, were worked by dry placer 
methods from 1894 until 1906. The area was pros- 
pected again in the 1930s. 

Bibliography 

Tucker, W. B., and Sompson, R. J., 1948, Inyo County, Mazourka 
Canyon placers: Californio Div. Mines Rept. 34, p. 411. 

Ubehebe 

Some gold has been produced in the Ubehebe cop- 
per-lead-silver district. The district is in central Inyo 
County about 75 miles east of Lone Pine. The chief 
source of gold has been the Lost Burro mine, which 
was worked from 1906 to 1917 and 1934 to 1942. The 
value of its total output is about $100,000. The gold 
occurs in a flat four-foot-thick vein of quartz, jasper, 
and calcite that is near a contact bet%veen limestone 



and granitic rocks. The gold occurs in the native state 
with pyrite and chalcopyrite. 

Bibliography 

McAllister, J. F., 1953, Geology of mineral deposits in the Ubehebe 
Peak quadrangle, California: Colifornia Div. Mines Spec. Rept. 42, 
63 pp. 

Waring, C. A., and Huguenin, Emile, 1919, Inyo County, lost Burro 
mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 81-82. 

White Mountains 

Gold has been mined in several areas in the White 
Mountains in southeastern Mono County. The streams 
apparently were first placer-mined in the 1860s and 
1870s, and lode deposits were discovered soon after- 
ward. There has been intermittent development work 
and prospecting since. The principal lode mines have 
been the Sacramento and Twenty Grand mines. The 
deposits consist of gold-quartz veins with considerable 
sulfides in granitic rocks. Some schist and limestone 
crop out in the area. The placer deposits are mostly 
in the canyons on the west flank of the range. 

Bibliography 

Sampson, R. J., and Tucker, W. B., 1940, Mono County, gold: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines Rept. 36, pp. 120-140. 

Wildrose 

Some gold has been recovered from placer and lode 
deposits in the Wildrose Canyon area in east-central 
Inyo Count}'. The area, in the Panamint Mountains, 
is part of Death Valley National Monument. Appar- 
ently the main sources of lode gold have been the 
Burro, Gem, and New Discovery mines, which were 
active in the 1930s and 1940s. At these mines, there is 
a series of northwest-striking quartz veins in granitic 
rocks, schist, and gneiss. Most of the gold occurs in 
sulfides, which are extremely abundant in places. The 
placers were small and discontinuous. 

Bibliography 

Norman, L. A., Jr., and Stewart, R. M., 1951, Inyo County, Corona 
(New Discovery and Gem) mine: California Jour. Mines and Geology, 
vol. 47, pp. 40-41. 

Sampson, R. J., 1932, Inyo County, Burro, New Discovery and Gem 
mines: California Div. Mines Rept. 28, pp. 364-366. 

Willow 

This district is in southern Inyo County in the 
Black Mountains about 15 miles west of Shoshone and 
just east of Death Valley. The chief source of gold 
has been the Ashford mine, which has a reported out- 
put of $135,000, and the Confidence mine. A number 
of gold-copper-quartz veins occur in gneiss and schist. 
The deepest workings are about 375 feet. Some high- 
grade ore has been recovered. The old Ashford mill in 
Death Valley is now an historical exhibit. 

Bibliography 

Norman, L. A., Jr., and Stewart, R. M., 1951, Inyo County, Ashford 
and Confidence mines: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 47, 
pp. 39-40. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Mojave Desert 



153 



MOJAVE DESERT PROVINCE 



Gold deposits are widely distributed throughout this 
vast area in southeastern California. The Mojave 
Desert is a broad interior region of mountain ranges 
separated by expanses of desert plains. The western 
part of the province is wedge-shaped with the Sierra 
Nevada to the north and the Transverse Ranges to the 
south. The primary deposits consist of either meso- 
thennal gold-quartz veins that occur in metamorphic 
and granitic rocks of Precambrian, Paleozoic, and 
Mesozoic ages or epithermal deposits in zones of silici- 
fication and brecciation in volcanic rocks of Tertiary 
age. 

The largest sources of gold in this province have 
been the Rand and Mojave-Rosamond districts in Kern 
County. Other important gold sources have been the 
Dale and Stedman districts, San Bernardino County, 
and the Cargo Muchacho-Tumco and Picacho districts 
in Imperial County. Placer gold has been recovered in 
quantity in several of the districts, considerable 
amounts having come from dr}' desert placers. The 
most productive dry placers have been in the Rand, 
Cargo Muchacho, Chocolate Mountains, Picacho, and 
Potholes districts. By-product gold has been recovered 
from a number of silver, copper, lead, and zinc mines 
in this province. 

Alvord 

Location. This district is in central San Bernardino 
County about 35 miles northeast of Daggett. It is 
named for the Alvord mine, the chief producer in the 
district. Gold was discovered here in 1885, and the 
Alvord mine has been intermittently worked ever 
since. 

Geology. The area is underlain by crystalline lime- 
stone, granite, and in places by volcanic rocks. A sili- 
ceous vein at the Alvord mine contains jasper, calcite, 
hematite, pyrite, limonite, and free gold. Minor copper 
mineralization is present. Ore mined in the past com- 
monly yielded '/i ounce of gold or more per ton. 

Bibliography 

storms, W. B., 1893, Alvord mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 11, 
pp. 359-360. 

Wright, L. A., et al, 1953, Son Bernardino County, Alvord mine: 
California Jour. Mines and Geol., vol. 49, p. 70. 

Arica 

The Arica district, in the Arica Mountains of north- 
eastern Riverside County, also has been known as the 
Onward district. The Brown and Lum-Gray mines, 
the principal sources of gold, were active during the 
early 1900s and again in the 1920s and 1930s. A num- 
ber of gold-quartz veins occur in granite and schist. 
Sulfides are extremely abundant, and the milling ore 
was reported to have yielded as much as one ounce 
of gold per ton. The Lum-Gray shaft is nearly 1000 
feet deep. 



Bibliography 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1919, Riverside County, Arico Mountain district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 541-542. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1945, Riverside County, Brown 
ond lum-Groy mines: California Div. Mines Rept. 41, pp. 128 ond 138. 

Arrowhead 

Location. The Arrowhead district is in eastern San 
Bernardino County, 20 miles north-northwest of 
Danby in the southwest end of the Providence Moun- 
tains. The Hidden Hill mine was located in 1882. For 
several years following, A^exican miners recovered rich 
surface ores concentrated in arrastras. The Big Horn 
mine was worked on a large scale in 1918-19, and 
there was some activity during the 1920s and 1930s. 

Geology. The principal rock in the district is 
quartz monzonite, which is cut by numerous diorite 
dikes, and in smaller amounts, quartzite and andesite. 
The ore deposits occur in north-trending quartz veins 
that are closely associated with the dikes. The ore 
contains free gold, pyrite, and chalcopyrite. Among 
the high-grade pockets found here, one 300-pound lot 
of ore recovered at the Hidden Hill mine in 1915 
yielded $13,000. The chief sources of gold have been 
the Coarse Gold, Big Horn, and Hidden Hill mines. 

Bibliography 

Cloudmon, H. C, et al, 1919, Son Bernardino County, Arrowhead 
district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 800-801. 

DeGroot, Henry, 1890, Arrowheod district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
10, p. 532. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1943, San Bernardino County, 
Big Horn mine: California Div. Mines Rept. 39, pp. 441-442. 

Bendigo 

The Bendigo or Riverside Mountain district is in the 
northeast comer of Riverside County. Gold was dis- 
covered here at the Mountaineer mine in 1898, and 
mining continued until around 1920. Some work was 
done in the district again in the 1930s. This region is 
underlain by limestone and schist, which in places are 
cut by diorite dikes. The ore bodies, replacement de- 
posits that occur along limestone-schist contacts, con- 
tain gold, copper, silver, and manganese. Some of the 
ore deposits are as much as 15 feet thick, and extend 
to depths of 200 feet. 

Mines. Alice, Gold Dollar, Jacknife, Mountaineer 
(Calzona), Morning Star, Steece. 

Bibliography 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1919, Riverside County, Bendigo district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 542-544. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1945, Riverside County, Moun- 
taineer mine: California Div. Mines Rept. 41, p. 140. 

Cargo Muchacho-Tumco 

Location. This district is an extensive area in the 
Cargo Muchacho Mountains in southeastern Imperial 
Count>', seven miles north of Ogilby and 50 miles east 
of El Centre. The district includes not only the area 



154 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Pholo 76. Golden Cross Mine, Corgo Muchacho District. This view of the mine, at Tumco, Imperial County, looks west. The photo wos token 

obout 1915. 



known as the Cargo Muchacho district but also the 
area known as the Tumco or Hedges mining district. 

History. Mining was first done in this region by 
Spaniards as early as 1780-81, when placers in Jack- 
son Gulch and oxidized ores in Madre Valley were 
worked. This is believed to have been the first gold 
mined in California. Later, mining was resumed under 
Mexican rule. The district received its name of Cargo 
Muchacho, or Loaded Boy, when two young Mexican 
boys came into camp one evening with their shirts 
loaded with gold. American miners became interested 
in this district soon after the end of the Mexican War 
in 1848. Mining became firmly established in 1877 with 
the completion of the Southern Pacific Railroad to 
Yuma. Large-scale mining continued from around 
1890 until 1916 and again from 1932 until 1941, with 
intermittent activity since World War H. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The Cargo Muchacho 
Mountains are composed of quartzites and schists that 
have been intruded by granitic rocks. In places there 
are andesite and dioritic dikes. 

The gold deposits are on the west side of the range 
and occur in both the metamorphic and granitic rocks. 
They are tabular bodies with a definite hanging wall 
or footwall but rarely both. The deposits consist of 
quartz, calcite, sericite, and chlorite, and the values 
are either native gold or auriferous sulfides. Appreci- 
able amounts of silver and copper also have been re- 
covered in the district. The deposits, usually striking 
west, with a few north-strike exceptions, are up to 
eight feet thick and have been mined to depths of as 
much as 1000 feet. Appreciable high-grade ore was 
found here. 

Mines. American Boy, Amercian Girl (1 million. 
Big Bear, Blossom, Butterfly, Cargo Muchacho $100,- 



000-f , Coffee Pot, Colorado, Desert King, Golden 
Cross $3 million+. Golden Queen, Guadaloupe, 
Little Bear, Madre and Padre $100,000+, Ogilby 
group, Pasadena, Sovereign, Vitrafax, White Cap. 

Bibliography 

Crawford, J. J., 1896, Cargo Muchacho district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 13, p. 333. 

Henshaw, P. C, 1942, Geology and minerol deposits of the Cargo 
Muchacho Mountains, Imperial County, California: California Div. Mines, 
Rept. 38, pp. 147-196. 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1916, Imperial County, Cargo Muchacho Range: 
Californio Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 725-729. 

Sompson, R. J., and Tucker, W. B., 1942, Gold — Imperial County: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 38, pp. 112-126. 

Tucker, W. B., 1926, Gold — Imperial County: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 22, pp. 253-261. 

Chocolate Mountains 

Gold has been recovered from the southeast end of 
the Chocolate Mountains in eastern Imperial County 
in an area east of Glamis, a stop on the Southern 
Pacific Railroad. The district includes the area known 
as the Mesquite mining district. The Paymaster lead- 
silver and manganese mining district is just to the 
north. This district was first prospected prior to 1900 
both by quartz mining and small-scale dr>' placer 
methods. During the 1930s, several unsuccessful short- 
lived attempts were made to work the dr>' placer de- 
posits on a large scale. Gold and silver associated with 
iron oxides in quartz veins occur in granitic rocks. The 
veins usually are narrow, but several high-grade pock- 
ets have been discovered. The placer deposits occur 
in the washes along the south and west flanks of the 
range. 

Mines. Desert Gold, Gold Basin, Gold Delta, Mary 
Lode, Mesquite Lode, Peg Leg, Rainbow, Vista. 



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Gold Districts — Mojave Desert 



155 



EXPLANATION 

Alluvium 

Granitic rock 




STUD HTN. 

GUADALOUPE^j « « « ^ « 
,'V»HITE ,',",'' 



PASAOENA MTN. 



Figure 28. Geologic Atep of Cargo Muchacho-Tumco District, Imperial County. Aher Henshaw, 7942, p/ote 2. 



156 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




-^^v'-'i.r^^-'- • 



Photo 77. Dry Plocer Mining, Coolgordie District. The photo was token in Son Bernordino County in the early 19008. Photo courtesy o/ O. A. 

Ruiselt, Yermo. 



Bibliography 



Sampson, R. J., and Tucker, W. B., 1942, Imperial County, gold: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 38, pp. 112-126. 



Chuckwalla 

Location and History. The Chuckwalla district is 
in the Chuclavalla Mountains of southeastern River- 
side County, south of Desert Center. This district at 
one time was also known as the Pacific mining district. 
It was organized some time in the 1880s, and mining 
continued through the early 1900s. There was activity 
here again in the 1930s, when the Red Cloud and other 
mines were worked. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The region is under- 
lain by granitic rocks and gneiss. The gold-quartz 
veins often contain abundant pyrite and copper, lead, 
and silver minerals. A number of high-grade pockets 
have been recovered. Several of the veins have mined 
to depths of about 350 feet. 

Mines. Baumonk, Bryan, Coffee, Granite, Great 
Western, Lost Pony, Model, Red Cloud 1 100,000+, 
Sterling, Sunnyside. 

Bibliography 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1919, Riverside County, Chuckwolla district: Coli- 
fornio Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 538-540. 

Orcutt, C. R., 1890, Pacific mining district: Colifornio Min. Bur. 
Rept. 10, pp. 900-901. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1945, Riverside County, Red Cloud 
mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 41, pp. 141-142. 



Clark 

Location and History. This district is in north- 
eastern San Bernardino County in the Clark Mountains 
about 35 miles northeast of Baker. Gold and other 
metals have been mined here since the early 1860s, 
and the mining district was organized in 1865. The 
mountains were named for Senator William A. Clark, 
the "copper king" of Montana. The gold mines were 
worked intermittently until the 1930s, and there has 
been prospecting since. The Mountain Pass mine lo- 
cated here is now an important source of rare earth 
minerals. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The district is under- 
lain by a belt of limestone and dolomite in the central 
portion, with quartzite to the west and granite and 
gneiss to the east. The gold-bearing deposits consist of 
quartz and barite veins or mineralized breccia, the 
latter occurring in shear zones in gneiss that commonly 
are associated with rhyolitic dikes. The ore contains 
auriferous pyrite and chalcopyrite. Milling-grade ore 
usually averages 1/5 ounce of gold per ton. In this 
district the metal-bearing deposits are associated with 
major thrust zones that extend northward along the 
entire mountain ma.ss. 

Mines. Benson, Birthday, Colosseum, Green, Mo- 
hawk, Sulphide Queen, Taylor. 

Bibliography 

Hewett, D. P., 1956, Geology and mineral resources of the Ivonpah 
quadrangle, Colifornio ond Nevodo: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 
275, 172 pp. 



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Gold Districts — Mojave Desert 



157 



Wright, L. A., Stewort, R. M., Goy, T. E., Jr., and Hazenbush, G. C, 
1953, San Bernardino County, gold: California Jour. Mines and Geol., 
vol. 49, pp. 69-86. 

Coolgardie 

This is a dry-placer mining district in western San 
Bernardino County about 15 miles northwest of Bar- 
stow. The area was mined intermittently from around 
1900 to 1915, with a total output valued at about 
$100,000. The principal operator was the Cool Gardie 
Mining Company, which operated a battery of gaso- 
line-powered dry washers. Several two-man operations 
employed single dry washers or rockers (see photo 
77). Minor prospecting was done in the district dur- 
ing the 1920s and 1930s. The deposits are in a broad 
valley; the gold apparently was derived from veins in 
granitic rocks that are to the east and northeast. 

Bibliography 

Cloudman, H. C, Huguenin, E., ond Merill, F. J. H., 1919, San Ber- 
nardino County Cool Gardie: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, p. 817. 

Loizure, C. McK, 1934, San Bernardino County, Coolgardie; Califor- 
nia Min. Bur. Rept. 30, p. 250. 

Dale 

Location and History. The Dale or Virginia Dale 
gold-mining district is in southern San Bernardino and 
northern Riverside County about 18 miles east of 
Twentynine Palms. It includes the area known as the 
Pinto Basin mining district. The first claims here were 
apparently located in the early 1880s, but the district 
was not too productive until the 1890s. There was 
moderate activity during the early 1900s and 1920s, 
increasing in the 1930s and early 1940s, when the Gold 
Crown, Supply, Virginia Dale, and Carlyle mines were 
active. A little work has been done since. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The district is under- 
lain by a variety of rocks, which includes granite, 
quartz diorite, banded gneiss, andesite porphyry and 
schist. The quartz veins contain native gold, varying 
amounts of sulfides and iron minerals, and silver is 



abundant in some deposits. The veins are up to 10 
feet thick and have been mined to depths of as much 
as 1200 feet. Several high-grade pockets have been 
uncovered. 

Mines. San Bernardino County: Brooklyn $150,- 
OOO-f, Carlyle $125,000+, Exchequer, Gypsy, Im- 
perial, Ivanhoe, Iron Age, Supply $500,000-f, 
Thelma, Virginia Dale. Riverside County: Cow Bell, 
Dalton, Duplex, Gold Crown $385,000, Gold Rose, 
Gold Standard, Golden Rod, Los Angeles, Louise, 
Mission, O.K. $200,000, Outlaw, Pinto, Zulu Queen. 

Bibliography 

Cloudmon, H. C, 1919, San Bernardino County, Dale mining dis- 
trict: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 801-803. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1930, Gold— San Bernardino 
County: California Div. Mines Rept. 26, pp. 221-260. 

Wright, L. A., Stewort, R. M., Gay, T. E., Jr., Hazenbush, G. C, 1953, 
Gold — Son Bernardino County: California Jour. Mines and Geology, 
vol. 49, pp. 69-86. 

Dos Palmas 

Dos Palmas is in the Orocopia Mountains northeast 
of the Salton Sea. Some mining was done here in the 
1890s, and the area has been prospected since. Several 
narrow gold-quartz veins occur in gneiss, schist, and 
granitic rocks. There have been considerable shearing 
and faulting in the area; the San Andreas fault zone 
extends southeast along the side of the Salton Sea. 

Mines. Charity, Dos Palmas, Fish, Free Coinage, 

Messenger. 

Bibliography 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1919, Riverside County, gold: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 15, p. 541. 

Eagle Mountains 

The Eagle Mountains are in eastern Riverside 
County. Although this district is best known as a 
major source of iron ore, it has also yielded some gold, 
silver, lead, and copper. The principal source of gold 
has been the Iron Chief mine, which has an estimated 
total production of $150,000. The gold and base metal 
deposits occur either as replacements along limestone- 




Gold Crown Mine, Dale District. This view of the .i.m.c, in ki.c.iu 
about 1936. Photo by W. B. Tocke 



looks east. The photo was token in 



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California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



granite contacts or in fissure veins in either granitic 
or metamorphic rocks. 

Bibliography 

Tuckar, W. B., 1945, Riv«r«!d« County, Iron Chief mine: Cotifornio 
Div. MInm Rapt. 41, p. 136. 

Emerson Lake 

Several mines and prospects lie west of Emerson 
Lake, which is in southern San Bernardino County 
about 25 miles northwest of Twentynine Palms. The 
principal gold sources have been the Emerson and 
Los Padre mines. The deposits consist of parallel veins 
in gneiss and granitic rocks, and the ore occurs as 
small but rich pockets, usually near the surface. Sev- 
eral high-grade pockets containing wire gold have 
been found here. 

Bibliography 

Tucker, W. B., end Sampion, R. J., 1940, Son Bernordino County, 
Lot Padre mine: California Div. Mines Rept. 36, p. 70. 

Gold Reef 

This district is in the Clipper Mountains in east- 
central San Bernardino County about five miles north- 
west of Danby. Gold was discovered here in 1915, and 
there was considerable activity for a few years follow- 
ing. Several wide gold-bearing quartz-calcite veins 
occur in fault zones in volcanic rocks of Miocene age. 
The ore-bearing zones are as much as 50 feet thick 
and 1 500 feet long. The principal sources of gold have 
been the Clipper Mountain, Gold Reef, and Tom 
Reed mines. 

Bibliography 

Tuclier, W. B., 1921, San Bernardino County, gold: Colifornia Min. 
Bur. Rept. 17, pp. 345-346. 

Goldstone 

The Goldstone district is in northwestern San Ber- 
nardino Count)' about 35 miles north of Barstow, in 
what is now the U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, 
Aiojave Range. The district was active in 1915 to 1918, 
in the 1920s, and again just before World War II. 
There are several shallow gold-quartz veins in lime- 
stone, siliceous shales, and associated diorite dikes. 
Several high-grade pockets have been discovered. 
Copper and silver also are present. 

Bibliography 

Cloudmon, H. C, e> of., 1919, San Bernardino County, Goldstone 
district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 804-807. 

Grapevine 

There are several small lode-gold mines, prospects 
and dry placer deposits in an area known as the 
Grapevine district. It is in the Paradise Mountains in 
western San Bernardino County about 15 miles north 
of Barstow. A number of quartz veins in granitic rocks 
contain free gold, and copper and manganese minerals. 
The veins are narrow and the deposits are shallow. 
The Olympus mine apparently in the only property 



that has had much development work. Also the well- 
known Waterman silver mine is here. 

Bibliography 

Wright, I. A., Stewart, R. M., Cay, T. E., Jr., and Hoxenbush, G. C, 
1953, Son Bernardino County, Olympus mine: California Jour. Mines 
and Geol., vol. 49, p. 76. 

Hackberry Mountain 

Gold and copper have been mined in the Hack- 
berry Mountain- Von Trigger Spring area of eastern 
San Bernardino County, about 25 miles south of Ivan- 
pah. The principal sources of production have been 
the Leiser Ray, True Blue, and Von Trigger mines. 
The mines were intermittently worked from the 1890s 
through the 1940s, but the most productive period 
was 1904 to 1915. The deposits consist either of min- 
eralized shear zones or gold- and copper-bearing 
quartz veins in gneiss and schist. Yellow cuprodescloi- 
zite, a rare vanadium-bearing mineral, has been found 
at the Leiser Ray mine. 

Bibliography 

Hewett, D. F., 1956, Geology and mineral resources of the Ivanpoh 
quadrangle, California and Nevada: U. S. Geological Survey Prof. 
Paper 275, 172 pp. 

Ver Planck, W. E., 1961, History of mining in northeastern Son 
Bernardino County: California Div. Mines Mineral Inf. Service, vol. 14, 
no. 9. 

Holloron Springs 

Halloran Springs is in northeastern San Bernardino 
Count}' about 12 miles northeast of Baker. Indians 
mined turquoise here in prehistoric times. The area 
was probably prospected for gold during the 1890s. 
The Telegraph mine, the principal gold source in 
the district, with an output of $100,000, was discov- 
ered in 1930. The ore deposits consist of gold-quartz 
veins, up to eight feet thick in quartz monzonite and 
consisting either of massive and banded quartz or ce- 
mented silicified breccia. The ore contains native gold 
and often abundant chalcopyrite and bomite. Some 
of the ore is extremely rich. 

Bibliography 

Hewett, D. F., 1956, Geology and mineral resources of the Ivonpah 
quadrangle: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 275, 172 pp. 

Wright, L. A., Stewort, R. M., Gay, T. E., Jr., and Hozenbush, G. C, 
1953, Son Bernardino County, gold: California Jour. Mines ond Geol., 
vol. 49, pp. 69-86. 

Hart 

The Hart or Castle Mountain mining district is in 
northeastern San Bernardino Count>' about 15 miles 
east of Ivanpah near the Nevada border. Gold was 
discovered here in 1907, and the area flourished for a 
few years. For a time it was served by the Santa Fe 
Railroad's branch to Searchlight, Nevada. There was 
some activity again during the 1930s. The principal 
sources of gold were the Oro Belle, Valley View, and 
Hart Consolidated mines. The ore deposits consist of 
breccia zones along which the wall rock is silicified. 
The deposits contain pyrite and native gold in small 
grains and wires. Country rock consists of rhyolite 
flows, tuff, and breccia of late Tertiary age. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Mojave Desert 



159 







Photo 79. Exposed Treasure Mine, Mojave District. The photo shows the 



Kern County, in about 1914. 



Bibliography 

Hewett, D. F., 1956, Geology and mineral resources of the Ivanpah 
quadrangle, California and Nevada: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 
275, 172 pp. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1943, Son Bernardino County, 
Valley View mine: California Div. Mines Rept. 39, p. 464. 

Ibex 

The Ibex district is in eastern San Bernardino 
County about 15 miles north of Needles. The Ibex or 
Gold Ridge mine, the principal source of gold, was 
active in the 1880s and 1890s. The deposits consist of 
massive quartz veins in gneiss and schist containing 
free gold and varying amounts of sulfides. 

Bibliography 

Miller, W. J., 1944, Geology of the Needles-GofFs region, San Ber- 
nardino County: California Div. Mines Rept. 40, pp. 113-129. 

Ivanpah 

Location and History. The Ivanpah mining district 
is in northeastern San Bernardino County about 35 
miles northeast of Baker and south of the Mountain 
Pass-Qark Mountain area. The district includes the 
mines in both the Ivanpah Range and the Mescal 
Range, which is just to the west. Gold mining began 
here at least as early as 1882, when the Mollusk mine 
was opened. Moderate mining activity continued in 
the district until about 1915, and there was some work 
again in the 1930s. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The western part of 
the district is underlain predominantly by limestone 
and dolomite, with smaller amounts of shale, sand- 
stone and dacite. To the east is granite and gneiss, and 
to the south is quartz monzonite. The gold deposits 
are in quartz veins or mineralized breccia, which occur 
chiefly in granitic rocks or gneiss, although the Mol- 
lusk vein is in dolomite. Other mineral commodities 
in the district are silver, copper, tungsten, tin, barite, 
fluorspar, and rare earths. As in the Clark mining 



district to the north, the metal-bearing deposits are 
associated with several major thrust fault zones. 

Mines. Kewanee, Mollusk $250,000, Morning Star, 
New Era, Teutonia. 

Bibliography 

Hewett, D. f., 1956, Geology and mineral resources of the Ivanpah 
quadrangle, Colifornia and Nevada: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 
275, 172 pp. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1943, San Bernardino County, 
gold: California Div. Mines Rept. 39, pp. 438-465. 

Wright, L. A., Stewart, R. M., Gay, T. E., Jr., and Hazenbush, G. C, 
1953, San Bernardino County, gold: California Jour. Mines and Geo!., 
vol. 49, pp. 69-86. 

Mojave-Rosamond 

Location. The Mojave-Rosamond district is in 
southeastern Kern County. The gold deposits are as- 
sociated with the five prominent buttes south of the 
town of Mojave and west and north of the town of 
Rosamond. 

History. Gold was discovered in the Yellow Rover 
vein on Standard Hill by George Bowers in 1894, and 
soon afterward other discoveries were made. Activity 
continued until about 1910 but waned over the next 
20 years. The Cactus Queen mine was discovered in 
1934, and from 1931 until 1941 mining was done in 
the district on a major scale. The mines were shut 
down during World War II, but there has been some 
activity since. The Tropico mine is now an historical 
museum and a popular tourist attraction. The district 
is estimated to have had a total gold and silver output 
valued at $23 million. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The principal rocks are 
Tertiary rhyolite, rhyolite porphyry and quartz la- 
tite, which are underlain by Mesozoic quartz monzo- 
nite. All the ore deposits are associated with the five 
prominences (fig. 29), the most important of which, 
both in productivity and in the number of deposits, 
is Soledad Mountain. The ore occurs in epithermal 



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California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



WINKLER • A •> 

CiCTUS «>A' ■ jI' ■ 'W., 
QUEEN A .i,'.Mi-J.',^r" 




figure 29. GMJogic Map of Mojave-Rosamond Diilrirt, Kern County. Ah»r Troxtl and Morion, 1962. and Dibblm; 1963. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Mojave Desert 



161 



fissure veins that occupy brecciated and sheared zones 
in the rhyolitic rocks. The ore contains finely divided 
gold, wirii appreciable amounts of silver minerals, in- 
cluding cerargyrite, argentite, and smaller amounts of 
proustite, pyrargyrite, and electrum. Pyrite, arseno- 
pyrite, galena, and chalcopyrite also are present. The 
ore shoots range from a few feet to 40 feet in thick- 
ness, and are up to 200 feet long. The veins have been 
developed to depths of 1000 feet. Milling ore usually 
averaged about V^ ounce of gold per ton, but some 
rich ore shoots were worked in the earlier mining 
operations. 

Mines. Burton-Brite-Blank, Cactus, Cactus Queen 
$5 million-|-. Double Eagle, Crescent, Elephant 
$200,000 to $400,000, Excelsior, Golden Queen (in- 
cludes Echo and Gray Edge, Queen Ester and Silver 
Queen) $10 million-f. Middle Butte $150,000-|-, 
Milwaukee, Pride of Mojave, Quien Sabe, Standard 
group (Desert Queen, Exposed Treasure and Yellow 
Rover) $3.5 million, Tropico 114,000 ounces, Weg- 
man group (Eureka, Karma and Monarch) $100,- 
000-1-, Western, Whitmore, Winkler, Yellow Dog 
58004- ounces. 

Bibliography 

Bateson, G. E. W., 1907, The Mojave mining district of Colifornio: 
Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs., vol. 37, pp. 160-177. 

Brown, G. C, 1916, Kern County, Mojave district: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 14, p. 483. 

Dibblee, T. W., Jr., 1963, Geology of the Willow Springs and Rosa- 
mond quadrangles, California: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1089-C, pp. 
141-253. 

Simpson, E. C, 1934, Geology and mineral resources of the Elizabeth 
lake quadrangle: California Div. Mines Rept. 30, pp. 371-415. 

Tucker, W. B., 1923, Kern Coounty, Mojave mining district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 19, pp. 156-164. 

Troxel, B. W., ond Morton, P. K., 1962, Mojave mining district: 
California Div. Mines and Geology, County Rept. 1, pp. 43-45. 

Tucker. W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1933, Kern County, Mojave 
mining district: California Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 283-284. 

Tucker, W. B., 1935, Mining activity at Soledad Mountain and Middle 
Buttes-Mojove mining district: California Div. Mines Rept. 31, pp. 
465-485. 

Tucker, W. B., Sampson, R. J., and Oakeshott, G. B., 1949, Kern 
County, Golden Queen Mining Company: California Jour. Mines and 
Geology, vol. 45, pp. 220-223. 

Mule Mountains 

The Mule Mountains district, which has also been 
known as the Hodges Mountain district, is in south- 
eastern Riverside County about 20 miles southwest of 
Blythe. Some gold and copper were recovered here 
years ago from several mines and prospects, the most 
productive of which were the Roosevelt and Rainbow 
group of mines. Native gold, pyrite, and chalcopyrite 
occur in quartz veins in granitic rock. 

Bibliography 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1945, Riverside County, Roosevelt 
and Rainbow group of mines: California Div. Mines Rept. 41, pp. 
142-143. 

Old Dad 



This district is in the Old Dad Mountains, which 
are in northeastern San Bernardino County about 12 
miles east of Baker. Gold was discovered here in the 
1 890s, and the area has been intermittently mined ever 



since, with considerable activity during the 1930s and 
early 1940s. The district is underlain b^ gneiss, quartz- 
ite, limestone, and granitic rocks. The ore deposits 
consist of quartz veins ranging from one to six feet 
in thickness that occur chiefly in granitic gneiss or 
quartzite. The ore bodies contain native gold, fine- 
grained auriferous pyrite, abundant iron oxide, and 
small amounts of other sulfides. Appreciable amounts 
of high-grade ore have been taken from this district. 

Mines. Brannigan $100,000-|-, Lucky, Paymaster 
$100,000, OroFino. 

Bibliography 

Hewett, D. F., 1956, Geology and mineral resources of the Ivanpah 
quadrangle: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 275, 172 pp. 

Ver Planck, W. E., 1961, History of mining in northeastern Son 
Bernardino County: California Div. Mines Mineral Inf. Service, vol. 14, 
no. 9. 

Wright, L. A., Stewart, R. M., Gay, T. E., Jr., and Hozenbush, G. C, 
1953, Son Bernardino County, gold: California Jour. Mines and Geol., 
vol. 49, pp. 69-86. 

Old Woman 

The Old Woman Mountains in eastern San Ber- 
nardino County have yielded some gold, the main 
sources being the Blue E^gle and Long Shot mines, 
which were active during the 1930s. Native gold and 
often abundant sulfides occur in quartz veins in gra- 
nitic rocks. Most of the deposits are only a few tens 
of feet deep. 

Bibliography 

Wright, L A., Stewart, R. M., Gay, T. E., Jr., and Hozenbush, G. C, 
1953, San Bernardino County, gold tabulated list: California Jour. 
Mines and Geology, vol. 49, p. 259. 

Ord 

Location and History. The Ord district is in west- 
central San Bernardino County in the Ord and New- 
berry Mountains, about 20 miles southeast of Barstow. 
The mountains were named for Major General E.O.C. 
Ord of Civil War fame. The district was organized 
around 1870, and intermittent development work con- 
tinued for many years after. There was some work 
done here again in the 1930s. Although the district is 
reported to have been a small producer, there are 
many mines and prospects. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The region is underlain 
by granite and quartz monzonite and a variety of Ter- 
tiary volcanic rocks that include basalt, andesite, and 
rhyolite. The gold-quartz veins are confined to the 
granitic rocks and often are associated with dikes. The 
ore bodies contain abundant sulfides and iron oxide. 
Appreciable amounts of copper and silver minerals 
are present in places. There are a few placer deposits. 

Mines. Alarm, Azucar, Black Butte, Camp Rock 
(placer), Cumberland, Elsie, Gold Banner, Gold Belt, 
Gold Brick, Gold Peak, Grand view, Haney and Lee, 
Hoover, Johnson, Luckv Strike, New Deal, Old, Ord 
Belt, Red Hill, Riley. 

Bibliography 

Cloudman, H. C, et al, 1919, San Bernardino County, Ord district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 808-810. 



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Photo 80. Picocho Mine, Picacho District. Picacho Peak rises in the right background in this 1921 view of the mine, in Imperial County. 
Photo by Ralph Baverstock, from cotlection of Dr. Horace Pttrl(Br. 



Gardner, D. L., 1940, Geology of the Newberry and Ord Mountains, 
Son Bernardino County: California Div. Mines Repl. 36, pp. 257-292. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sompson, R. J., 1940, Economic mineral deposits 
of the Newberry and Ord Mountains, San Bernardino County: Califor- 
nia Div. Mines Rept. 36, pp. 232-240. 

Weber, F. Harold, Jr., 1963, Geology and mineral deposits of the 
Ord Mountain district. Son Bernardino County: California Div. Mines 
and Geology Spec. Rept. 77, 45 pp. 

Ore Grande 

Location. This district is in southwestern San Ber- 
nardino County, in the vicinity of the town of Oro 
Grande, about five miles north of Victorville and 45 
miles north of San Bernardino. The gold mines were 
active during the 1880s, early 1900s and again in the 
1930s. Large amounts of cement are produced here 
now. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. Most of the deposits 
are in the hills northeast of Oro Grande. According to 
Bowen (1954), the area is underlain by schist, quartz- 
ite and limestone of the Oro Grande series (Carbo- 
niferous); dacite, rhyolite, and latite of the Side- 
winder volcanic Series (Triassic (?)); and quartz 
monzonite. The quartz veins are narrow, and the ore 
bodies usually are small and irregular. Most of the ore 
has come from the oxidized zone near the surface, but 
a few high-grade pockets have been found in the veins. 
The ore contains free gold and often abundant sul- 
fides, including p\rite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and 
bornitc. The Carbonate mine has yielded appreciable 
amounts of gold- and silver-bearing lead carbonate. 

Mines. Apex, Branch, Carbonate, Dents Grand- 
view Lode, Gold Bullion, Gold King, Oro Grande I 
and II, Sidewinder, Western States. 



Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., Jr., 1954, Geology and mineral deposits of the Bar- 
stow quadrangle, California: Calif. Div. Mines Bull. 165, pp. 123-134. 

Picacho 

Location. The Picacho district is in southeastern 
Imperial County about 50 miles east of El Centro and 
20 miles north of Yuma, Arizona. The Colorado River 
is on the north side of the district, and the Chocolate 
Mountains extend along the southwest margin. The dis- 
trict was named for Picacho Peak, a prominent land- 
mark in the area. 

History. Spaniards, developing the nearby Cargo 
Muchacho and Potholes districts, probably mined the 
Picacho district as early as 1780. For many years, Mexi- 
cans and Indians mined the area by small-scale dry 
washing methods. Small hand-operated bellows-type 
washers were employed, or winnowing was done with 
blankets. Virtually every dry wash in the region was 
worked in this fashion, and many small tailings piles 
from these operations are still visible. Attempts were 
made to hydraulic the area during the 1890s. 

The Picacho or Picacho Basin mine, the largest 
source of gold in the district, was worked on a large 
scale from 1904 to 1910. The reported output was $2 
million. During this operation the ore was treated in 
a mill near the Colorado River. The mine was sampled 
in the 1930s, but there has been only minor prospect- 
ing in the district since, and the site of the old town 
of Picacho on the river was recently made into a state 
recreation area. 



1970 



QoLD Districts — Mojave Desert 



163 



Geology The central part of the district, which is 
in a shallow basin, is underlain by interbedded granitic 
rocks and mica and hornblende schists. A number of 
diorite dikes may be associated with the gold mineral- 
ization. The ridges surrounding the basin and Picacho 
Peak are composed of andesite, rhyolite, and rhyolite 
tuff. 

Ore Deposits. The ore deposits consist of parallel 
thin gold-bearing stringers in schist. Although the ore 
bodies at the Picacho mine contained only a few dol- 
lars of gold per ton, several were quite large. The last 
ore shoot worked at this mine was 250 feet long and 
160 feet wide. The placer deposits in the various dry 
washes usually were shallow and discontinuous. The 
gold particles were very fine. 

Bibliography 

Crawford, J. J., 1894, California Picacho mine: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 12, p. 238. 

Crawford, J. J., 1896, Picacho Basin: California Min. Bur. Repl. 13, 
p. 343. 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1916, Imperial County, Picacho: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 14, pp. 729-731. 

Potholes 
This district is in the southeast comer of Imperial 
County about 50 miles east of El Centro and 10 miles 
northeast of Yimia, Arizona, near the Colorado River 
and west of the Laguna Dam. Nearly all of the gold 
produced here has come from dry desert placer de- 
posits. The value of the total output is estimated at $2 



million. The district was so named because the gold 
was found in small depressions or pots. 

Small-scale mining began here in 1775-80, when 
California was under Spanish rule, and continued into 
the early 1800s when the state was under Mexican 
rule. The most productive period, apparentiy from 
the 1860s to the early 1890s, saw as many as 500 Mexi- 
cans and Indians working the dry washes. Win- 
nowing was with blankets, and, later, hand-operated 
bellows-type dry washers were employed. Nearly all 
of these were one or two-man operations. When a 
deposit was worked out the miners would move on to 
another one, usually in the same district. These oper- 
ations had mostly ceased by 1900, as the deposits were 
largely exhausted. 

Later, several attempts were made here and in the 
Cargo Muchacho and Chocolate Mountain districts to 
the west to work the dry placers by large-scale meth- 
ods. All of these attempts failed because of high equip- 
ment and operating costs, erratic distribution of gold 
values, rough terrain, and scant moisture, which even 
in desert placers, makes it difficult to separate the 
heavy and light particles. Also, much of the easily 
recoverable gold had already been removed from these 
deposits. 

Bibliography 

Crawford, J. J., 1894, Pot Holes Mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 12, 
p. 242. 

Haley, C. S., 1923, Dry placers — Gold placers of California: Call- 
fornia Min. Bur. Bull. 92, pp. 154-160. 

W. B. Tucker, 1926, Imperial County, Potholes placer: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 22, p. 261. 



-^irra 



;^#?i5ri-a2SB»8«R v.-,?Wr. 




Photo 81. Gold Concentrating Mill, Colorado River. Steam powered this mill on the Arizona side of the Colorado River 
In the early 1900s. Picacho Peak Is in the left background. 



1«4 



GiuFORNiA Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




Photo 82. Yellow Aster Mine, Rand District. The Yellow Aster, in Kern County, yielded more thon $12 million in gold. The 

ground, the town of Rondsburg in the foreground. 



ne ii in the boclc- 



Rand 

Location. The Rand or Randsburg district lies 
athwart the Kern-San Bernardino County line in the 
\acinity of the town of Randsburg, about 40 miles 
northeast of Mojave and 30 miles north of Kramer. 
The western part of the district, in Kern County, has 
been chiefly a source of gold, while the eastern part, in 
San Bernardino County, has been largely a source of 
silver. The Atolia tungsten district is just to the south- 
east (fig. 30). 

History. Although this region was prospected as 
early as the 1860s, it was not until placer gold was 
discovered in 1893 in Goler Wash, in the El Paso 
Mountains 15 miles to the west, that there was any 
mineral production. Numerous short-lived dry-wash- 
ing camps soon sprang up in the entire region. The 
Yellow Aster mine, originally known as the Olympus, 
was located in 1895. Other discoveries were made, 
and the rich ore recovered in these early operations 
led to a gold rush. The district was named for the 
Rand district in South Africa. The ore was first 
shipped out for treatment, but a 100-stamp mill was 
erected at the Yellow Aster mine in 1901 and other 
mills were built soon afterward. During the early days 
some difficulty was encountered in concentrating the 
gold because of the presence of "heavy spar" or 
scheelite. 

Large-scale gold mining continued until 1918. The 
famous and highly productive Kelly or California 
Rand silver mine was discovered in 1919 and was op- 
erated on a major scale through the 1930s. Gold pro- 
duction from the district was substantial in the 1930s 
and early 1940s, and there has been intermittent pros- 
pecting and development work since. The total gold 
output of the district is estimated at more than J20 



million. During the rvvo world wars and the Korean 
War, Atolia was the source of large amounts of tung- 
sten ore. From 1897 until 1933 Randsburg was served 
by a branch of the Santa Fe Railroad, which extended 
north from the main line at Kramer. 

Geology. The principal rocks underlying the dis- 
trict are the Precambrian Rand Schist and the Atolia 
Quartz Monzonite of Mesozoic age. The Rand Schist 
is chiefly biotite schist with smaller amounts of am- 
phibolite and quartzite. To the east are poorly con- 
solidated clays, sandstones, and conglomerates of con- 
tinental origin, which are overlain by andesite at Red 
Mountain. Rhyolite and latite intrusives are in the 
east-central part of the district. 

Ore Deposits. Most of the lode-gold deposits are 
in veins that occur along faults, except at the Yellow 
Aster mine, where the gold is in a series of closely 
spaced veinlets in small fractures. The majority of the 
gold deposits are in the schist, which is more wide- 
spread than the quartz monzonite, and nearly all are 
in an area where the rocks have been colored a pale 
red by iron o.xides (fig. 30). The veins are unoriented 
but usually have a well-defined hanging wall. 

The ore bodies most commonly occur in the vein 
footwalls, usually at or near vein intersections or in 
sheared and brecciated zones. The ore consists of iron 
oxide-stained brecciated and silicified rock containing 
native gold in fine grains and varying amounts of 
sulfides. The sulfides increase at depth, but the gold 
values decrease. Most mining has stopped where un- 
oxidized sulfides were found in the veins, and the 
maximum depth of development is 600 feet. Milling 
ore contains from Vt to A ounce of gold per ton. 
The high-grade ore nearly always occurs in pockets 
near the surface. Most of the placer gold has been 



1970 



Gold Districts — Mojave Desert 



165 







K - 

S-| ^^i||y] Alluviun 



< Iv V V v' 



Andesite, rhyolite, latife 



'" \ ' ^-■T:'^ C°yi sandstone, conglomerate 



KE3 



Atolia Quartz Monzonite 
Rand Schist 



E ^«.. Boundary of rocks colored 

'" pole red by iron oxides. 

Figure 30. Geologic AAop of Rand District, Kern and San Bernardino Counties. After Hulin, 1925, plafe 1, and Troxel and Morton, 1962, 



166 



Cauf(mu«a Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 




1970 



Gold Districts — Mojave Desert 



167 



,4 



pKV' 




Photo 84. Town of Rondsburg, Kern County. This winter view, token in the early 1900s, loolcs east. 



recovered from dry placers at Stringer or in the Rand 
Mountains north of Randsburg. 

Mines. Arizona, Baltic $50,000, Barnett, Beehive, 
Big Dike $200,000, Big Gold $500,000, Black Hawk 
$700,000, Buckboard $500,000, Bully Boy $120,000, 
Butte $2 million, California, Consolidated $50,000, 
Culbert, Gold Crown, Granton, Gunderson, Hawkeye, 
Hercules, King Solomon $500,000, Little Butte $400,- 
000, Lucky Boy $120,000, Merced, Minnehaha $100,- 
000, Mizpah Montana, Monarch Rand, New Deal, 
Operator Divide $600,000, Pestle, Pinmore, Red Bird, 
Santa Ana group $400,000, Sidney $250,000, Snow- 
bird, Sunshine $1.06 million. Windy, Winnie, Yellow 
Aster $12 million. 

Bibliography 

Brown, G. Chester, 1916, Kern County, Randsburg district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 483-484. 

Cooper, C. L., 1936, Mining and Milling methods and costs at the 
Yellow Aster mine: U. S. Bur. Mines, Inf. Circ. 6900, 21 pp. 

Hess, F. L., 1909, Gold mining in the Randsburg quadrangle: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Bull. 430, pp. 23-47. 

Hulin, Carleton D., 1925, Geology and ore deposits of the Randsburg 
quadrangle: California Min. Bur. Bull. 95, 152 pp. 

Mulin, Carleton D., 1934, Dry placers of the Mojave Desert: California 
Div. Mines Rept. 30, pp. 417-426. 

Newman, M. A., 1923, The Rand district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
19, pp. 61-63. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1933, Randsburg district: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines Rept. 29, pp. 285-286. 

Storms, W. H., 1909, Geology of the Yellow Alter mine: Eng. and 
Min. Jour., vol. 87, pp. 1277-1280. 

Troxel, B. W., and Morton, P. K., 1962, Kern County, Rand district: 
California Div. Mines and Geology, County Rept. 1, pp. 47-51. 

Tucker, W. B., 1923, Kern County, Randsburg district: California Min 
Bur. Rept. 19, pp. 165-171. 

Wynn, M. R., 1949, Desert Bonanza, M. W. Samuelson, publisher. 
Culver City, California, 263 pp. 



Shadow Mountains 

Small amounts of gold have been mined in the 
Shadow Mountains in northeastern San Bernardino 
County. Gold was discovered here in 1894, and there 
was some activity for a few years following. There 
are several quartz veins in granitic gneiss that are asso- 
ciated with aplitic dikes. The ore deposits contain na- 
ture gold and varying amounts of copper. 

Bibliography 

Crawford, J. J., Shadow Mountain district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
13, p. 328. 

Stedman 

Location and History. This district, in south-cen- 
tral San Bernardino County about eight miles south of 
Ludlow, has also been known as the Rochester or 
Buckeye mining district. Much of the production has 
been from the Bagdad-Chase or Pacific gold-copper 
mine. This mine has been the source of more than 
$6 million worth of gold. 

The principal periods of mining activity were 1904 
to 1910, when the Badgdad-Chase Mining Company 
shipped gold ore to a cyanide plant at Barstow, and 
1910 to 1916, when Pacific Mines Corporation shipped 
gold-copper ore to Jerome, Arizona. During those 
years, Rochester, the principal town, and the mines 
were served by the Ludlow and Southern Railroad, 
which extended south from the Santa Fe Railroad at 
Ludlow. There was activity again during the 1930's 
and 1940's, and the area has been prospected since. 



168 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 







Photo 83. Pacific Gold-Coppar Mino, Stadmon District. The photo of underground working! in tho mine, in San 
Bernordino County, was taken in the early 1900s. 



Geology and Ore Deposits. The ore-bearing zones 
are in quartz monzonite and rhyolite. The ore consists 
of cemented silicified breccia containing fine free gold 
and various copper minerals, chrysocolla being most 
abundant. The deposit at the Bagdad-Chase mine is 
eight to 20 feet thick and has been mined to a depth 
of 450 feet. Ore mined by Pacific Mines Corporation 
has an average grade of 1.82 percent copper, 0.35 
ounce of gold and 1.5 ounces of silver per ton. 

Bibliography 

Cloudman, H C, 1919, Son Bernardino County, Pacific Mine: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 15, p. 790. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1930, San Bernardino County, 
Pacific Mine: California Div. Mines Rept. 26, pp. 218-219. 

Wright, L A., et of, 1953, San Bernardino County, Bogdod^^hose 
Mine: Coiifornio Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 49, pp. 71-72. 

Trojan 
The Trojan or Providence mining district is in east- 
ern San Bernardino County in the Providence Moun- 
tain. Some gold, copper, silver, and lead have been 
mined here, the main sources having been the Bamett 
and Gold King mines. They were active prior to and 
during World War I. The deposits consist of quartz 
veins in quartz monzonite that contain abundant sul- 
fides. 



Bibliography 

Hewett, 0. F., 1956, Geology and mineral resources of the Ivanpah 
quadrangle: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 275, 172 pp. 

Twentynine Palms 

Location and History. This is an extensive region 
in northern Riverside and southern San Bernardino 
Counties. It includes the gold mines just south of the 
town of Twentynine Palms and the areas to the south 
known as the Lost Horse, Gold Park, Hexie and Pinon 
districts. Gold was first mined here possibly as early 
as 1860, but the most productive period was during 
the 1890s and early 1900s. There was activity here 
again in the 1930s, and there has been some propecting 
since. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The region is under- 
lain chiefly by quartz monzonite and gneiss, with 
smaller amounts of granite, diorite, and gabbro. Also 
there are some pegmatite and diorite dikes. The de- 
posits consist of narrow quartz veins containing free 
gold, pyrite, and often abundant iron oxide. A number 
of small but high-grade pockets have been recovered. 

Mines. Anaheim, Atlanta, Bass, Black Warrior, 
Desert Queen, Gold Coin, Gold Park Cons., Gold 
Point, Golden Bee, Golden Bell, Hexie (Hexahedran), 
Hornet, Lost Horse J 3 50,000, Silver Bell. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Transverse, Peninsular Ranges 



169 



Bibliography 



Merrill, f J. H., 1919, Riverside County, Pinon Mountain diitrictt Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 535-536. 

Rogers, J. J. W., 1961, Igneous and metamorphic rocks of the western 
portion of Joshua Tree National Monument: Californio Div. Mines Spec. 
Rept. 68, 26 pp. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1945, Riverside County, gold: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines Rept. 41, pp. 127-144. 

Vanderbilt 

Location and History. The Vanderbilt or New 
York mining district is in northeastern San Bernardino 
County, in the northeast end of the New York Moun- 
tains. Gold was first discovered here in 1861, but the 
principal periods of mining were 1892-98 and 1934-41. 
The district was so named by people who hoped it 
would prove to be as rich as the Vanderbilt fortune. 
From 1893 until 1923, the district was served by a 
branch of the Santa Fe Railroad that extended north 
from GoflFs and continued northeast to Searchlight, 
Nevada. The chief sources of gold have been the Van- 
derbilt and Gold Bronze mines. Silver, copper and zinc 
also have been produced in this district. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The district is under- 
lain by granitic rocks with smaller amounts of schist, 
gneiss, limestone, and Tertiary volcanic rocks. The ore 



deposits occur largely in granitic rocks and consist of 
quartz veins, often with abundant sulfides. One ore 
body in the Vanderbilt mine was mined to a depth of 
400 feet and had a stoping length of 200 feet. 

Bibliography 

Hewett, D. F., 1956, Geology ond mineral resources of the Ivonpah 
quadrangle, California and Nevada: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 275, 
172 pp. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1943, San Bernardino County, 
Vanderbilt mine: California Div. Mines Rept. 39, p. 464. 

Whipple 

The Whipple Mountains are in the southeast corner 
of San Bernardino County. Gold was probably first 
mined here at an early date, and there was prospecting 
and development work in the area again in the 1930s 
and early 1940s. Native gold and oxidized copper and 
iron minerals occur in narrow quartz veins in gneiss 
and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. 

Mines. Bluff and Western, Ethel Leona, Gold 
Zone, Islander, Nickel Plate, Roulette, Vidal Gold. 

Bibliography 

Wright, L A., Stewart, R. M., Gay, T. E., Jr., end Haienbush, G. C, 
1953, San Bernardino County, gold tabulated list: California Jour. Mines 
and Geol., vol. 49, p. 259. 



TRANSVERSE AND PENINSULAR RANGES PROVINCES 



These two provinces are in southern California. The 
Transverse Ranges are a complex series of nearly west- 
trending mountain ranges and valleys. The province 
includes the San Bernardino, San Gabriel, and Santa 
Ynez Mountains. The most productive gold-quartz 
mines have been in the Frazier Mountain, Acton, and 
Baldwin Lake districts, where the deposits occur in 
schist and granitic rocks. (Sometimes Frazier Mountain 
is considered to be in the Coast Ranges.) Placer gold 
has been recovered in quantity in the San Gabriel 
Mountains. 

The Peninsular Ranges are in Orange, western Riv- 
erside, and San Diego Counties and extend southward 
into Lower California. These ranges are composed 
largely of granitic and related rocks that are part of 
the southern and Lower California batholith and 
smaller amounts of Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamor- 
phic rocks. The principal gold sources have been the 
Julian-Banner, Cuyamaca, and Pinacate districts. The 
primary deposits consist of gold-quartz veins in schist 
or granitic rocks. 

Acton 

Location and History. This district is in central 
Los Angeles County in the general vicinity of the 
town of Acton, 20 miles north of Los Angeles. It also 
includes the area known as the Cedar district. 

Placer gold was mined in the San Gabriel Moun- 
tains here as early as 1834. Lode mining apparently 



began here in the 1870s or 1880s. The district was 
quite productive until about 1900. A number of mines, 
including the Red Rover, Governor, and Monte 
Cristo, were active again during the 1930s and early 
1940s. The district has been intermittently prospected 
since, but there has been very little recorded produc- 
tion. Acton was named for a village in Massachusetts, 
and the Governor mine for California's Governor 
Henry Gage. 

Geology. The deposits consist of gold-quartz veins 
in quartz diorite, diorite, gabbro and schist. The veins 
are in faulted and fractured zones. The ore is free 
milling and contains varying amounts of pyrite. The 
ore bodies commonly consist of small parallel veins 
rather than a single large vein. The Governor mine 
has been developed to an incline depth of 1000 feet. 

Mines. Buena Esperanza, Governor (New York) 
$1.5 million-!-, Helene, Hi-Grade, Red Rover $550,000, 
Puritan. 

Bibliography 

Gay, T. E., Jr., and Hoffman, S. R., 1954, Los Angeles County, Gov- 
ernor, Hi-Grade, and Red Rover mines: California Jour. Mines ond Geol- 
ogy, vol. 50, pp. 497-500. 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1919, Gold— Los Angeles County: Colifornia AAin. 
Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 473-477. 

Ookeshott, G. B., 1958, Geology and mineral deposits of the San 
Fernando quadrangle: California Div. Mines Bull. 172, 147 pp. 

Sampson, R. J., 1937, Gold — Los Angeles County: California Div. 
Mines Rept. 33, pp. 177-196. 



170 



California Division of Mines and Geouxjy 



Bull. 193 



Azusa-Tujunga 

Placer gold has been recovered in a number of can- 
yons and washes along the south flank of the San Ga- 
briel Mountains north and east of Los Angeles. Two 
of the most important sources have been San Ciabricl 
Canvon, near Azusa, and Tujunga Canyon to the 
west. At the present time, some gold is recovered as 
a by-product in several sand and gravel plants in this 
area. The placer gold usually is fine. There are several 
narrow gold-quartz veins just to the north. 

Bibliography 

Gay, T. E., Jr., and Hoffmon, S. R., 1954, Los Angelei County, gold: 
California Jour. Minef and Geology, vol. 50, pp. 493-496. 

Pretton, E. B., 1890, Tujungo mining district: California Min. Bur. 
R.pl. 9, pp. 197-198. 

Baldwin Lake 



Location and History. This district is in the gen- 
eral vicinit)' of and east of Baldwin Lake, which is in 
the northern part of the San Bernardino Mountains. 
Gold \\ as reported to have been mined here by Mexi- 
cans possibly as early as 1800. The Rose mine was 
active in 1860, and there was considerable activity' in 
the district in the 1890s and early 1900s. The Doble 
mine was active again in the 1930s and 1940s. The lake 
\\as named for C. G. Baldwin, first president of Po- 
mona College. 

Geology. Rocks in this district include mica schist, 
quartzite, limestone, and granite. The ore deposits con- 
sist of systems of irregular quartz-calcite veins contain- 
ing free gold, scheelite, and sulfides. The greatest depth 
of development is about 400 feet. There are also 
placer deposits in the district: 

Mines. Lode: Christie, Doble $250,000 to $300,- 
000, Erwin, Gem, Gold Hill, Hollie Ann, Lester, Log 
Cabin, Rose $450,000 to $600,000, Stewart. Placer: 
McClure-Bess, Parker, Rattlesnake Canyon, Vaughn, 
Weaver. 

Bibliography 

Cloudmon, H. C, Huguenin, Emile, and Merrill, F. J. H., 1919, Son 
Bernardino County gold: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 794-797. 

Wright, L A., Stewart, R. M., Gay, T. E., Jr., and Haxenbush, G. C, 
1953, San Bernardino County gold: California Jour. Mines ond Geology, 
vol. 49, pp. 69-86. 

Black Hawk 
Location and History. This district is in south- 
western San Bernardino County about 30 miles north- 
east of San Bernardino on the north side of the San 
Bernardino Mountains. It also has been known as the 
Silver Reef district. The district was organized in 1870. 
An English concern organized the Santa Fe group in 
1890 to work the area on a large scale, but work 
stopped soon afterward and prospecting was minor 
during the early 1900s. The Santa Fe group was re- 
opened in 1921 and operated continuously until 1940. 
In this last operation, the production amounted to 
$300,000. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The area is underlain 
by granitic rocks, mica schist, gneiss, and a limestone 
belt. A mineralized zone known as the Arlington- 



Santa Fe lode occurs in a thrust fault that strikes west 
and dips north. The ore consists of hematite-bearing 
gouge and a limestone breccia. Several ore bodies 
yielded up to one ounce of gold per ton. The ore zones 
arc up to 75 feet thick and 1000 feet long. Much of 
the output in the district has come from the Santa Fe 
groups. 

Bibliography 

Cloudmon, H. C, et of., 1919, San Bernordino County, the Block Hawk 
district: California Mining Bureau Rept. 15, pp. 797-798. 

DeGroot, Henry, 1890, Tlie Block Hawk district: California Mining 
Bureau Rept. 10, pp. 523-525. 

Storms, W. H., 1893, Block Hawk district: California Mining Bureau 
Rept. 11, pp. 364-365. 

Woodford, A. D., and Harris, T. F., 1928, Geology of Block Howk 
Canyon: California Dept. Geol. Sci., Bull., vol. 17, pp. 265-304. 

Wright, I. A., ef o/., 1953, Son Bernordino County, Santo Fe mines: 
California Jour. Mines and Geol., vol. 49, p. 80. 

Boulder Creek 

Location. This is a small gold-mining district in 
central San Diego County about 50 miles east-north- 
east of San Diego and five miles west of Cuyamaca. 
Gold was discovered here about 1885, and minor work 
continued intermittently until the 1930s. 

Geology. The district is underlain by granitic 
rocks and mica schist. A number of narrow north- 
striking quartz veins in shear zones contain free gold 
and varying amounts of sulfides, including pyrite, 
pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and marcasite. Some silver is 
present, and tellurides have been reported. 

Mines. Boulder Creek, Elk, Gold Crown, Last 
Chance, Luck\- Strike, Nona, Penny, Prosperity. 

Bibliography 

Everhort, D. I., 1951, Boulder Creek district: California Div. Mine» 
Bull. 159, pp. 109-111. 

Tucker, W. B., 1925, Son Diego County, gold: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 21, pp. 331-349. 

Weber, F. Harold, Jr., 1963, San Diego County, gold: California Div. 
Mines ond Geology County Rept. 3, pp. 115-167. 

Cu/amaca 

Location. This district is in central San Diego 
County in Cuyamaca Rancho State Park about 50 miles 
east-northeast of San Diego. 

History. The Stonewall mine, the chief source of 
gold in the district, was discovered in 1 870, reportedly 
by either William Skidmore or Charles Hensley. It 
operated under difficulties until 1886, when it came 
under the control of an ex-Govemor of California, 
Robert W. Waterman. The mine was highly produc- 
tive from then until 1895. There has been very little 
mining activity' in the area since. The remaining equip- 
ment and surface plant of the famous old mine have 
been made into an outdoor museum. The mine has 
a total output that has been variously estimated at $2 
million to $3 million. 

Geology. The Stonewall mine area is underlain by 
mica schist, granodiorite, and gneiss. A large body of 
gabbro and related rocks lies immediately to the west. 
Ore was recovered from several north-trending and 
steeply dipping quartz veins. At the Stonewall mine, 
the vein is as much as 20 feet thick. The ore contained 



1970 



Gold Districts — Transverse, Peninsular Ranges 



171 



free gold, abundant sulfides including pyrrhotite and 
pyrite, and occasionally small amounts of gold tel- 
lurides. The famous ore shoot at the Stonewall mine 
had a pitch length of about 300 feet. 

Bibliography 

Creasy, S. C, 1946, Geology ond nickel mineralization of the Julian- 
Cuyamoca area. Son Diego County: Colifornia Div. Mines Rept. 42, pp. 
15-29. 

Everhort, D. L, 1951, Geology of the Cuyomoco Peak quadrangle, 
San Diego County: Colifornia Div. Mines Bull. 157, pp. 51-136. 

Hanks, H. G., 1886, The Stonewall mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 6, 
pt. 1, pp. 89-90. 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1916, San Diego County, Stonewall mine: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 660-662. 

Weber, f. Harold, Jr., 1963, San Diego County, gold: California Div. 
Mines ond Geology County Rept. 3, pp. 115-167. 

Deer Park 

This is a small district in east-central San Diego 
County about si.x miles southeast of Cuyamaca Rancho 
State Park and about 50 miles east of San Diego. Minor 
amounts of gold have been recovered from narrow 
north-trending quartz veins in schist, gneiss, and dio- 
rite. The area also has been prospected for tungsten. 

Bibliography 

Weber, F. Harold, Jr., 1963, San Diego County, gold: California Div. 
Mines and Geology County Rept. 3, pp. 115-167. 

Dulzura 

The Dulzura district is in southern San Diego 
County in the San Ysidro Mountains and about 25 
miles southeast of San Diego. Placer gold was discov- 
ered here in 1828, but the lode deposits were not 
mined until 1 890. The mines were worked sporadically 
from the 1890s until the 1930s. The principal gold 
source has been the Donahoe mine; others include the 
Johnston and Doolittle mines. The district is underlain 
by granitic rock, quartzite, gneiss, and schist. The de- 
posits occur in a northwest-trending shear zone in 
metamorphic rock and consist of broken and crushed 
quartz containing native gold and sometimes abundant 
sulfides. The deposits are shallow and usually are dis- 
continuous. 

Bibliography 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1916, Dulzura district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, 
pp. 664—665. 

Weber, F. Harold, Jr., 1963, San Diego County, gold: California Div. 
Mines and Geology County Rept. 3, pp. 115-167. 

Escondido 

Location. The Escondido district is in western San 
Diego Count)' about 25 miles north of San Diego and 
20 miles southeast of Oceanside. Gold was first mined 
here many years ago by Mexicans who treated rich 
surface ores in arrastras. There was considerable ac- 
tivity here during the 1890s and early 1900s. 

Geology. The area is underlain by granodiorite, 
diorite, and gabbro. A number of quartz veins, rang- 
ing from a few inches to several feet in thickness, con- 
tain free gold and often abundant pyrite. The greatest 
depth that any vein has been developed is 3 50 feet. 

Mines. Cleveland-Pacific $250,000, Oro Fino, 
Cravath, Jolly Boy, Coyote. 



Bibliography 



Merrill, F. J. H., 1916, Escondido: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 
649-651. 

Storms, W. H., 1893, Escondido mines: California Min. Bur. Rept. 11, 
p. 382. 

Weber, F. Harold, Jr., San Diego County, gold: Colifornia Div. Mines 
County Rept. 3, pp. 115-170. 

Frazier Mountain 

Location arid History. This district is in the north- 
east comer of Ventura County in the general vicinity 
of Frazier Mountain. Sometimes it is considered to be 
in the Coast Ranges. The Piru district is just to the 
south, and the towns of Gorman and Fort Tejon are 
to the east. The region was first placer-mined in the 
1840s, and the Frazier Mountain mine was opened in 
1865. This and other lode-gold mines were worked 
fairly steadily until around 1895. Minor prospecting 
and development work has been done in the district 
since; a small production was recorded in 1952. Fort 
Tejon, a U. S. Cavalry post established in 1854 to con- 
trol the marauding Indians, was abandoned in 1864, 
but it has been restored and is now a state historical 
monument. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The region is underlain 
by granite, granodiorite, gneiss, and schist and smaller 
amounts of quartzite and homfels. The gold-quartz 
veins strike north, range from a few inches to five feet 
in thickness, and occur in shear zones that are prin- 
cipally in gneiss and schist. The ore is free milling and 
contains pyrite and small amounts of other sulfides. 
Milling-grade ore commonly averaged 54 ounce of 
gold per ton. Several of the ore bodies had stoping 
lengths of up to 300 feet. Some placer gold was recov- 
ered in the district from the streams and older terrace 
gravels. 

Mines. Bunker Hill, Esperanza, Fairview, Frazier 
$1 million. Gold Dust, Harris, Hess, Maule, Sibert, 
White Mule. 

Bibliography 

Bowers, Stephen, 1888, Gold — Ventura County: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 680-684. 

Carman, Mox F., Jr., 1964, Geology of the Lockwood Volley oreo, 
Kern and Ventura Counties: California Div. Mines and Geology Spec. 
Rept. 81, 62 pp. 

Huguenin, Emile, 1919, Gold — Ventura County: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 15, pp. 759-760. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1932, Gold — Ventura County: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 28, pp. 253-257. 

Holcomb Valley 

Holcomb Valley is on the north side of the San 
Bernardino Mountains just north of Big Bear Lake. 
Placer deposits were discovered here in 1 860 by W. F. 
Holcomb and were extensively worked for a few years 
following, mostly by Mexicans. The area has been in- 
termittently prospected ever since. From 1933 to 1941 
about 200,000 cubic yards were mined by power 
shovel, with an average recovery of 38 cents per yard. 
The gold-bearing material consists of Recent and older 
alluvium. There are a number of small lode-gold pros- 
pects. The gold occurs in thin shear and fracture zones 



172 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull 193 



in granitic rocks or in contacts between carbonate and 
intrusive rocks. 

Bibliography 

Cloudmon. H. C, Huguanin, Emit*, ond Merrill, F. J. H., 1920, Hol- 
comb Volley district: California MIn. Bur. Rapt. 16, pp. 798-799. 

Groy, C. H., Jr., 1960, Placer gold in Geology of the San Bernardino 
AAountaint north of Big Bear lake: California Div. Mines Spec. Rept. 65, 
pp. 51-54. 

Julian-Banner 

Location. This district is in north-central San 
Diego County in the general vicinity of the towns of 
Julian and Banner about 50 miles northeast of San 
Diego. It is at the north end of a belt of gold mineral- 
ization that extends south and southwest through the 
Cuyamaca, Deer Park and Pine Valley districts. 



History. Placer mining may have been first done 
here in the 1840s. The first lode claims, the George 
Washington and Van Wert, were located in 1870, and 
the Julian mining district was organized in that same 
year, named for Mike Julian, the recorder. Many other 
claims were located soon afterward. The greatest pe- 
riod of mining activity was from 1870 to 1880, a peak 
output of $500,000 having been attained in 1874. There 
was another period of activity from 1888, when the 
Gold King and Gold Queen mines were discovered, 
until about 1896. Since then there has been intermit- 
tent exploration and development work, particularly at 
the Golden Chariot and other nearby mines, but very 
little recorded output. The value of the total produc- 
tion from the district is estimated at $5 million. 




Phcto 86. Lytle Creek Mine, Lytle Creek District. This photo of a hydroulic mining operation in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Son Ber- 
nardino County, was token in about 1894. Photo courtesy of Co/if. Stote Library 



1970 



Gold Districts — Tr.\nsverse, Peninsular Ranges 



173 




Hydraulic Mining, Lytle Creek District. The photo was taken in San Bernardino County in the 18905. 
Photo courtesy of Title Insurance and Trust Company of Los Angeles. 



Geology. Most of the important deposits are in or 
adjacent to a one- to two-mile-wide northwest-trend- 
ing belt of mica schist, gneiss, and quartzite of the 
Julian Schist (Triassic' ) . On either side of this belt 
are quartz diorite and schist. The northwest-trending 
Elsinore fault extends through the area. 

Ore Deposits. The ore bodies occur in lenticular 
quartz veins ranging from a few inches to about five 
feet in thickness. The veins strike northwest and dip 
to the northeast. The ore contains native gold and 
varying amounts of auriferous sulfides. Also present 
are small amounts of gold tellurides. Most of the ore 
shoots had stoping lengths of 100 feet or less, although 
one at the Owens mine was 400 feet. Surface ores 
mined during the early days contained considerable 
rich "jewelry" material, but at depth the ore is low 
in grade. The deepest working is 350 feet. 

Mines. C. B. Chieftain, Cincinnati Belle, Eagle 
Elevada, Gardner $200,000, Gold Cross, Gold King, 
Golden Chariot $700,000, Gopher, Helvetia $450,000, 
Hidden Treasure, Kentuck group. Madden group. 
North Hubbard $200,000, Owens $450,000, Ranchita 
$150,000, Ready Relief $500,000, Redman, San Diego, 
Shamrock, Van Wert. 

Bibliography 

Crawford, J. J., 1894, Gold-San Diego County: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 12, pp. 237-243. 

Creasey, S. C, 1946, Geology and nickel mineralization of the Julion- 
Cuyamaca area, California: California Div. Mines Rept. 42, pp. 15-29. 

Donnelly, Maurice, 1934, Geology and mineral deposits of the Julian 
district: California Div. Mines Rept. 30, pp. 331-370. 

Hanks, H. G., 1886, Julian mining district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
6, pt. 1, pp. 82-89. 



Merriam, Richard, and Stewart, R. M., 1958, Geology and mineral 
resources of the Santa Ysabel quadrangle, San Diego County, Call* 
fornia: California Div. Mines Bull. 177, 42 pp. 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1916, San Diego County, Julian district: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 653-660. 

Tucker, W. B., 1925, Gold — San Diego County; California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 21, pp. 331-349. 

Weber, F. Harold, Jr., 1963, San Diego County, gold: California Div. 
Mines and Geology County Rept. 3, pp. 115-167. 

Laguna Mountains 

The Laguna Mountains are in east-central San Diego 
County east of Cuyamaca Rancho State Park and 55 
miles east of San Diego. A considerable number of 
claims have been located here, but the principal gold 
source has been the Noble mine, which yielded more 
than $60,000 between 1888 and 1914. The district was 
prospected during the 1920s and 1930s. The ore de- 
posits consist of narrow north-striking gold-quartz 
veins in shear zones in mica schist, gneiss, and quartz 
diorite. This district is at the southeast end of the same 
belt that includes the Julian-Banner and Cuyamaca dis- 
tricts. 

Bibliography 

Weber, F. Harold, Jr., 1963, San Diego County, gold: California Div. 
Mines and Geology County Rept. 2, pp. 115—167. 

Lytle Creek 

Lytle Creek is in southwestern San Bernardino 
County in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains. Dur- 
ing the 1890s there was an appreciable amount of 
placer mining here. Operations extended from near the 
mouth of the canyon to near its headwaters on the 



174 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



east slope of Mt. San Antonio (Mt. Baldy)- Work was 
done both bv hydraulicking and hand methods. The 
stream was named for Andrew Lytic, a member of the 
Mormon colony that settled in San Bernardino in 1851. 

Menifee 
The Menifee or Auld district is in western Riverside 
County about eight miles south of Perris. The area 
was first mined many years ago, and there has been 
minor prospecting since. The principal gold sources 
have been the Menifee, Lucky Boy, and Mammoth 
mines, none of which has been extensively developed. 
A number of narrow quartz veins contain free gold 
and in places abundant pyrite. Country rock is quartz 
diorite. 

Bibliography 

M.rrill, F. J. H., 1919, Rivertide County, gold: Californio Min. Bur. 
Kept. 19, pp. 533-535. 

Mesa Grande 
The Mesa Grande gold-mining district is in north- 
central San Diego County just northeast of the town 
of Mesa Grande and about .^0 miles northeast of San 
Diego. The deposits were discovered in late 1880s and 
were worked until about 1896. There was minor ac- 
tivity again in the 1930s. The principal source of gold 
has been the Shenandoah mine, which has yielded 
about $50,000. Others include the Black Eagle and 
Mesa Grande mines. The ore deposits consist of nar- 
row northeast-striking gold-quartz veins in schist and 
gneiss. Some of the surface ore was rich. 

Bibliography 

Storms, W. H., 1693, Mew Grcride district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
11, p. 382. 

Weber, F. Harold, Jr., 1963, San Diego County, gold: California Div. 
Mines and Geology County Rept. 3, pp. 115-167. 

Montezuma 



The Montezuma or Rice district is in northeastern 
San Diego County about six miles southeast of War- 
ner's Springs and 12 miles north of Julian. Gold was 
first mined here about 1 896, when a number of claims 
were located. Many of the claims were consolidated 
in about 1910 by the Montezuma Gold Mining Com- 
pany, which worked them for a few years. The dis- 
trict was prospected again in the 1930s. A series of 
northeast-trending gold-quartz veins occur in quartz- 
ite, schist, gneiss, and quartz diorite. The veins range 
from one to four feet in thickness and have been devel- 
oped to depths of about 230 feet. 

Mines. Buckeye, Grubstake, Lucky Strike, Maid of 
Erin, Montezuma group. 

Bibliography 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1916, Son Diego County, Monteiumo or Rice district: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, p. 648. 

Tucker, W. B., 1925, Son Diego County, Montezuma mine: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 21, pp. 342-343. 

Weber, F. Harold, Jr., 1963, San Diego County, gold: California Div. 
Mines and Geology County Rept. 3, pp. 115-167. 

Morongo 
This district is in the eastern San Bernardino Moun- 
tains. There are a number of small lode-gold mines 



and prospects, most of which have been idle for many 
years. The deposits are shallow and consist of narrow 

Suartz veins containing free gold, often abundant sul- 
des, and scheelite. Country rock is granite, limestone, 
and schist. 

Bibliography 

Cloudman, H. C, Huguenin, Emile, and Merrill, F. J. H., 1920, San 
Bernardino County, Morongo district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, p. 
800. 

Mount Boldy 

Location and History. This district is in the San 
Gabriel Mountains in eastern Los Angeles Count>'. It 
is just west of Mount San Antonio, which is also 
known as Mount Baldy or Old Baldy. It is both a lode- 
and placer-mining district. 

Placer mining was originally done here in the San 
Gabriel River in the 1840s, and for several periods 
following that time, this district was quite productive. 
Production was obtained from both the stream beds 
and from terrace gravels, which were mined by hy- 
draulicking. In 1874 it was reported that more than 
$2 million had been produced in the previous 18 years. 
The principal period of lode-gold mining was 1903- 
1908, but there was some acnvit>' again in the 1930s. 
The estimated output from the lode mines is 50,000 
ounces. There has been minor work in recent years, 
chiefly by weekend prospectors. 

Geology. The gold-quartz veins occur in schist 
and gneiss. The ore deposits are rich in places. The 
ore bodies usually are three feet or less in thickness 
and do not extend to any great depth. The oxidized 
zones near the surface yielded the richest ore. 

Mines. Allison $50,000, Baldora, Big Horn $40,- 
000-(-, Eagle, Gold Dollar, Holly, Heaton, Native Son, 
Stanley, Zanteson. 

Bibliography 

Goy, T. E., Jr., and Hoffman, S. R., 1954, Gold — Los Angeles County: 
California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 50, pp. 493-502. 

Sampson, R. J., 1937, Gold — Los Angeles County: California Div. 
Mines Rept. 33, pp. 177-196. 

Tucker, W. B., 1927, Gold— Los Angeles County: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 23, pp. 291-295. 

Mount Gleason 

This district is in the central San Gabriel Moun- 
tains in Los Angeles County, in the general vicinity of 
Mount Gleason about 15 miles due north of Pasadena. 
There are a number of small lode-gold deposits, the 
principal ones having been the Los Padre and Mount 
Gleason mines. The veins are narrow and in places 
contain small amounts of gold and sulfides. All have J 
been idle for many years. The country rock is granite \ 
and schist. 

Bibliography 

Sampson, R. J., 1937, Los Angeles County, Mount Gleason mine: Cali- 
fornio Div. Mines Rept. 33, pp. 187-188. 

Neenach 



This district is in northern Los Angeles County 
about 20 miles west-northwest of Lancaster, in the 
foothills on the south side of Antelope Valley. Gold 
was discovered here in 1899, but the bulk of the pro- 



1970 



Gold Districts — ^Transverse, Peninsular Ranges 



175 




Photo 88. Lode Gold Mine, Los Angeles County. The photo was taken in the San Gabriel Mountains in the early 1900». 



duction of about $200,000 was obtained in 1935-38. 
There has been intermittent mining and development 
work here since. Most of the production has been 
from the Rivera or Rogers-Gentry group of mines. 

The ore deposits occur in a contact zone between 
metasediments and quartz monzonite. The ore bodies 
consist of zones of narrow quartz veins and stringers 
containing free gold and varying amounts of pyrite. 
The oxidized zone yielded material valued as high as 
$60 of gold per ton. 

Bibliography 

Gay, T. E., Jr., and Hoffman, S. R., 1954, Gold — Us Angeles County: 
California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 50, pp. 497-500. 

Weise, J. H., 1950, Geology and mineral resources of the Neenoch 
quadrangle: California Div. Mines Bull. 153, 53 pp. 

Pinacate 

Location and History. The Pinacate district is in 
western Riverside County in the hills between Perns 
and Lake Elsinore. The area was placer-mined in the 
1850s. The Good Hope vein was discovered in 1874, 
and there was considerable mining activity that lasted 
until about 1903. Some work was done in the district 



again in the 1930s, and there has been minor prospect- 
ing since. 

Geology. The area is underlain by shales, slates, 
phyliites, and quartzites of the Santa Ana Formation 
(Triassic) and quartz diorite and granodiorite. Quartz 
latite lies to the west. The ore deposits consist of zones 
of quartz veins and seams with kaolin and gouge, 
which contain native gold and varying amounts of 
sulfides. The sulfide content increases at depth. The 
ore contains Yz to one ounce of gold per ton. The 
Good Hope vein was mined to a depth of 575 feet. 

Mines. Argonaut, Brady, Colton, Good Hope $1 
million to $2 million, Hoag $140,000, Lake View, 
Lucky Strike, Musick, Rosalia, Santa Fe, Santa Rosa, 
Shay, Victor. 

Bibliography 

Dudley, P. H., 1935, Geology of a portion of the Perris block, 
southern California: Californio Div. Mines Rept. 31, pp. 487-515. 

Engel, Rene, 1959, Geology and mineral deposits of the lake Elsinore 
quadrangle: California Div. Mines Bull. 146, 154 pp. 

Merrill, F. J. H., 1919, Riverside County, gold: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 15, pp. 527-535. 

Storms, W. H., 1893, Pinacate district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 11, 
pp. 384-385. 

Tucker, W. B., and Sampson, R. J., 1945, Riverside County, gold: 
California Div. Mines Rept. 41, pp. 127-144. 



176 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Pine Valley 

This district, in south-central San Diego County 
approximately 35 miles east of San Diego, includes the 
Descanso area to the west. A number of small lode- 
gold mines in the area were first worked around 1900, 
and a few have been prospected since. The deposits 
usually consist of a series of parallel quartz veins and 
stringers containing native gold and often abundant 
sulfides. None have been developed to depths of 
greater than 150 feet. The country rock is granodi- 
orite, gneiss, dioritc, and gabbro. The principal proper- 
ties have been the Descanso, Free Coinage, Gold Stand- 
ard, Good Luck, and Oak Canyon mines. 

Bibliography 

Marrill, F. J. H., 1916, San Diego County, Deer Pork, DeKonto, and 
Pine Valley Districh: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 662-664. 

Weber, F. Harold, Jr., 1963, San Diego County, gold: California Div. 
Minet and Geology County Rept. 3, pp. 11S-167. 

Piru 

Location and History. The Piru district is in north- 
eastern Ventura County in the vicinity of the creek 
of the same name. The Frazier Mountain district is just 
to the north, and the town of Gorman on the Ridge 
Route highway is 10 miles to the northeast. Placer min- 
ing was begun here in 1841 by Andrew Castillero, and 
gold from the district was shipped to the U. S. Mint 
in Philadelphia in 1842. Small-scale placer mining con- 
tinued intermittently through the 1 890s, and there was 
some work again in the 1920s and 1930s. Among lode- 
gold mines, the principal operation was the Castac 
mine, which has an estimated total output valued at 
about $160,000. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The placer deposits 
are in and adjacent to the upper part of Piru 
Creek, chiefly in the vicinity of its junction ^v^th 
Lockwood Creek and to the east in the Gold Hill area. 
The gold has been recovered both from Recent stream 
gravels and older terrace deposits on the hills north of 
the Creek. The placer gold often is coarse-grained. 
There are a number of north-striking gold-quartz veins 
that range from a few inches to about 4 feet in thick- 
ness. The veins occur in shear zones and usually in 
granitic gneiss or hornblende schist. The ore contains 
free gold and varying amounts of pyrite. Milling ore 
sometimes averaged Yz ounce of gold per ton. 

Bibliography 

Bowers, Stephan, 1888, Gold — Ventura County: California MIn. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 680-684. 



Huguenin, Emile, 1919, Gold — Ventura County: California MIn. Bur. 
Rept. 15, pp. 759-760. 

Tucker, W. B., 1925, Gold — Ventura County: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 21, pp. 229-232. 

Saugus 
This is the extensive placer-mining region in the 
western San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles County. 
It includes the Newhall, Soledad, Placerita Canyon, 
upper Santa Clara River, Sand Canyon, Pacoima Can- 
yon, and Arrastre Canyon areas and a number of other 
canyons. The area sometimes is known as the San 
Gabriel district and also as the Newhall district. Gold 
was discovered in the district in the early 1800s, the 
exact date and place being somewhat uncertain. It is 
likely that the mission fathers from the San Fernando 
and San Buena Ventura missions worked placers in the 
area during the 1830s. A commemorative plaque in 
Placerita Canyon states that gold was discovered at 
that locality on March 9, 1842. Production figures are 
not available, but it has been estimated that $100,000 
was produced during the first few years. Placer mining 
has been carried on intermittendy ever since, mostly 
by small-scale methods. The gold has been recovered 
from the gravels in the present stream channels and 
from benches and terraces along the banks. Also, there 
are a few minor gold-quartz veins in the area. 

Bibliography 

Gay, T. E., Jr., and Hoffman, S. R., 1954, Mines and mineral depotiti 
of Lot Angeles County, gold: California Jour, of Mines and Geology, 
vol. 50, pp. 493-496. 

Jamison, C. E., Santa Clara River placers, Los Angeles and Ventura 
Counties: Mining and Scientific Press, vol. 100, Mar. 5, 1910, pp. 360- 
361. 

Oakeshott, G. B., 1958, Geology and mineral deposits of the Son 
Fernando quadrangle, Los Angeles County: Calif. Div. Mines Bull. 172, 
pp. 108-109. 

Preston, E. B., 1890, Auriferous gravels of Costoca, Polomos, and San 
Feliciana Canons: Calif. Min. Bur. Rept. 9, pp. 201-203. 

Trabuco 

Small amounts of placer gold have been recovered 
in some of the canyons in the Santa Ana Mountains in 
southeastern Orange County. The most productive 
have been Trabuco, Silverado, and Santiago Canyons. 
The town of Silverado flourished until around 1881. 
Prospecting was first done here many years ago, and 
there was some activity again during the 1930s. A 
number of narrow veins in the region contain varying 
amounts of tin, copper, zinc, and small amounts of 
gold. 

Bibliography 

Larson, E. S., 1951, Crystalline rocks of southwestern California — 
metals: California Div. Mines Bull. 159, pp. 46-^9. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Modoc Plateau 
MODOC PLATEAU PROVINCE 



177 



The only sources of commercial amounts of gold 
in the Modoc Plateau province of northeastern Califor- 
nia have been the Hayden Hill district in north-central 
Lassen County and the Winters district in southwest 
Modoc County. In both districts the gold-bearing veins 
occur in volcanic rocks of Tertiary age. The mines 
at Hayden Hill have yielded several million dollars 
worth of gold, but the Winters district has been the 
source of less than $200,000. A few small gold pros- 
pects occur elsewere in this region. 

Hayden Hill 

Location. The Hayden Hill district is in north- 
western Lassen County about 20 miles southeast of 
Bieber and 65 miles north of Susanville. It is the only 
important gold-mining district in the Modoc Plateau 
geomorphic province. 

History. Gold-bearing veins were discovered here 
in 1869 by J. W. Hayden and S. Lewis. The camp, 
established in 1871, was originally known as Provi- 
dence City, renamed Hayden Hill in 1878. A rush to 
the district lasted until 1883. There was considerable 
activity again from 1903 to 1910, when the Golden 
Eagle mine was worked on a large scale. During the 
1930s the Hayden Hill corporation operated several 
properties on a moderate scale, and there has been 
intermittent prospecting since. The district has a total 
output valued at about $3 million. 

Geology. The district is underlain predominantly 
by nearly flat-lying well-bedded rhyoUte tuffs of Ter- 
tiary age, some silicified and brecciated. Patches of 
Pliocene basalt lie to the east, and extensive beds of 
Miocene pyroclastic rocks lie to the west and north. 

Ore Deposits. Several steeply-dipping veins and 
stringer zones range from one to 25 feet in thickness. 
These deposits consist chiefly of consolidated and ce- 
mented breccia of wall rock; only a small amount of 
quartz is present. The gold occurs in the free state in 
usually small round particles and is commonly associ- 



ated with manganese. Appreciable silver is present but 
practically no sulfides. Nearly all of the ore has been 
recovered from above the 800-foot depth. 

Mines. Brush Hill $400,000, Blue Bell $100,000, 
Evening Star $200,000, Golden Eagle $1,025,000, Hay- 
den Gouge, Hayseed $150,000, Juniper $600,000, 
North Star $20,000, Providence $78,000. 

Bibliography 

Averill, C. B., 1936, Lauen County, Hayden Hill mining distrirt: Cali- 
fornia Div. Mines Rept. 32, pp. 422-424. 

Hanks, H. G., 1888, Lassen County: California Min. Bur. Rept. 8, 
pp. 329-332. 

Hill, James M., 1915, Some Mining Districts in California and Nevada, 
Hayden Hill mining district: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 594 pp. 

Preston, E. B., 1890, Lassen County, gold: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
9, pp. 211-213. 

Preston, E. B., 1893, Hayden Hill mining district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 11, pp. 241-242. 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, Lassen County, Hayden Hill mining district: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 229-235. 

Winters 

Location and History. This district is in south- 
western Modoc County 35 miles west-southwest of 
Alturas and 16 miles north of Adin. The area was 
first prospected for gold in 1890. The vein at the 
Lost Cabin mine was discovered in 1904. Mining ac- 
tivity continued for a few years after that date, and 
there was prospecting here in the 1930s. 

Geology. The district is underlain by andesite, 
andesite porphyry, and basalt of Tertiary age. There 
are several west- and northwest-striking veins that 
contain fine free gold, quartz, brecciated wall rock, 
calcite, and feldspar. The deposits are shallow, none 
of the veins having been developed to a depth of 
greater than 300 feet. 

Mines. Dixie Queen, Lost Cabin (Hess) $150,000, 
Modoc. 

Bibliography 

Tucker, W. B., 1919, Modoc County, Winters mining district: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 251-252. 



178 



California Division of Mines and Gf.olocy 
COAST RANGES PROVINCE 



Bull. 193 



Gold has been recovered in a number of places in 
the Coast Ranges province. The largest source of gold 
has been the beach placers near Orick, Humboldt 
County, which have yielded more than $1 million. 
Other producers have been the Palisade and Silverado 
silver-gold mines, Calistoga district, Napa County; 
the Island Mountain sulfide deposit, Trinity County, 
where gold was recovered as a by-product of copper 
mining; the mercury-gold mines in the Sulphur Creek 
district, Colusa County; the Los Burros district, Mon- 
terey County; the La Panza district, San Luis Obispo 
County; and the ocean beaches near Crescent City, 
Del Norte County. 

Years ago there were small short-lived placer-min- 
ing operations at Jolon, Parkfield, and the Carmel 
River area, Monterey County; Panoche Valley, San 
Benito County; San Francisquito Creek near Palo Alto 
and Coyote Creek, Santa Clara County; Felton and 
Ben Lomond, Santa Cruz County; Mitchell Canyon 
north of Mount Diablo, Contra Costa County; and 
F*utah Creek, Yolo County. Gold has been recovered 
from the ocean beaches at San Francisco, Half Moon 
Bay, Santa Cruz, Point Sal, and Surf. Small amounts 
of b\-product gold were recovered at one time from 
the massive pyrite bodies at Leona Heights, Alameda 
County, and from a few copper prospects. Traces of 
gold have been noted in quicksilver ores in a few other 
districts besides the Sulphur Creek district. 

Calistoga 

Location and History. The Calistoga silver-gold 
district is in northwestern Napa County. Nearly all 
of the production has been from the Palisade mine, 
three miles north of Calistoga, and the Silverado mine, 
three miles farther north on the east flank of Mt. St. 
Helena. The district also has been known as the Sil- 
verado district, from the story Silverado Squatters, by 
Robert Louis Stevenson, who, with his wife, spent the 
summer of 1880 in a cabin at the Silverado mine. 

Both mines were first worked in the 1870s. The 
Silverado mine was opened in 1872, and in 1874 
yielded $93,000 worth of gold and silver. The Pali- 
sade mine, which was much more productive, was 
opened in 1876 and was worked until 1893. It has 
been prospected since. The total output of the Pali- 
sade mine is about $2 million worth of silver and gold, 
with some copper and lead. The total gold production 
for the district is valued at about $500,000. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. Much of the district 
is underlain by volcanic rocks of Tertiary age. In 
places sandstone and shale are present. The ore de- 
posits at the Palisade mine arc in andesite, while those 
at the Silverado arc in silicified rhyolite. 

The deposits are in veins that consist of quartz and 
chalcedony, which often arc brecciated. Some of the 



vein material is porous, and comb structures often are 
common. The gold usually is associated with silver, 
copper, and lead sulfides. The veins are steeply dip- 
ping, as much as 15 feet thick, and have been devel- 
oped to depths of as much as 600 feet. Several high- 
grade pockets have been encountered. 

Bibliography 

Bowen, O. E., 1951, Geologic guidebook to the San Francisco Boy 
counties, Palisade and Silverado mines: California Div. Mines Bull. 154, 
pp. 361-363. 

Bradley, W. W., 1916, Nopo County, gold end silver: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 269-271. 

Davis, F. F., 1968, Nopo County, Polisode mine: Colifornio Jour. 
Mines and Geology, Vol. 44, pp. 183-184. 

Crescent City 

Gold and minor platinum have been recovered from 
black sand deposits on the beaches south of Crescent 
City, Del Norte County, beginning in the 1850s. Most 
of it was recovered by small-scale methods. Several 
large-scale operations were attempted in the 1890s 
and again in 1913-14 but were unsuccessful. As in 
other beach deposits along the ocean, the gold-bear- 
ing black sands were deposited by shore currents and 
wave action. Most of the gold here was probably 
derived from the Smith River, which empties into the 
ocean a few miles to the north, and the Klamath River, 
a few miles to the south. 



Island Mountain 

The Island Mountain sulfide deposit is in the south- 
west comer of Trinit>' County about 90 miles north 
of Ukiah and 30 miles east of Garberville. It was dis- 
covered about 1897 but not worked until 1915, shortly 
after the completion of the nearbv Northwestern Pa- 
cific Railroad. From 1915 until 1930, 132,000 tons of 
ore were mined and yielded 9 million pounds of cop- 
per, 144,000 ounces of silver, and 8,600 ounces of gold. 
An estimated 158,000 tons of ore remain. 

The deposit is a lenticular massive sulfide body 
consisting predominantly of pyrite, chalcopyrite, and 
pyrrhotite, with smaller amounts of magnetite, arseno- 
pyrite, galena, and bomite. The gold and silver are 
present in the sulfides either in solid solution or as 
admixtures. The ore contained an average of 1.09 
ounces of silver and .065 ounces of gold per ton. 
Country rock consists of graywacke, shale, glauco- 
phane schist, and chert. Greenstone and andesite are 
present. 

Bibliography 

Aubury, L. E., 1908, Island Mountain Consolidated Copper Mine: 
California Min. Bur. Bull. 50, pp. 148-150. 

Logan, C. A., 1926, Trinity County, Island Mountain Consolidated 
Copper Mine: California Min. Bur. Rept. 22, pp. 14-15. 

Stinson, M. C, 1957, Geology of the Island Mountain copper mine. 
Trinity County: California Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 53, pp. 9-33. 



1970 



Gold Districts — Coast Ranges 



179 



Jolon 

Jolon is in southern Monterey County near Mis- 
sion San Antonio de Padua. Small amounts of placer 
gold have been recovered from several streams in the 
area, beginning about 1850. In 1877 and 1878 several 
thousand dollars worth of gold were recovered by 
Chinese miners and sold to the local store. There was 
prospecting again around 1914, but apparently noth- 
ing has been done since. The gold was recovered from 
Mission and Ruby Canyons and from gulches in the 
Santa Lucia Mountains just to the west. The gold was 
principally coarse nuggets, some more than % ounce. 

Bibliography 

Hart, E. W., 1966, Monterey County, Jolon Area: California Div. 
Mines and Geology County Report 5, p. 45. 

Woring, C. A., and Bradley, W. W., 1919, Monterey County, Jolon 
District: California Min. Bur. Rept. 16, p. 606. 

La Panza 

Location and History. This is a placer-mining dis- 
trict in east-central San Luis Obispo County about 40 
miles east of the town of San Luis Obispo. The district 
is in the La Panza Mountains and includes the area 
around the site of the town of La Panza east of the 
crest of the mountain range and the Pozo area to the 
west. La Panza means "the paunch" in Spanish. The 
name was derived from the practice of the vacqueros 
at nearby ranchos of using the paunch or other parts 
of slaughtered beef as bait to trap grizzly bears, which 
once were common here. 

Placer mining is believed to have first been done in 
the district in the early 1 800s by Mexicans and Indians. 
Gold was rediscovered in 1878, and there was a rush 
to the area that lasted for several years. In 1888 the 
total output was estimated to have been valued at over 
$100,000. Small-scale mining continued through the 
early 1900s, and there was activity again in the 1930s 
and early 1940s. The total production of the district is 
estimated at $200,000. A few old buildings remain in 
the area. 

Geology. Much of the gold apparently was ob- 
tained from San Juan Creek, which flows northward 
along the east flank of the mountain range, and from 
several of its tributaries. The richest tributaries were 
Navajo, McGinnis, Placer, and Hay Creeks. On the 
west side of the summit some gold was recovered from 
Pozo, Frazer, and Toro Creeks and possibly from the 
upper Salinas River. The placer deposits were small 
and discontinuous, but in places they were rich. The 
gold was fairly coarse and somewhat irregular. It was 
derived from narrow quartz veins in the granitic rocks 
that constitute the central part of the La Panza Moun- 
tains. The east side of the district is underlain by sand- 
stone, shale, and conglomerate. 

■ Bibliography 

Dillon, R. H., 1961, The legends of La Panza: V/eOvays, May 1961, 
pp. 10-12. 

Franke, H. A., Jr., 1935, San Luis Obispo County, gold: California 
Div. Mines Rept. 31, pp. 420-423. 

Loizure, C. McK., 1925, San Luis Obispo County, gold: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 21, pp. 514-515. 

Logan, C. A., 1919, San Luis Obispo County, gold: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 687-688. 



Los Burros 

Location. The Los Burros district is in southwest- 
ern Monterey County in the Santa Lucia Mountains. It 
is about 80 miles south of Monterey and four miles 
east of Cape San Martin. 

History. It is believed that this region was first 
prospected for placer gold and quicksilver in the early 
1850s. Prospecting became so popular here that the 
Los Burros mining district was organized in 1875. In 
1887 lode gold was discovered by W. D. Cruikshank 
at what is now the Buclimo mine. There was consid- 
erable excitement during the following few years, and 
a vast number of claims were located. The principal 
settlement was the town of Manchester or Mansfield, 
which burned down in 1892. 

Another flurry of activity in the early 1900s fol- 
lowed placer gold discoveries in the various forks of 
Willow Creek. Intermittent small-scale prospecting 
and development work have continued in the district 
until the present time. There was a recorded produc- 
tion of several hundred dollars worth of gold in 1953 
and again in 1963. It is believed that 2000 or more 
claims have been located in the district. The value of 
the total output is estimated to be about $150,000. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The Los Burros district 
is underlain by various rocks of the Franciscan For- 
mation (Upper Jurassic). Dark sandstone is most 
abundant and is also the chief host rock of the gold- 
bearing deposits. Also present are chen, shale, serpen- 
tine, and volcanic rocks. These rocks have been 
strongly faulted and sheared and locally metamor- 
phosed. Numerous narrow northeast-trending veins, 
composed of quartz and small amounts of calcite, oc- 
cur in shear and fracture zones and commonly with 
fault gouge. 

Most of the gold has been recovered from small 
lenticular ore shoots in oxidized zones near the surface. 
The sulfides, which consist of fine-grained pyrite and 
small amounts of chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite gen- 
erally, are low in gold content. Most of the placer gold 
has come from Willow Creek, and much of it was 
concentrated as coarse ragged fragments. Very small 
amounts have been found in Alder, Plaskett, and 
Salmon Creeks. 

Mines. Ancona, Buclimo $62,000, Bushnell, Gorda, 
Grizzly, Mariposa, Melville, New York, Plaskett, 
Plaskett (placer) $18,000, Spruce (placer) $22,000. 

Bibliography 

Hart, E. W., 1966, Monterey County, gold: California Div. Mines and 
Geology County Rept. 5, pp. 44-52. 

Hill, J. M., 1923, The Los Burros district: U. S. Geo). Survey Bull. 
735-J, pp. 323-329. 

Irelan, William, Jr., 1888, Los Burros district: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 405-410. 

Loizure, C. McK., 1925, Monterey County, Los Burros district: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 21, pp. 37-41. 

Mining and Scientific Press, vol. 104, pp. 696-698, May 18, 1912. 

Preston, E. B., 1892, Los Burros district: Colifornia Min. Bur. Rept. 
11, pp. 259-262. 

Waring, C. A., and Bradley, W. W., 1919, Monterey County, lo« 
Burros mining district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 15, pp. 602-605. 



180 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Orick 

The Orick or Gold BlufF Beach district is in north- 
western Humboldt Count\- about 50 miles north of 
Eureka and near the town of Orick. A series of gold- 
bearing black sand deposits extend along the ocean 
beach for a distance of about 10 miles. This area was 
first piacer-mincd about 1852, and considerable activ- 
ity continued through the 1880s. There has been inter- 
mittent small-scale placer mining on the beaches since. 
In 1888 it was estimated that the district had >'iclded 
more than $1 million. 

Gold and minor amounts of platinum occur in thin 
but often fairly extensive layers of black sands on the 
beach. Gold also is found in terrace and bench gravels 
in the bluffs immediately east of the beaches. The 
black sands were deposited by the action of shore cur- 
rents and waves, which sort and distribute materials 
broken down from the sea cliffs or washed into the sea 
b\- streams. Some of the gold here may have come 
from the Klamath River, which empties into the ocean 
a few miles to the north. The gold is fine grained and 
ranges from 900 to 950 in fineness. Various types of 
devices have been used here to recover gold, including 
sluices, a special type of long torn used in surf wash- 
ing, amalgamating plates, and mechanical equipment. 

Bibliography 

Hornor, R. R., 1918, Notes on the block sand deposits of southern 
Oregon and northern California: U. S. Bureau Mines Technical Paper 
196, 42 pp. 

Irelon, William, Jr., 1888, Gold Bluff Beach mines: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 8, pp. 216-218. 

Rice, Salem J., 1961, Geologic sketch of the northern Coast Ranges: 
California Div. Mines Mineral Information Service, vol. 14, no. 1. 

Putah Creek 

Placer mining was first done many years ago on 
lower Putah Creek in southwestern Yolo County. At 
one time a small mining camp existed where the creek 
enters the Sacramento Valley from the Coast Range 
near the present town of Winters. Small-scale placer 
mining was done here again in the 1930s, when sev- 
eral thousand dollars worth of gold was produced. 
Also at one time occasional sluicing was done on 
Cache Creek to the north near the town of Capay. 
Several narrow quartz veins containing traces of gold 
were prospected in the Coast Range to the west. 

Bibliography 

Watts, W. L., 1890, Yolo County, gold: California Min. Bur. Rept. 
10, p. 790. 

Red Mountain 

This is a small gold- and copper-bearing district in 
southeastern Mendocino County in the mountains be- 
tween the Russian River on the west and Clear Lake 
on the east. Minor amounts of placer gold were re- 
covered from streams on the west slope of the range 
in the 1880s and 1890s and again in the 1920s and 
1930s. Several narrow gold- and copper-bearing quartz 
veins occur near the summit. The region is underlain 
by sandstone, shale, and serpentine. 



Bibliography 

Crawford, J. J., 1894, Red Mountain Mining District: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 12, p. 177. 

San Francisco Beach 

Gold occurs as fine grains in the black sands on the 
beach at San Francisco. From 1938 to 1950, gold was 
produced at the beach by people who used small 
washing plants. From 1938 to 1941, the recorded pro- 
duction was valued at about $13,000. The most pro- 
ductive part of the beach was south of the Fleish- 
hackcr Zoo, and the gold was most plentiful immedi- 
ately after heavy winter storms. Several narrow gold- 
bearing quartz veins have been found in metamorphic 
rocks in the general area. 

Santa Cruz 

Some gold has been recovered in Santa Cruz 
County. It has been obtained from creeks in the Ben 
Lomond and Felton areas, small quartz veins in gran- 
itic rocks in Ben Lomond Mountain, and from the 
ocean beaches along Monterey Bay. Some time in the 
1850s or 1860s, a large boulder was found in Gold 
Gulch four miles north of Santa Cruz that was re- 
ported to have contained $30,000 to $50,000, accord- 
ing to the various stories. Much work was done in 
the area following this discovery, but only small 
amounts of gold were found. 

The black sand deposits on the beaches between 
Santa Cruz and Pajaro to the southeast were first 
placer-mined in the 1850s. Later, during the 1880s and 
1890s, attempts were made to work these deposits 
with various mechanical devices, but none were com- 
mercially successful. During the depression years of 
the 193()s the beach sands were worked b>' small-scale 
hand methods. These black sand deposits are found 
both on the present beach and older marine terraces 
and low hills in back of the beaches. The black sands 
occur in strata that range from a few inches to sev- 
eral feet in thickness. 

Bibliography 

Huguenin, Emile, and Castello, W. C, 1921, Santo Crui County, 
gold: California Min. Bur. Rept. 17, pp. 235-236. 

Watts, W. I., 1890, Santo Crui County, auriferous sond: Californio 
Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 622-624. 

Silver Queen 

During the 1880s and early 1890s minor quantities 
of gold were recovered from the Silver Queen mine 
in western Sonoma County, five miles north of Caze- 
dero. At this deposit there is a diabase dike up to 30 
feet thick in schist that contains auriferous pyrite. 
Small amounts of placer gold have been recovered in 
the area. 

Bibliography 

Crawford, J. J., 1896, Silver Queen mine: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 13, p. 436. 

Sulphur Creek 
Location a>id History. The Sulphur Creek mer- 
cury-gold district is in the southwest comer of Colusa 
Count>' and in a small adjacent area in Lake County. 



1970 



Gold Districts 



181 



It is about 20 miles southwest of Williams and just 
west of Wilbur Springs. Gold was discovered here in 
1865, but the chief period of production was from 
1880 to 1890, with a minor output since. The total 
gold output of the district is valued at about $109,000. 
The principal source of gold has been the Manzanita 
mine, but some has been recovered from the Cherry 
Hill and Clyde mines. The Manzanita is one of the 
few mercury mines that also has been operated as a 
gold mine. 

Geology and Ore Deposits. The deposits consist 
of narrow seams of siliceous sinter containing incrus- 
tations of free gold in the oxidized zone and auriferous 
pyrite at depth. Usually the gold is associated with 
fine-grained cinnabar but not always. Some placer 
gold has also been recovered here. Native sulfur and 
bituminous matter are present. Country rock is sand- 
stone and shale with several bands of serpentine. Hot 
spring action apparently has been important in the 
formation of the mineral deposits in the district; as- 
cending solfatoric waters invaded the sandstone and 
shale and leached out the more soluble material. Gold, 
cinnabar, sulfur compounds, and siliceous sinter were 
then deposited. 



Bibliography 

Becker, G. f., 1888, Quicksilver deposits of the Pacific slope: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Mon. 13, pp. 367-368. 

Bradley, W. W., 1918, Quicksilver resources of California, Man- 
zanita mine: California Min. Bur. Bull. 78, pp. 38-39. 

Logan, C. A., 1929, Colusa County, Sulphur Creek district: California 
Div. Mines and Mining Rept. 25, pp. 288-290. 

Surf-Point Sal 

At one time appreciable quantities of gold were 
recovered from the ocean beaches in western Santa 
Barbara County. The most productive year for which 
there is a record was 1889, when the county's gold 
output was valued at $41,000, much of which may 
have come from these beaches. Gold and very small 
amounts of platinum occur as fine grains in thin lay- 
ers of black sands. These deposits are more or less 
continuous between Point Arguello on the south and 
the mouth of the Santa Maria River on the north, 
but the most productive ones have been at Surf and 
Point Sal. Much of this area now is part of Vanden- 
berg Air Force Base. 

Bibliography 

Irelon, William, Jr., 1888, Santa Barbara County, gold: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 8, p. 537. 

Tucker, W. B., 1925, Santo Barbara County, gold: California Min. 
Bur. Rept. 21, pp. 541-542. 



GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 



The following is a selected general bibliography on gold in Cali- 
fornia. The total number of publications that have been written on 
gold in California is very large. 

Allen, W. W., and Avery, R. B., 1893, California gold book: Son 
Francisco and Chicago. 

Ailing, M. N., 1922, Ancient river-bed deposits in California: Engi- 
neering and Min. Jour., vol. 1, Sept. 1922, pp. 134-140, and Oct. 
1922, pp. 161-166. 

Aubury, L. E., Winston, W. B., and Jonin, Charles, 1910, Gold 
dredging in California: California Min. Bur. Bull. 57, 305 pp. 

Averill, C. V., et al., 1946, Placer mining for gold in California: 
California Div. Mines Bull. 135, 377 pp. 

Bell, James E., 1956, Gold: U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 556, pp. 315-326. 

Bowie, A. J., Jr., 1905, A practical treatise on hydraulic mining in 
California: D. Von Nostrond Co., New York, 313 pp. 

Browne, J. Ross, 1868, Mineral resources of the states and terri- 
tories west of the Rocky Mountains: U. S. Government. 

Browne, J. Ross, and Taylor, J. W., 1867, Mineral resources of 
the states and territories west of the Rocky Mountains: U. S. Gov- 
ernment. 

California Miners' Association, 1899, California's mines and min- 
erals, San Francisco, 445 pp. 

Clark, Lorin D., 1960, Foothills fault system, western Sierra Nevada: 
Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 71, pp. 483-496. 

Clark, William B., 1957, Gold: in California Div. Mines Bull. 176, 
pp. 215-226. 

Cloos, Ernst, 1935, Mother Lode and Sierra Nevada botholith: Jour. 
Geology, vol. 43, pp. 225-249. 

Del Mar, Alexander, 1902, A history of precious metals: New 
York, 464 pp. 

Del Mar, Alexander, 1911, Gold nuggets of California: Min. & Sci. 
Press, vol. 102, p. 629. 

Doolittle, J. E., 1905, Gold dredging in California: California Min. 
Bur. Bull. 36, 120 pp. 

Dunn, R. L., 1888, Drift mining in California: California Min. Bur. 
Rept. 8, pp. 736-770. 

Dunn, R. L., 1890, River mining: California Min. Bur. Rept. 9, pp. 
262-281. 



Dunn, R. L., 1894, Auriferous conglomerate in California: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 12, pp. 459-471. 

Edmon, J. A., 1907, Auriferous block sands of California: California 
Min. Bur. Bull. 45, 19 pp. 

Emmons, W. H., 1937, Gold deposits of the world: McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., Inc., New York, 562 pp. 

Fairbanks, H. W., 1890, Geology of the Mother Lode region: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 22-90. 

Gardner, D. L., 1954, Gold and silver mining districts in the Mojove 
Desert region of southern California: California Div. Mines Bulletin 
170, Chap. 8, no. 6, pp. 51-58. 

Gilbert, G. K., 1917, Hydraulic-mining debris in the Sierra Nevada: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 105, 154 pp. 

Goodwin, J. Grant, 1957, Lead and zinc in California: California 
Jour. Mines and Geology, vol. 53, pp. 353—724. 

Goodyear, W. A., The auriferous gravels of California: Min. & Sci. 
Press, vol. 39, Sept. 20, 1879, pp. 182-183. 

Haley, C. S., 1923, Gold placers of California: California Min. Bur. 
Bull. 92, 167 pp. 

Hammond, John Hoys, 1890, The auriferous gravels of California: 
California Min. Bur. Rept 9, pp. 105-138. 

Hammond, John Hays, 1890, Mining of gold ores in California: 
California Min. Bur. Rept. 10, pp. 852-882. 

Hanks, H. G., 1882, Placer, hydraulic, and drift mining: California 
Min. Bur. Rept. 2, pp. 28-192. 

Henderson, C. W., 1922, The history and influence of mining in 
the western United States: Ore deposits of the western states, Lindgren 
volume. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs., New York, pp. 730-784. 

Hill, J. M., 1912, The mining districts of the western United Stales, 
with a geologic introduction by Woldemar Lindgren: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Bull. 507, pp. 17-20, 77-133. 

Hill, J. M., 1915, Some mining districts in northeastern California 
and northwestern Nevada: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 594, pp. 133-141. 

Hill, J. M., 1929, Historical summary of gold, silver, copper, lead, 
and zinc produced in California, 1848 to 1926: U. S. Bur. Mines Econ. 
Paper 3, 22 pp. 

Hulin, C. D., 1933, Geological relations of ore deposits in Cali- 
fornio: Ore deposits of the western slates, Lindgren volume, A.I.M.E., 
New York, pp. 240-253. 



182 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Lode region: U. 

Julihn, C. E., 

region, II: U. S. 



Irwin, William P., 1960, Geologic reconnoitsance of the northern 
Cooit Range! and Klamath Mountoini, California: California DW. 
Minet Bull. 179, 80 pp. 

Janin, Chorlei, 191B, Gold dredging in the United Statet: U. S. 
Bur. Mines Bull. 127, 226 pp. 

Jormon, Arthur, 1927, Report of the Hydraulic Mining Commiuion 
upon the feasibility of the resumption of hydraulic mining in Califor- 
nia: California Min. Bur. Rept. 23, pp. 44-116. 

Jenkins, Olof P., 1935, New technique applicable to the study of 
placers: California Div. Mines Rept. 31, pp. 193-210. 

Jenkins, Otaf P., et ol, 1948, Geologic guidebook along Highway 
49 — Sierron gold belt — the Mother Lode Country: California Div. 
Mines Bull. 141, 164 pp. 

Joslin, G. A., 1945, Gold: California Div. Mines Bull. 130, pp. 122- 
151. 

Julihn, C. E., and Horton, F. W., 1938, Mines of the southern Mother 
S. Bur. Mines Bull. 413, 140 pp. 
and Horton, F. W., 1940, Mines of the Mother Lode 
Bur. Mines Bull. 424, 179 pp. 

Knopf, Adolph, 1929, the Mother Lode system of California: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 157, 88 pp. 

Koschmonn, A. H., and Bergendahl, M. H., 1962, Gold in the United 
States: U. S. Geological Survey Mineral Investigations Resources Map 
MR-24. 

Koschmonn, A. H., and Bergendahl, M. H., 1968, Principal gold- 
producing districts of the United States: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 
610, pp. 53-84. 

Lindgren, Watdemor, 1894o, Sacramento folio, California: U. S. 
Geological Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 5, 3 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1894b, Morysville folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 17, 2 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1896a, Nevada City special folio, California: 
U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 29, 7 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1B96b, Pyramid Peak folio, California: U. S. 
Geol. Survey Geol. Atlos of the U. S., folio 31, 8 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1896c, Characteristic features of the California 
gold-quartz veins: Bull. Geol. Soc. America, pp. 221—240. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1897, Truckee folio, Colifornio: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 39, 8 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1900, Colfax folio, California: U. S. Geol. 
Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 66, 10 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1909, Resources of the United States in gold, 
silver, copper, lead, and zinc: U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 394, pp. 114-156. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1911, The Tertiary gravels of the Sierra 
Nevada of California: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Poper 73, 226 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, 1912, The mining districts of the western 
United States: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 507, pp. 5-13, 17-20. 

Lindgren, Waldemar, 1933, Gold-quortz veins of the Sierra Nevada: 
Mineral Deposits, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, pp. 616—627. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1894, Placerville folio, 
Colifornio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 3, 3 pp. 

Lindgren, Woldemor, and Turner, H. W., 1895, Smartsville folio, 
California: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 18, 6 pp. 

Logon, C. A., 1919, Platinum and allied metals in California: Cali- 
fornia Min. Bur. Bull. 85, 120 pp. 

Logon, C. A., 1935, Mother Lode gold belt of California: California 
Div. Mines Bull. 108, 240 pp. 



Logon, C. A., 1950, Gold: Colifornio Div. Mines Bull. 156, pp. 
503-514. 

Merwin, Roland W., 1968, Gold resources in the Tertiory grovels 
of California: U. S. Bur. Mines Technical Progress Report, 14 pp. 

Mining ond Scientific Press, 1860-1921, various entries, vols. 1-125. 

Moore, Lymon, 1968, Gold resources of the Mother Lode belt, Cali- 
fornia: U. S. Bur. Mines Technical Progress Report 5, Heavy MetoU 
Program, 22 pp. 

Paul, Rodman W., 1947, California gold, the beginning of mining 
in the for west. Harvard Univ. Press, Combridge, 3i80 pp. 

Peterson, D. W., Yeend, W. E., Oliver, H. W., and Mottick, R. E., 
1968, Tertiary gold-bearing channel gravel in northern Nevada 
County, Colifornio: U. S. Geol. Survey Circulor 566, 22 pp. 

Preston, E. B., 1895, California gold mill proctices: California Min. 
Bur. Bull. 6, 85 pp. 

Ronsome, F. L., 1900, AAother Lode district folio: U. S. Geol. Survey 
Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 63, 11 pp. 

Roymond, R. W., 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872, 1874, 1875, and 1876, 
Mineral resources of the states ond territories west of the Rocky 
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Reid, John A., The east country of the Mother Lode: Min. and 
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Rickord, Thomas A., 1932, A history of American Mining: D. Apple- 
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Ridgewoy, R. H., 1929, Summarized dote of gold production: U. S. 
Bur. Mines, Econ. Paper 6, 63 pp. 

Risdon Iron Works, 1885, Gold mines and mining in Colifornio: 
George Spaulding ond Co., San Francisco, 349 pp. 

Ryon, J. P., 1960, Gold: U. S. Bur. Mines Bull. 585, pp. 347-356. 

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U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U. S., folio 51, 8 pp. 

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13, pp. 64-65. 



LIST OF DISTRICTS BY COUNTIES 



ALPINE 



Hope Valley 
Mogul 
Monitor 
Silver King 
Silver Mountain 

A/AADOR 

Comanche (also in Calaveras and Son 

Joaquin Counties) 
Fiddletown 
Forest Home 
Irish Hill 

Jockson-Plymouth 
Lancha Plana 



Pine Grove 

Volcano 

West Point (also in Calaveras County) 

White Oak Flat 



Bangor 
Bidwell Bar 
Butte Creek 
Cherokee 
Clipper Mills 
Con cow 
For bestow n 
Honcut 
Inskip 
Kimshew 
Mogalio 



BUHE 



Morris Ravine 
Oroville 
Wyandotte 
Yankee Hill 

CALAVERAS 

Alto 

Angels Camp 

Blue Mountain 

Calaveritos 

Comonche (also in Amador and Son 

Joaquin Counties) 
Campo Seco 
Corson Hill 

Collierville (also in Tuolumne County) 
Esmeraldo 
Fourth Crossing 



1970 

Glencoe 

Hodson 

Jenny lind 

Jesus Maria 

Mokelumne Hill 

Mountain Ranch 

Murphys 

Paloma 

Railroad Flat 

Rich Gulch 

San Andreas 

Sheep Ranch 

Skull Flat 

Vallecilo 

Valley Springs 

West Point (also in Amador County) 



COLUSA 



Sulphur Creek 



DEL NORTE 

Crescent City 
Monumental 
Smith River 

EL DORADO 

Coloma 

Deer Creek 

Deer Valley 

El Dorado 

Fairplay 

Garden Valley 

Georgetown 

Greenwood 

Grixzly Flat 

Hazel Valley 

Indian Diggings 

Kelsey 

logtown 

Nashville 

Nevrtown 

Omo Ranch 

Pacific 

Pilot Hill 

Placerville 

Rattlesnake Bar 

Shingle Springs 

Slate Mountain 

Spanish Dry Diggings 

Spanish Flat 

Volcanoville 



FRESNO 



Big Creek 
Big Dry Creek 
Friant 
Mill Creek 
Sycamore Flat 
Temperance Flat 

HUMBOLDT 

Hoopa 
Orick 
Orleans 
Weitchpec 
Willow Creek 

IMPERIAL 

Cargo Muchacho 

Chocolate Mountains 

Mesquite 

Picocho 

Potholes 

Tumco 



INYO 



Argus 
Ballarot 
Beveridge 
Big Pine 



Gold Districts 

Bishop Creek 

Chloride Cliff 

Echo Canyon 

Fish Springs 

Grapevine 

Harrisburg 

Kearsarge 

Lee's Camp 

Modoc 

Russ 

Skidoo 

Slate Range (also in San Bernardino 

County) 
South Park 
Tibbetts 
Tucki Mountain 
Ubehebe 
Wildrose 
Willow 

KERN 

Clear Creek 

Cove 

El Paso Mountains 

Erskine Creek 

Garlock 

Greenhorn Mountain 

Kern River 

Keyseville 

Long Tom 

loraine 

Mojave 

Piute Mountains 

Rodemacher 

Rand (also in San Bernardino County) 

Rosamond 

Tehachapi 

White River (also in Tulare County) 

LASSEN 

Diamond Mountain 
Hoyden Hill 
Honey Lake 
Mountain Meadows 

LOS ANGELES 

Acton 
Azuso 

Mount Boldy 
Mount Gleason 
Neenach 
Saugu$ 

/AADERA 

Chowchilla 
Coarsegold 
Fine Gold 
Fresno River 
Grub Gulch 
Hildreth 
Potter Ridge 
Quartz Mountain 

AAARIPOSA 

Bagby 

Buckeye 

Cathey 

Cot Town 

Clearinghouse 

Colorado 

Coulterville 

Dog Town 

Granite Springs 

Gravel Range (also in Tuolumne County) 

Greely Hill 

Hite Cove 

Hornitos 

Jerseydale 

Kinsley 



183 



Mariposa 

Mormon Bar 

Mount Bullion 

Peiion Blanco (also in Tuolumne County) 

Whitlock 



MENDOCINO 



Red Mountain 



Snelling 



High Grade 
Winters 



MERCED 



MODOC 



MONO 

Bodie 

Chidago 

Clover Patch 

Homer 

Jordan 

Keith 

Mammoth 

Masonic 

Patterson 

Tioga (also in Tuolumne County) 

West Walker 

White Mountains 



Jolon 

Los Burros 



Colistoga 



MONTEREY 



NAPA 



NEVADA 

Badger Hill 

Blue Tent 

Emigrant Gap (also in Placer County) 

English Mountain 

French Corral 

Groniteville 

Gross Valley 

Lowell Hill 

Meadow Lake 

Moore's Flat 

Nevada City 

North Bloomfield 

North Columbia 

North San Juan 

Rough-and-Reody 

Scotts Flat 

Smartsville (also in Yuba County) 

Washington 

You Bet 



ORANGE 



Trabuco 



PLACER 

Blue Canyon 

Canada Hill 

Colfax 

Damascus 

Duncan Peak 

Dutch Flat 

Emigrant Gap (also in Nevada County) 

Forest Hill 

Gold Hill 

Gold Run 

Iowa Hill 

Lost Chance 

Lincoln 

Michigan Bluff 



184 



California Division of Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Ophir 
Panryn 

Rocklin 
Tohoe 

Todd VolUy 
WatlvilU 
Wheatland 
Yank** Jims 



PLUMAS 



Blue Not* Mountain 
Butte Valley 
Cretcent Milli 
Genes see 
Granite Basin 
Johnsvilje 
La Porte 
Lights Canyon 
Meadow Valley 
Moorevilie Ridge 
Quincy 
Rich Bar 
Sawpit Flat 
Spring Garden 
Toylorsville 
Virgilio 

RIVERSIDE 

Arica 

Bendigo 
Chuckwalla 

Dale (also in Son Bernardino County) 
Dos PalmOS 
Eagle Mountains 
Gold Pork 
Hexie 
Lost Horse 
Menifee 

Mule Mountains 
Pinocote 
Pinon 

Twenty Nine Palms (also in San 
Bernardino County) 

SACRAMENTO 

Folsom 
Michigan Bar 

SAN BERNARDINO 

Alvord 

Arrowhead 

Baldwin Lake 

Black Hawk 

Clark 

Coolgardie 

Dote (also in Riverside County) 

Emerson Lak* 

Gold Reef 

Goldstone 

Grapevine 

Hockberry Mountain 

Halloran Springs 

Hort 

Holcomb 

Ibex 

Ivonpoh 

Lytle Creek 

Morongo 

Old Dad 

Old Woman 

Ord 

Oro Grande 

Rand (also in Kern County) 

Shadow Mountains 

Slate Range (also in Inyo County) 

Spongier 

Stedman 



Trojan 

Twenty Nine Palnu 

Vonderbilt 

Whipple 

SAN DIEGO 

Bonner 

Boulder Creek 

Cuyamoco 

Deer Pork 

Dulzuro 

Escondido 

Julian 

Laguno Mountains 

Mesa Grande 

Montezuma 

Pine Valley 

SAN FRANCISCO 

Son Francisco Beach 

SAN JOAQUIN 

Comonch* (also in Calaveras County) 

SAN LUIS OBISPO 



Point Sol 
Surf 



SANTA BARBARA 



SANTA CRUZ 



SHASTA 



Backbone 

Centerville 

Clear Creek 

Cottonwood 

Deadwood 

Dog Creek 

French Gulch 

Gos Point 

Horrison Gulch 

Igo 

Old Diggings 

One 

Platina 

Redding 

Shasta 

Whiskeytown 



SIERRA 



Alleghany 
American Hill 
Brandy City 
Church Meadows 
Downieville 
Eureka 
Forest 
Furnier 
Gibsonville 
Gold Valley 
Goodyear's Bar 
Pike 

Poker Flat 
Port Wine 
Poverty Hill 
Sierra City 



SISKIYOU 



Deadwood 

Dillon Cr**k 

Forks of Salmon 

Gozoll* 

Gottvill* 

Greenhorn 

Hamburg 

Happy Camp 

Hornbrook 

Humbug 

Indian Creek 

Knownothing 

Liborty 

Oak Bar 

Oro Fino 

Paradise 

Sawyers Bar 

Scott Bar 

Seiod 

Snowden 

Somesbor 

Yreko 



SONOA^A 



STANISLAUS 



Knight's Ferry 
La Grange 



Jelly Ferry 
Polk Springs 



TEHA/AA 



Callahan 
Cecilville 
Cottoge Grove 
Cottonwood 



TRINITY 

Big Bar 
Bully Choop 
Burnt Ranch 
Canyon Creek 
Corrville 
Coffee Creek 
Dedrick 
Denny 
Dodge 
Doriesko 
Douglas City 
East Fork 
Eastman Gulch 
Hayfork 
Helena 
Junction City 
Lewiston 
Minorsville 
New River 
Solyer 
Stuart Fork 
Trinity Center 
Weaverville 

TULARE 

Globe 

Mineral King 

White River (also in Kern County) 

TUOLUMNE 

American Camp 

Big Oak Flat 

Buchanan 

Chinese Camp 

Collierville (also in Calaveras County) 

Columbia 

Confidence 

Garrotte 

Granite Springs (also 

County) 
Grovel Range (also ir 
Hardin Flat 
Jacksonville 



n Mariposa 
Mariposa County) 



1970 

Jamestown 

Penon Blanco (also in Mariposa County) 

Sonora 

Soulsb/ville 

Tioga (also in Mono County) 

Tuolumne 

Tuftlefown 



Gold Districts 
VENTURA 



Frazier Mountain 



YOLO 



185 



YUBA 

Browns Valley 

Brownsville 

Camptonville 

Dobbins 

Hammonton 

Smartsville (also in Nevada County) 



INDEX OF ALTERNATE DISTRICT NAMES 



Many districts were known by more than one name. Also, the oulhor 
sometimes found it convenient to indude in a single district description 
information on areas within that district that. In the post, have been 
themselves loosely called "districts." The body of the text occasionally 
gives an alternate district name and points out those areas that have 
been included under a single district heading. However, the table of 
contents, the district headings and the illustrations refer to a single 
district by the some name, for the sake of consistency. 



District and other place nomes not found in the table of contents 
appear below. The alternate name preferred in this report appears in 
ilalics, followed by the province abbreviation and the page number. 
The provinces and abbreviations ore: Sierra Nevada, SN; Klamath 
Mountains, KM; Basin Ranges, BR; Mojave Desert, MD; Transverse and 
Peninsular Ranges, TPR; Modoc Plateau, MP, and Coast Ranges, CR. 



Alto, Dutch flat, SN, 45. 
Altoville, Angeli Camp, SN, 25. 
Amador City, Jackson-Plymoufh, SN, 69. 
Amalie, loroine, SN, 87. 
Auld, Menifee, TPR, 174. 

Baker Ranch, Michigan Bluff, SN, 90. 

Banner, Jufion-Sonner TPR, 172. 

Both, Fores* Hill, SN, 49. 

Bear Valley, Bogby, SN, 29. 

Ben lomond, Santo Cruz, CR, 180. 

Big Bar, Trinity River, KM 143. 

Big Bend, ranlcee Hill, SN, 131. 

Birchville, French Corral, SN, 50. 

Black Bear, tiberfy, KM, 139. 

Blue Canyon, Emigrant Gap, SN, 45. 

Blue Nose Mountain, Sawpit Flat, SN, 1 14 

Brown's Flat, Columbia, SN, 39. 

Buchanan, Soulsbyviffe, SN, 121. 

Buckeye, Granite Basin, SN, 52. This district 
is in Butte County. Another Buckeye District, 
in Mariposa County, is listed as such in 
the text. 

Buckeye, Old Diggings, KM, 140. 

Buckeye Hill, Scott's Flat, SN ,114. 

Bull Creek, Kinsley, SN, 85. 

Bunker Hill, GibsonviHe, SN, 51. 

Burnt Ranch, Trinity River, KM, 143. 

BuHerfly Valley, Quincy, SN, 111. 

Byrd's Valley, Michigon Bluff, SN, 90. 

Canyon Creek, Dedrick-Conyon Creek, KAA, 
135. 

Carrville, Trinity River, KM, 143. 

Cave City, Mountain Ranch, SN, 93. 

Centerville, Butte Creek, SN, 32. 

Centerville, Redding, KM, 140. 

Chidago, Clover Patch, BR, 148. 

Chili Gulch, Mokelumne Hill, SN, 91. 

China Flat, Downieville, SN, 44. 

Chip's Flat, AHeghony, SN, 19. 

Church Meadows, Sierra City, SN, 117. 

Clear Creek, Redding, KM, 140. 

Clements, Comanche-Loncha Plana, SN, 33. 

Coffee Creek, Trinity River, KM, 143. 

Colorado, Whitlock, SN, 131. 

Columbia Hill, North Columbia, SN, 101. 

Concow, Yankee Hill, SN, 131. 

Cottage Grove, Klamath River, KM, 139. 

Cottonwood, Klamath River, KM, 139. Tliis 
district is in Siskiyou County. Another Cot- 
tonwood district, in Shasta County, Is listed 
as such in the text. 

Craig's Flat, Eureko, SN, 46. 

Craycroft, Downi'evilfe, SN, 44. 



Dead Horse Flat, Vollecito, SN, 126. 

Deadwood, Last Chance, SN, 86, or Poker 
Flat, SN, 108. 

Deadwood, French Gulch, KM, 136. This dis- 
trict is in Trinity County. Another Dead- 
wood district, in Siskiyou County, is listed 
OS such in the text. 

Denny, New River-Denny, KM, 139. 

Derbec, North Bloomfield, SN, 101. 

De Sabia, Magalia, SN, 88. 

Descanso, Pine Valley, TPR, 176. 

Diamond Springs, Placerville, SN, 107. 

Dodge, Trinity River, KM, 143. 

Dogtown, Kinsley, SN, 85. 

Dogtown Diggings, Jordan, SN, 83. 

Douglas City, Trinity River, KM, 143. 

Douglas Flat, Vollecito, SN, 126. 

Drytown, Jackson-Plymouth, SN, 69. 

Duncan Hill, Ophir, SN, 102. 

Eost Fork, Helena-East Fork, KM, 138. 
Eastman Gulch, Trinity River, KM, 143. 
Echo Canyon, tee's Camp-Echo Canyon, BR, 

150. 
Edmonton, Meadow Valley, SN, 89. 
Elizabethtown, Quincy, SN, 111. 
Esmeralda, Murphys, SN, 96. 
Eureka, Graniteville, SN, 53. This district is 

in Nevada County. Another Eureka district, 

in Sierra County, is listed as such in the 

text. 

Feather River, Orovil/e, SN, 103. 

Felix, Hodson, SN, 64. 

Fool's Paradise, Klamath River, KM, 139. 

Forest, Alleghany, SN, 19. 

Forest Home, Irish Hill, SN, 69. 

Forks of BuHe, Magalia, SN, 88. 

Forks of Salmon, Salmon River, KM, 141. 

Fourth Crossing, Son Andreas, SN, 114. 

Furnier, Sierra City, SN, 117. 

Garden Valley, Kelsey, SN, 84 
Garlock, El Paso Mountains, BR, 149. 
Garrote, Big Ook Flat, SN, 30. 
Gas Point, Cottonwood, KM, 134. 
Gaston, Gronitevilfe, SN, 53. 
Gentry Gulch, Kinsley, SN, 85. 
Georgia Slide, Georgetown, SN, 51. 
Glencoe, West Point, SN, 129. 
Gold Bluff Beach, Crick, CR, 180. 
Golden Summit, Kimshew, SN, 85. 
Gold Hill, Ophir, SN, 102. 
Gold Park, Twentynine Palms. MD, 168. 



Gold Valley, Sierra City, SN, 117. 
Goler, El Paso Mountains, BR, 149. 
Goodyeor's Bar, Alleghany, SN, 19. 
Gottville, Klamath River, KM, 139. 
Gross Flat, Port Wine, SN, 111. 
Greeley Hill, Kinsley, SN, 85. 
Greenhorn, Klamath River, KM, 139. 
Greenville, Crescent Mills, SN, 42. 
Grovelond, Big Ook Flat, SN, 30. 

Hamburg, Klamath River, KM, 139. 
Honsonville, Brownsvitle, SN, 31. 
Happy Camp, Klamath River, KM, 139. 
Horrison Flat, Sawpit Flat, SN, 114. 
Havilah, Clear Creek, SN, 37. 
Hayfork, Trinity River, KM, 143. 
Hazel Valley, Grizzly Flot, SN, 61. 
Helltown, Butte Creek, SN, 32. 
Henry Diggings, Indian Diggings, SN, 66. 
Hexie, Twentynine Palms, MD, 168. 
Hodges, Mule Mountains, MD, 161. 
Hornbrook, Klomoth River, KM, 139. 
Howland Flat, Poker Flat, SN, 108. 
Hughes Creek, Sycamore Flat, SN, 124. 
Humbug Bar, Damascus, SN, 42. 
Hunts Hill, Scotts Flat, SN, 114. 
Hurleton, BidweH Bor, SN, 29. 

Indiana Hill, Gold Run, SN, 52. 
Indiana Ranch, Dobbins, SN, 44. 
Indian Creek, Klamath River, KM, 139, or 

Trinity River, KM, 143. 
Indian Gulch, Hornitos, SN, 65. 
Indian Valley, Light's Conyon, SN, 86. 
Irishtown, Pine Grave, SN, 105. 
Italian Bar, American Camp, SN, 24. 

Jesus Mario, Rich Gulch, SN, 112. 
Junction City, Trinity River, KM, 143. 

Kelley, Argus, BR, 146. 
Kentucky Flot, Vo/conovi/le, SN, 127. 
Kernville, Cove, SN, 42. 
Knownothing, Gilta and Solmon River, KM, 
137 and 141. 

Loke, Mammoth, SN, 89. 

lancha Plana, Comonche.lancho Plana, SN, 

33. 
Lewiston, Trinity River, KM, 143. 
Liberty Hill, Lowell Hill, SN, 87. 
Logtown, El Dorado, SN, 45. 
Long Canyon, Rolston Divide, SN, 112. 
Lost Horse, Twentynine Palms, MD, 168. 
Lundy, Homer, SN, 64. 



186 



California Division ok Mines and Geology 



Bull. 193 



Melones, Corson Hill, SN, 34. 
Merrimoc, Granite Basin, SN, 52. 
Mesquite, Chocolate Mountains, MD, 154. 
Middle Bor, Comonc/ie-lonc/io Plana, SN, 33. 
Millon, Jenny Lind. SN, SO. 
Minersville, Trinity River, KM, 143. 
Minnejota, Alleghany, SN, 19. 
Mogul, Moni»or-Mogu/, SN, 92. 
Monitor Plot, Sowpi* Flat, SN, 114. 
Mono Diggings, Jordan, SN, 83. 
Monona Flat, Iowa Hill, SN, 67. 
Moonlight Valley, light's Canyon, SN, 86. 
Morristown, Eureica, SN, 46. 
Mount Fillmore, Polcer Flat, SN, 108. 
Mount Ophir, Mount Rullion, SN, 94. 
Muletown, Irish Hill, SN, 69. 

Nolomo, fo/som, SN, 47. 

New England Mills, Colfax, SN, 38. 

Newholl, Saugus, TPR ,176. 

New York, Vanderbill, MD, 169. 

New York Flat, Brownsvil/e, SN, 31. 

Nimshew, Magalia, SN, 88. 

Ook Bar, Klamath Kiver, KM, 139. 

Old Gulch, Calaveri/os, SN, 33. 

Oleta, Fiddletown, SN, 46. 

Omo Ronch, Indian Diggings, SN, 66. 

Onion Volley, Sowpit Flat, SN, 114. 

Ono, Igo-Ono, KM, 138. 

Orleans Flat, Moore's flot, SN, 93. 

Paradise, Klamath River, KM, 139. 
Peiion Blanco, Coulfervil/e, SN, 41. 
Pinon, Twentynine Palms, MD, 168. 
Plocerita Conyon, Saugus, TPR, 176. 
Piotina, Harrison Gulch, KM, 137. 
Pleasant Valley, Newtown, SN, 101. 



Plymouth, JacltsonPlymouth, SN, 69. 

Point Sal, Surf-Point Sol, CR, 181. 

Potter Ridge, Coorsegold and Grub Gulch, 

SN, 38 and 62. 
Providence, Trojan, MD, 168. 

Quaker Hill, Scotts flat, SN, 1 14. 
Quartz Mountain, Fine Cold, SN, 47. 

Rawhide, Jomestown, SN, 77. 
Reading Creek, Trinity River, KM, 143. 
Red Dog, You Bet, SN, 131. 
Relief, North Bloomfield, SN, 101. 
Remington Hill, lowell Hill, SN, 87. 
Rice, Montezuma, TPR, 174. 
Robertson Flat, Conada Hill. SN, 33. 
Rochester, Sledmon, MD, 167. 
Rosamond, Mo/ove-ftosomonc/, MD, 159. 

Soilor Flat, Canada Hill, SN, 33. 

Salyer, Trinity River, KM, 143. 

Son Gabriel, Saugus, TPR, 176. 

Sawmill Flat, Columbia, SN, 39. 

Sawyers Bar, Salmon River, KM, 141. 

Scales, Poverty Hill, SN, 111. 

Seiad, Klamath River, KM, 139. 

Shows Flat, Sonora, SN, 121. 

Silverado, Collstogo, CR, 178. 

Skull Flat, West Point, SN, 129. 

S'oughhouse, MIchigon Bar, SN, 90. 

Slug Gulch, Fairplay, SN, 46. 

Smith Flat, Placerville, SN, 107. 

Snowden, Salmon River, KM, 141. 

Soledad, Saugus, TPR, 176. 

Somesbar, Klamath River, KM, 139. 

South Bullfrog, Chloride Cliff, BR, 148. 

South Park, Boffarot, BR, 146. 

Spanish Dry Diggings, Greenwoocf, SN, 60. 



Spanish Ranch, Meoifow Volley, SN, 89. 
Springfield, Columblo, SN, 39. 
Squabbletown, Columbia, SN, 39. 
Star Town, tost Chance, SN, 86. 
Stent, Jamestown, SN, 77. 
St. Louis, Port Wine, SN, HI. 
Stuart Fork, Trinity River, KM, 143. 
Suiter Creek, Jockson-Plymouth, SN, 69. 
Sweetlond, North Son Juan, SN, 102. 

Timbuctoo, Smortsville, SN, 1 20. 
Tinemoho, fish Springs, BR, 149. 
Todd Volley, forest Hill, SN, 49. 
Towie, Dutch flat, SN, 45. 
Trinity Center, Trinity River, KM, 143. 
Tujungo, Azuso-Tuiungo, TPR, 170. 
Tumco, Cargo Muchocho-Tumco, MD, 153. 
Tuolumne, Soulsbyville, SN, 121. 
Tucki Mountain, Skidoo, BR, 151. 

Valley Springs, Compo Seco-Volley Springs, 

SN, 33. 
Virgilia, Butt Volley, SN, 32. 
Virginia Dole, Dale, MD, 157. 

Wollace, Comonche-lancho Plana, SN, 33. 
Washington, Sheep fianch, SN, 115. 
Weitchpec, Klamath and Trinity Rivers, KM, 

139 and 143. 
Whiskey Diggings, Gibsonville, SN, 51. 
Whiskeytown, Shasta-Whiskeytown, KM, 142. 
Willow Creek, Trinity River, KM, 143. 
Willow Valley, Nevodo City, SN, 97. 
Woolsey Flat, Moore's flot, SN, 93. 
Wyandotte, Bongor-Wyandotfe, SN, 29. 



Yankee Jim: 
Yreko, Klon 



forest Hill, SN, 49. 
3th River, KM, 139. 





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SHIELDS LIBRAR, 



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3 1 2005 
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MAY 9 ,,,p, 

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